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South African Journal of Science

On-line version ISSN 1996-7489
Print version ISSN 0038-2353


GRANT, Mike  and  HUFFMAN, T.N.. The extractive metallurgy of copper at Iron Age Madikwe. S. Afr. j. sci. [online]. 2007, vol.103, n.9-10, pp.403-408. ISSN 1996-7489.

SEM/EDX analysis of ores and slag showed that, with the possible exception of the Wonderboom site, copper was probably smelted from Dwarsberg ore at Madikwe, North West province, in the mid-seventeenth century, either with high iron content or with lower iron content plus an added iron oxide flux. Our analytical technique was adequate as a survey technique here, but low instrument sensitivity limited our ability to be more specific about ore sources.

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