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SAMJ: South African Medical Journal

versión On-line ISSN 2078-5135
versión impresa ISSN 0256-9574


PILLAY, S; ALDOUS, C  y  MAHOMED, F. A deadly combination - HIV and diabetes mellitus: Where are we now?. SAMJ, S. Afr. med. j. [online]. 2016, vol.106, n.4, pp.378-383. ISSN 2078-5135.

BACKGROUND: The combination of HIV infection and diabetes mellitus (DM) represents a collision of two chronic conditions. Both HIV and DM increase the risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). Health resources in developing countries are already under strain as a result of the TB epidemic and poor diabetic control would further worsen this epidemic. Optimal diabetic control provides one avenue of curbing the TB epidemic in developing countries OBJECTIVES: To establish if there is a difference in blood pressure, lipid and glycaemic control and complications between HIV-infected and uninfected diabetic patients; and to compare characteristics among HIV-infected diabetic patients between those with optimal and sub-optimal glycaemic control METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of all patients who visited the Edendale Hospital diabetic clinic, Pietermaritzburg, from 1 October 2012 to 30 September 2013 RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences noted in the following parameters between HIV-infected and uninfected diabetic patients: (i) mean HbA1c% (11.08% v. 10.14%, respectively); (ii) nephropathy defined by proteinuria (25.66% v. 15.43%); (iii) neuropathy (48.68% v. 42.10%); and (iv) Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) stage >2 chronic kidney disease (30.87% v. 41.67%). There were no significant differences noted in the percentage of patients achieving the following target parameters between the two cohorts: (i) blood pressure (42.11% v. 35.62%); (ii) total cholesterol (36.84% v. 34.67%); and (iii) triglycerides (42.76% v. 40.19%). Within the HIV-infected diabetic cohort 85.23% displayed suboptimal glycaemic control. A significant percentage of HIV-infected diabetic patients on antiretroviral (ARV) therapy (89.36%) had suboptimal glycaemic control. HIV-infected female diabetic patients showed a significant increased waist circumference when compared with their HIV-uninfected counterparts CONCLUSION: HIV-infected diabetic patients had significantly poorer blood sugar control and a higher incidence of neuropathy and nephropathy (when defined by overt proteinuria). There was a non-significant difference noted between the HIV-infected and uninfected diabetic patients with regard to blood pressure and lipid control. The majority of HIV-infected patients on ARVs failed to achieve target glycaemic control. Obesity remains a global challenge, as noted in both the HIV-infected and uninfected diabetic patients

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