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SAMJ: South African Medical Journal

On-line version ISSN 2078-5135
Print version ISSN 0256-9574

Abstract

VERMEULEN, A et al. Patterns of renal disease: A 30-year renal biopsy study at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa. SAMJ, S. Afr. med. j. [online]. 2019, vol.109, n.7, pp.486-492. ISSN 2078-5135.  http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/samj.2019.v109i7.13644.

BACKGROUND: Data on renal pathology from sub-Saharan Africa are limitedOBJECTIVES: To report on biopsy-confirmed renal pathology over 30 years in Soweto, South Africa (SAMETHODS: Retrospective analysis was conducted of 1 848 adult native renal biopsies performed at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital between 1 January 1982 and 31 December 2011RESULTS: There was an even gender distribution, and 96.4% of patients were of black ethnicity. The mean (standard deviation) age of patients was 33.5 (12.6) years. The main clinical indications for renal biopsy were nephrotic syndrome (47.7%), acute kidney injury (19.8%) and asymptomatic urine abnormalities (8.1%). Secondary glomerular diseases (SGNs) (49.3%) occurred more frequently than primary glomerular diseases (PGNs) (39.7%). SGNs increased during the study period, while PGNs decreased (p<0.001). The most frequent PGNs were focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (29.6%), membranous glomerulonephritis (25.7%) and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (18.1%). Lupus nephritis (LN) (31.0%) was the most frequent SGN, followed by HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) (13.3%) and malignant hypertension (12.5%). HIV-positive biopsies constituted 19.7% of all biopsies, and the proportion increased over time. In HIV-positive patients, the most common diagnoses were HIVAN (32.7%), HIV immune complex disease (11.8%) and FSGS (11.3%CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to our knowledge of renal pathology in SA and shows some data that differ from studies in other regions. The increase in SGNs probably reflects the influence of HIV and LN in the study population

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