On-line version ISSN 1816-7950
RIETVELD, LC; MEIJER, L; SMEETS, PWMH and VAN DER HOEK, JP. Assessment of Cryptosporidium in wastewater reuse for drinking water purposes: a case study for the city of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Water SA (Online) [online]. 2009, vol.35, n.2, pp. 211-215. ISSN 1816-7950.
Wastewater reuse is becoming increasingly important for supplementing drinking water supply needs and/or to reduce costs in many communities around the world. However, wastewater reuse can result in a potential transmission route for infectious agents. Therefore, the occurrence of Cryptosporidium was assessed in a treatment plant geared for the production of drinking water from wastewater effluent and the results were compared to those on an existing typical drinking water treatment plant operated by Waternet, the water cycle company of Amsterdam, The Netherlands, and its surrounding areas. The assessment was done using Monte-Carlo simulation and probability density functions to determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in raw surface water and wastewater effluent and the removal in different treatment steps. From the research conducted, it was concluded that under normal conditions, drinking water that meets Dutch drinking water quality standards could also be produced from treated wastewater effluent. However, additional redundancy should be built in to meet the standards under extreme operating conditions.
Keywords : risk assessment; wastewater reuse; drinking water treatment.