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vol.8 issue3Part III: Metabolic bone disease: Recent developments in the pathogenesis of endocrine-, drug-, genetic-, renal-, HIV-, and malignancy-induced bone diseaseThe importance of the sagittal position of the arm in the measurement of external rotation of the adducted shoulder author indexsubject indexarticles search
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SA Orthopaedic Journal

On-line version ISSN 2309-8309
Print version ISSN 1681-150X


LAUBSCHER, PH  and  ROSCH, TG. Frozen shoulder: A review. SA orthop. j. [online]. 2009, vol.8, n.3, pp.24-29. ISSN 2309-8309.

A 'frozen shoulder' has often frustrated both orthopaedic surgeons and patients. A review of the literature has shown clear clinical and pathological stages of the disorder. No clear cause has yet been found for the idiopathic type of frozen shoulder. Management options and recent clinical results are discussed. It is clear, however, that research in the treatment of this condition is difficult and can result in misleading outcomes.

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