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SAMJ: South African Medical Journal

On-line version ISSN 2078-5135
Print version ISSN 0256-9574


NUTTALL, J  and  PILLAY, V. Characteristics and early outcomes of children and adolescents treated with darunavir/ritonavir-, raltegravir- or etravirine-containing antiretroviral therapy in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. SAMJ, S. Afr. med. j. [online]. 2018, vol.108, n.2, pp.105-110. ISSN 2078-5135.

BACKGROUND: There is an increasing need for third-line treatment regimens in HIV-infected children with antiretroviral treatment (ART) failure. Data are limited on darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r)-, raltegravir (RAL)- and etravirine (ETR)-containing regimens in treatment-experienced children from resource-constrained settings receiving these drugs as part of routine care. OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and early outcomes of treatment-experienced children (<20 years of age) in the Western Cape Province of South Africa treated with DRV/r-, RAL- or ETR-containing regimens. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of treatment-experienced children receiving a DRV/r-, RAL- or ETR-containing regimen as recommended by a paediatric expert review committee, based on HIV drug resistance testing. RESULTS: Thirty-five children of median age 8.8 years (interquartile range (IQR) 5.5 - 11) who had received ART for a median of 6.9 years (IQR 5 - 9.9) and started a DRV/r-, RAL- or ETR-containing regimen were included. Before starting such a regimen, the median CD4+ lymphocyte count and HIV-1 RNA level were 405.5 cells/uL (IQR 251.5 - 541) and 28 314 copies/mL (IQR 5 595.5 - 120 186.5) (log 4.5 (IQR 3.7 - 5)), respectively, in 24 subjects with available results. After a median of 2 years (IQR 1.3 - 4) on treatment, 29/30 (96.7%) and 23/30 (76.7%) subjects with available results had HIV-1 RNA levels of <400 and <50 copies/mL, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study found DRV/r-, RAL- and ETR-containing regimens to be effective in a group of treatment-experienced children and adolescents with multidrug-resistant HIV. Although the treatment regimens in this study were individualised based on HIV genotyping results, further research evaluating the safety and efficacy of standardised third-line treatment regimens in children of all ages is needed.

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