SAMJ: South African Medical Journal
On-line version ISSN 2078-5135
SCHAAF, H S; COTTON, M F; BOON, G P G and JEENA, P M. Isoniazid preventive therapy in HIV-infected and -uninfected children (0 - 14 years). SAMJ, S. Afr. med. j. [online]. 2013, vol.103, n.10, pp. 714-715. ISSN 2078-5135.
Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) prevents tuberculosis (TB) in immunocompetent children <5 years of age after exposure to an infectious TB source case. Routine IPT has been advocated in all HIV-infected children without TB, but has been controversial. Antiretroviral therapy markedly reduces the risk for TB in HIV-infected children, especially when started early in infancy. In HIV-infected children, as in HIV-uninfected children, we recommend post-exposure IPT after each TB exposure episode; but in HIV-infected children, this should be given irrespective of age or antiretroviral therapy. However, evidence for routine IPT without known exposure to TB in HIV-infected children is not convincing and is therefore not recommended.