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On-line version ISSN 2309-9585
Print version ISSN 0259-0190


BASTO, Maria-Benedita. The writings of the national anthem in independent Mozambique: fictions of the subject-people. Kronos [online]. 2013, vol.39, n.1, pp.185-203. ISSN 2309-9585.

This article examines how the writing of the national anthem - taken as an object of a history of post-independence Mozambique - reveals processes of identification concerning the imagining of a subject-people. This involves an analysis of three calls to submit proposals for an anthem and the responses to such calls, at the eve of independence, in the context of the civil war and the Fourth Congress in the early 1980s, and after the advent of multiparty democracy. While each of these calls was related to a different fiction of the people, all of them shared a common contradiction: the postulate of an active, sovereign people coexisted with the presumption of its passivity, conceived as the inability to produce the anthem which would represent the people's very self. Thus, rather than confirming the principle of popular sovereignty, the writings of the national anthem led to its problematisation and constitutes an intriguing historiographical object.

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