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SAMJ: South African Medical Journal

On-line version ISSN 2078-5135
Print version ISSN 0256-9574

Abstract

MWITA, J C et al. Anaemia, renal dysfunction and in-hospital outcomes in patients with heart failure in Botswana. SAMJ, S. Afr. med. j. [online]. 2018, vol.108, n.1, pp.56-60. ISSN 2078-5135.  http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/samj.2018.v108i1.12686.

BACKGROUND: Anaemia and renal dysfunction are associated with an increased morbidity and mortality in heart failure (HF) patients. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the frequency and impact of anaemia and renal dysfunction on in-hospital outcomes in patients with HF. METHODS: A total of 193 consecutive patients with HF admitted to Princess Marina Hospital, Gaborone, Botswana, from February 2014 to February 2015, were studied. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin <13 g/dL for men and <12 g/dL for women. Renal dysfunction was defined by an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, calculated by the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. The in-hospital outcomes included length of hospital stay and mortality. RESULTS: The mean (standard deviation (SD)) age was 54.2 (17.1) years and 53.9% of the patients were men. The overall median eGFR was 75.9 mL/min/1.73 m2 and renal dysfunction was detected in 60 (31.1%) patients. Renal dysfunction was associated with hypertension (p=0.01), diabetes mellitus (p=0.01) and a lower haemoglobin level (p=0.008). The mean (SD) haemoglobin was 12.0 (3.0) g/dL and 54.9% of the patients were anaemic. Microcytic, normocytic and macrocytic anaemia were found in 32.1%, 57.5% and 10.4% of patients, respectively. The mean (SD) haemoglobin level for males was significantly higher than for females (12.4 (3.3) g/dL v. 11.5 (2.5) g/dL; p=0.038). Anaemia was more common in patients with diabetes (p=0.028) and in those with increased left ventricular ejection fraction (p=0.005). Neither renal dysfunction nor anaemia was significantly associated with the length of hospital stay or in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: Anaemia and renal dysfunction are prevalent in HF patients, but neither was an independent predictor of length of stay or in-hospital mortality in this population. These findings indicate that HF data in developed countries may not apply to countries in sub-Saharan Africa, and call for more studies to be done in this region.

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