South African Journal of Science
On-line version ISSN 1996-7489
COVILLE, Neil J.; MHLANGA, Sabelo D.; NXUMALO, Edward N. and SHAIKJEE, Ahmed. A review of shaped carbon nanomaterials. S. Afr. j. sci. [online]. 2011, vol.107, n.3-4, pp. 01-15. ISSN 1996-7489. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajs.v107i3/4.418.
Materials made of carbon that can be synthesised and characterised at the nano level have become a mainstay in the nanotechnology arena. These carbon materials can have a remarkable range of morphologies. They can have structures that are either hollow or filled and can take many shapes, as evidenced by the well-documented families of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. However, these are but two of the shapes that carbon can form at the nano level. In this review we outline the types of shaped carbons that can be produced by simple synthetic procedures, focusing on spheres, tubes or fibres, and helices. Their mechanisms of formation and uses are also described.