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SAMJ: South African Medical Journal

versão On-line ISSN 2078-5135
versão impressa ISSN 0256-9574


SUNNYRAJ, M M; DAVIES, M  e  CASSIMJEE, Z. Peritoneal dialysis outcomes in a tertiary-level state hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa: Ethnicity and HIV co-infection do not increase risk of peritonitis or discontinuation. SAMJ, S. Afr. med. j. [online]. 2023, vol.113, n.2, pp.98-103. ISSN 2078-5135.

BACKGROUND. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a valuable means to increase access to kidney replacement therapy in South Africa (SA). An increased rate of modality discontinuation related to an increased risk of peritonitis in patients of black African ethnicity, in those with diabetes and in those living with HIV has previously been suggested, which may lead to hesitancy in adoption of 'PD first' programmes. OBJECTIVES. To analyse the safety of a PD-first programme in terms of 5-year peritonitis risk and patient and modality survival at the outpatient PD unit at Helen Joseph Hospital, Johannesburg. METHODS. After exclusions, clinical data from 120 patients were extracted for analysis. The effects of patient age at PD initiation, ethnicity, gender, diabetes mellitus and HIV infection on patient and modality survival and peritonitis risk were analysed using Cox proportional hazards modelling and logistic regression analysis. Five-year technique and patient Kaplan-Meier survival curves for peritonitis and comorbidity groups were compared using the Cox-Mantel test. The Mann-Whitney (7-test and Fisher's exact test were used to compare continuous and categorical variables where appropriate. RESULTS. Five-year patient survival was 49.9%. Black African ethnicity was associated with reduced mortality hazard (hazard ratio (HR) 0.33; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15 - 0.71; p=0.004), and patients with diabetes had poorer 5-year survival (19.1%; p=0.097). Modality survival at 5 years was 48.1%. Neither Black African ethnicity nor HIV infection increased the risk of PD discontinuation. Peritonitis was associated with increased modality failure (HR 2.99; 95% CI 1.31 - 6.87; p=0.009). Black African ethnicity did not increase the risk of peritonitis. HIV was not independently associated with an increased risk of peritonitis. Patient and PD survival were generally similar to other contemporaneous cohorts, and the peritonitis rate in this study was within the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis acceptable range. CONCLUSION. PD is a safe and appropriate therapy in a low socioeconomic setting with a high prevalence of HIV infection. Consideration of home circumstances and training in sterile technique reduce peritonitis risk and improve PD modality survival. Patients with diabetes may be at risk of poorer outcomes on PD.

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