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Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe

versión On-line ISSN 2224-7912
versión impresa ISSN 0041-4751


DAVIDS, Ronel S; ROMAN, Nicolette V  y  SCHENCK, Rinie. Parenting approaches of hearing mothers and fathers to children with hearing loss. Tydskr. geesteswet. [online]. 2020, vol.60, n.3, pp.727-744. ISSN 2224-7912.

It is estimated that there are 32 million children in the world with a hearing loss. Research shows that 90% of children suffering from hearing loss are born to hearing parents who often know nothing or very little about hearing loss. Most research studies on child hearing loss have generally focussed on early intervention, language development and on parents' experiences at the time of diagnosis of child hearing loss. However, the effect of child hearing loss on parents 'parenting approaches and on parents 'parental self-efficacy in attempting to parent a child with a hearing loss, have received relatively little research attention. Parenting a child with a hearing loss may necessitate the need for parents to make accommodations for their child by adapting, adjusting, educating themselves about the needs of their child and may modify their parenting approaches, behaviour and attitudes in order to become more engaged in their parenting role. Furthermore, parents parenting a child with this particular disability may lack a sense of parental self-efficacy, and may be unable to put their parenting knowledge into action as they may feel overwhelmed by their extra responsibilities. In many cases, parents of children with a hearing loss are expected to take on new and multiple roles for which they are not prepared. The demands of these roles together with parents 'lack of parenting skills (knowledge on hearing loss, communication approaches for example), the need for information resources, social-emotional support leave parents vulnerable. As a result of their vulnerability parents may experience difficulties in developing effective parent child-rearing approaches and may struggle in their parental self-efficacy to parent a child with hearing loss. Research shows that parental self-efficacy is the key to a child's success. Given the abovementioned challenges, the aim of the present study was to examine and describe the parenting approaches and the contributory factors to parents 'parental efficacy when parenting children with a hearing loss. The research involved a sample of 103 hearing parents from the Western Cape, South Africa, whose children were between the ages of 10 and 17. Each parent completed a self-administered questionnaire made up of three sections that included (a) parents 'demographic details (b) the adaptation of the Parents as Social Context Questionnaire (PSCQ) and (c) the adaptation of the Parent Self-Efficacy Instrument (PSE). The results of our study show that mothers scored higher on chaotic parenting as well as on structured parenting approaches. Fathers scored higher on autonomy and supportive parenting approaches as well as on parental warmth than mothers. The results also show that there is a significant difference in parental self-efficacy between fathers and mothers, with fathers scoring significantly higher on knowledge, confidence, handling of stress, communication, positive interaction and satisfaction than mothers. The results of the study provide for a greater understanding of mothers' and fathers' differences in parenting approaches as well as the factors influencing their parenting approaches and confidence in parenting a child with a hearing loss. In summary, children with a hearing loss remain a vulnerable sector in our society just as any other child with a disability. Parents too form part of this vulnerability as they experience a myriad of challenges and a host of relational difficulties when parenting their child thus affected. A clearer awareness and understanding of parents 'perspectives of their parenting approaches and the factors contributing to their parental self-efficacy when parenting a child with a hearing loss have important implications for family centred practices. These implications could assist professionals in the development of specific interventions supporting mothers and fathers that will enhance parent child relationships and positive child outcomes. Furthermore, these implications and recommendations made by the current study can be considered for future research in the field ofparenting and childhood hearing loss.

Palabras clave : hearing parents; child with hearing loss; parenting approaches; contributing factors; parental self-efficacy.

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