Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
versión On-line ISSN 2413-3051
BALMER, Marlett y HANCOCK, David. Good for people can be good for business: The convergence of opportunities for delivering basic energy to low-income households in developing countries. J. energy South. Afr. [online]. 2009, vol.20, n.2, pp. 10-16. ISSN 2413-3051.
Energy poverty affects more than 40% of the world's population. Fuels and appliances used by low-income groups have been of low-quality, expensive, non-durable and have posed serious health and safety risks to users. Energy transition theories, most noteably the energy ladder model, have postulated a gradual but complete move away from traditional, mostly biomass energy sources towards modern energy sources. Evidence however, increasingly indicates that the process did not happen as anticipated. This paper argues that energy transition from biomass fuels to full electricity use will not take place in SADC countries due to economic circumstances, increases in commercial fuel prices and the deficit in power generation capacity in the region. It further argues that wood fuel, traditionally regarded as a lower order fuel, is actually a renewable energy source that can meet the energy needs of rural people sustainably, if managed correctly. The paper suggests a re-evaluation of the value of wood fuel - from a low value fuel associated with poverty and degradation to a high value, renewable energy fuel, supplying much needed energy in a potentially sustainable manner. The paper outlines a convergence of a number of external conditions and opportunities which may alter household energy supply, making it possible for households to benefit from high quality, small quantities of electricity for lighting and communication purposes and extremely high quality, affordable appliances utilising biomass energy sources to supply thermal energy requirements.
Palabras clave : household energy; biomass energy; energy efficient appliances.