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South African Journal of Chemistry

On-line version ISSN 1996-840X
Print version ISSN 0379-4350


NAANGMENYELE, Zita et al. Bioaccumulation and Human Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Oreochromis niloticus and Clarias gariepinus Fish Species from the Golinga Reservoir, Ghana. S.Afr.j.chem. (Online) [online]. 2021, vol.75, pp.111-116. ISSN 1996-840X.

The Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) from the Golinga reservoir in Northern Ghana are consumed as an alternative source of protein. In the current study, levels of selected metals (As, Cd, Fe, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni and Pb) in the two fish species and the fish condition were determined, and potential human health effects assessed. The metal concentrations in the edible fish muscles ranged from 0.16 mg kg-1 (Mn) to 101 mg kg-1 (Pb). The weight-length relationships showed that both fish were growing isometrically, and bioaccumulation of metals from the reservoir was considered insignificant with bioconcentration factors below 100 except for Mn, whose value was 161 in the gills of Oreochromis niloticus. The health risk assessment showed that Pb, Cd and As had Target Hazard Quotient values above 1 for both fish species, with that of As being as high as 19.6 for Oreochromis niloticus. The target cancer risk values for As, Cd, Cr and Pb were above the non-risk threshold of <10-6, indicating the risk of cancer developing over the years due to fish consumption. The metal concentration in the fish in the reservoir should therefore be constantly monitored and potential health risks associated with frequent consumption of the fish assessed.

Keywords : fish; health risk assessment; Nile tilapia; Target Hazard Quotient; trace metals.

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