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SAMJ: South African Medical Journal

On-line version ISSN 2078-5135
Print version ISSN 0256-9574


MEYERS, A M  and  NAICKER, S. Nephrolithiasis (part 1): Epidemiology, causes and pathogenesis of recurrent nephrolithiasis. SAMJ, S. Afr. med. j. [online]. 2021, vol.111, n.10, pp.930-933. ISSN 2078-5135.

A recent increase in the incidence of recurrent renal calcium oxalate calculi has been demonstrated. Although a few advances have shown that the increase in incidence of these stones is due to genetic causes, it is mostly associated with a change in environmental factors. Global warming and weather changes, some medications administered to young children and eating habits play a pivotal role in increasing stone incidence. By far the most important single factor in stone incidence involves the increased ingestion of red meat and salt. So much so that it is anticipated that calcium oxalate stone occurrence will increase pari passu with dietary changes in the South African black community. The reasons for the difference in the incidence between males and females (12% v. 6%) remain controversial, and should be further studied.

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