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South African Journal of Science

On-line version ISSN 1996-7489
Print version ISSN 0038-2353

Abstract

MAKONESE, Tafadzwa; MASEKAMENI, Daniel M.; ANNEGARN, Harold J.  and  FORBES, Patricia B.C.. Emission factors of domestic coal-burning braziers. S. Afr. j. sci. [online]. 2017, vol.113, n.3-4, pp.1-11. ISSN 1996-7489.  http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/sajs.2017/20160187.

We present experimental results of emission factors from a suite of domestic coal-burning braziers (lab fabricated and field collected) that span the possible range of real-world uses in the Highveld region of South Africa. The conventional bottom-lit updraft (BLUD) method and the top-lit updraft (TLUD) method were evaluated using coal particle sizes between 20 mm and 40 mm. Emission factors of CO2, CO and NOx were in the range of 98-102 g/MJ, 4.1-6.4 g/MJ and 75-195 mg/MJ, respectively. Particulate matter (PM25 and PM10) emissions were in the range 1.3-3.3 g/MJ for the BLUD method and 0.2-0.7 g/MJ for the TLUD method, for both field and lab-designed stoves. When employing the TLUD method, emission factors of PM25/PM10 reduced by up to 80% compared with those when using the BLUD method. Results showed the influence of ventilation rates on emission factors, which reduced by ~50% from low to high ventilation rates. For energy-specific emission rates, the combined (3-h) PM10 emission rates were in the range of 0.0028-0.0120 g/s, while the combined average CO emission rates were in the range of 0.200.26 g/s, with CO2 emission rates in the range of 0.54-0.64 g/s. The reported emission factors from coal braziers provide the first comprehensive, systematic set of emission factors for this source category, and fill a major gap in previous efforts to conduct dispersion modelling of South African Highveld air quality. SIGNIFICANCE: • The study provides the first comprehensive, systematic set of emission factors from coal braziers. • The study fills a major gap in previous efforts to conduct dispersion modelling of South African Highveld air quality. • Results have implications for stove design and lay the groundwork for improvements in the design of existing coal braziers. • Results have implications for understanding the potential health impacts of condensed matter emissions from coal braziers.

Keywords : emission rates; domestic coal combustion; air quality; ventilation rates; ignition method.

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