SAMJ: South African Medical Journal
On-line version ISSN 2078-5135
LEWIS, D A et al. Antimicrobial susceptibility of organisms causing community-acquired urinary tract infections in Gauteng Province, South Africa. SAMJ, S. Afr. med. j. [online]. 2013, vol.103, n.6, pp. 377-381. ISSN 2078-5135.
BACKGROUND: Patients with community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs) frequently present to healthcare facilities in South Africa (SA). AIM: To provide information on UTI aetiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens. METHODS: We recruited women with UTI-related symptoms, who tested positive for >2 urine dipstick criteria (proteinuria, blood, leucocytes or nitrites) at 1 public and 5 private primary healthcare facilities in 2011. Demographic and clinical data were recorded and mid-stream urine (MSU) specimens were cultured. UTI pathogens were Gram-stained and identified to species level. Etest-based antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefixime, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, fosfomycin, levofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, norfloxacin and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. RESULTS: Of the 460 women recruited, 425 MSU samples were processed and 204 UTI pathogens were identified in 201 samples. Most pathogens were Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) (182; 89.2%) and 22 (10.8%) were Gram-positive cocci (GPC). Escherichia coli was the most frequent GNB (160; 79.6%), while Enterococcus faecalis was the predominant GPC (8; 4.0%). The UTI pathogens had similar susceptibility profiles for fosfomycin (95.5%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 92.6 - 98.4), the 3 fluoroquinolones (94.1%; 95% CI 90.8 - 97.4), nitrofurantoin (91.7%; 95% CI 87.8 - 95.6), cefuroxime (90.1%; 95% CI 86.0 - 94.3) and cefixime (88.2%; 95% CI 83.7 - 92.6). UTI pathogens were less susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (82.8%; 95% CI 77.5 - 88.0) when compared with fluoroquinolones and fosfomycin. Trimethoprim/ sulphamethoxazole was the least efficacious antimicrobial agent (44.3% susceptible; 95% CI 37.4 - 51.2). CONCLUSION: This study provides relevant data for the empirical treatment of community-acquired UTIs in SA.