SAMJ: South African Medical Journal
On-line version ISSN 2078-5135
Print version ISSN 0256-9574
LEVIN, Michael; MATHEMA, Hlengani; STINSON, Kathryn and JENNINGS, Karen. Acceptability, feasibility and impact of routine screening to detect undiagnosed HIV infection in 17 - 24-month-old children in the western sub-district of Cape Town. SAMJ, S. Afr. med. j. [online]. 2012, vol.102, n.4, pp.245-258. ISSN 2078-5135.
OBJECTIVES: To explore the acceptability and feasibility of routine HIV screening in children at primary healthcare clinics and ascertain the prevalence of previously undiagnosed HIV infection in17- 24-month-old children accessing curative and routine services. METHODS: A survey was conducted in 4 primary health clinics in the western sub-district of Cape Town. Rapid HIV screening of 17 - 24-monthold children was performed for consenting caregiver-child pairs. Data on demographics, child health and antenatal history were collected using questionnaires. RESULTS: During recruitment, 358 children (72%) were tested for HIV infection. Most of the children (95.8%) were accompanied by a parent. The prevalence of reported HIV exposure among children was 21% (107/499). Of these, 3 had previously confirmed HIV infection; 1 was reportedly confirmed by a 6-week HIV test, and the other 2 probably contracted the virus via late postpartum transmission. The overall transmission rate was 3.5% (3/86) and the confirmed proportion of HIV-infected children was 0.8% (3/361). No previously unknown HIV infection was detected. CONCLUSIONS: Programmes to prevent mother-to-child transmission are effective, but at-risk infants who test negative at 6 weeks should be monitored for subsequent seroconversion. Parents of HIV-exposed infants are more likely to permit (re)testing of their infants than those whose offspring are not at risk. Routine HIV testing of children is feasible and acceptable at primary level, but may require additional resources to achieve universal coverage. Routine screening at an earlier age may detect previously undiagnosed HIV infection.