Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
On-line version ISSN 2411-9717
Print version ISSN 0038-223X
STEENKAMP, J.D.; PISTORIUS, P.C. and MULLER, J.. Insights into the potential for reduced refractory wear in silicomanganese smelters. J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. [online]. 2016, vol.116, n.1, pp.101-108. ISSN 2411-9717. http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2016/v116n1a15.
Excavation of an industrial-scale submerged arc furnace, utilized in the production of silicomanganese, identified two high-wear areas in the refractory lining: the tap-hole, built with cold rammed carbon paste and SiC bricks, and the hearth, built with cold rammed carbon paste. To obtain insight into the potential causes of wear, thermodynamic calculations were conducted on eight sets of data, obtained for seven furnaces on three plants based in South Africa. FACTsage software and associated databases - FACTPS, FToxid, and FSstel - as well as the Mn-Fe-Si-C database of Tang and Olsen (2006), were applied. Theoretical indications are that chemical reaction between carbon refractory and slag, as well as dissolution of carbon and SiC refractory in metal, contributed to tap-hole refractory wear; and dissolution of carbon in metal contributed to hearth refractory wear.
Keywords : tap-hole; silicomanganese; submerged arc furnace; refractory; refractory wear; FactStage.