Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
On-line version ISSN 2413-3051
Print version ISSN 1021-447X
STAFFORD, William et al. Technologies for recovery of energy from wastewaters: Applicability and potential in South Africa. J. energy South. Afr. [online]. 2013, vol.24, n.1, pp.00-00. ISSN 2413-3051.
This study explored technologies for recovering energy from wastewater through production of bio-mass, combustion and gasification, generation of biogas, production of bioethanol, heat recovery and microbial fuel cells. A first order desktop analysis of the potential for applying these solutions to waste-waters in South Africa revealed that 3 200 to 9 000 MWth of energy has potential for recovery, equating to at most 7% of South Africa's current electrical power supply. Formal and informal animal husbandry, fruit and beverage industries and domestic blackwater were identified as wastewaters with the greatest potential for energy recovery. Of the reviewed technologies, anaerobic digestion shows applicability to the widest range of feedstocks. Net energy generated, reduction in pollution, and water reclamation are identified as the main benefits, but additional benefits such as certified emission reductions, fertiliser production and the production of secondary products may dictate the economic feasibility.
Keywords : energy; wastewater; waste; life cycle approach; biomass; biodiesel; combustion and gasification; bioethanol; biogas; South Africa.