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SAMJ: South African Medical Journal

On-line version ISSN 2078-5135

Abstract

SPEARMAN, C W N  and  SONDERUP, M W. Preventing hepatitis B and hepatocellular carcinoma in South Africa: The case for a birth-dose vaccine. SAMJ, S. Afr. med. j. [online]. 2014, vol.104, n.9, pp. 610-612. ISSN 2078-5135.

Hepatitis B is a global public health issue, with some 2 billion people having current or past infection. In Africa, 65 million are chronically infected, an estimated 2.5 million of them in South Africa (SA). Hepatitis B and the associated complications of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are entirely vaccine preventable. SA was one of the first ten countries in Africa to introduce universal hepatitis B vaccination in April 1995, but has no birth dose or catch-up programme. Although universal infant vaccination in SA has been successful in increasing population immunity to hepatitis B, improvements in terms of implementing protocols to screen all pregnant mothers for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and ensuring full hepatitis B coverage, especially in rural areas, is required. The World Health Organization has recommended a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine in addition to the existing hepatitis B vaccine schedule in order to further decrease the risk of perinatal transmission. We recommend that SA implement a birth-dose vaccine into the existing schedule to attenuate the risk of perinatal transmission, prevent breakthrough infections and decrease HBsAg carriage in babies born to HIV-positive mothers.

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