Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
On-line version ISSN 2224-9435
IJI, Temitayo O.; OYAGBEMI, Ademola A. and AZEEZ, Odunayo I.. The effects of prolonged oral administration of the disinfectant calcium hypochlorite in Nigerian commercial cockerels. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. [online]. 2013, vol.84, n.1, pp. 1-5. ISSN 2224-9435.
This study was designed to investigate the effects of prolonged oral administration of calcium hypochlorite in the drinking water of commercial cockerels. It was carried out in order to ascertain probable toxicity associated with prolonged exposure to calcium hypochlorite. Thirty-two healthy birds were used; they were grouped into four groups of eight. Group 1, which served as the control, received 10 mL/kg body weight of physiological saline. Groups 2, 3 and 4 received 0.0375 g, 0.375 g and 0.75 g of calcium hypochlorite per 10 litres of drinking water for six weeks respectively. Six weeks after the administration of calcium hypochlorite, blood was collected from the jugular vein to assess liver function, lipid profiles and for markers of oxidative stress. The results revealed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in alanine aminotransferase activity in a dose-dependent manner when compared with the control. Also, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity. Similarly, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein levels compared with the control. There was a significant increase in malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide generation with a concomitant significant (p < 0.05) decrease in serum glutathione level in a dose-dependent manner when compared with the control. In this study, calcium hypochlorite-induced hepatic damage via oxidative stress and decrease in antioxidant defense system was found. Therefore, prolonged exposure of chickens to calcium hypochlorite is potentially harmful.