Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
On-line version ISSN 2411-9717
Print version ISSN 0038-223X
Rotary kilns are used for a variety of mineral processing operations. Hatch makes use of a kiln model developed from first principles to evaluate designs for its clients. This tool has been applied to a variety of pyrometal-lurgical applications, including ferrovanadium, nickel carbonate, nickel laterite, iron ore reduction, and spodumene (lithium) production. This paper illustrates the application of numerical optimization techniques in combination with the kiln model in the interrogation of a generic iron ore reduction process. The fundamental modelling concepts are explained, followed by a description of the optimization approach. The results show how the combination of the two methods, with modern computing power, can generate a large number of viable design and operating candidates.
Keywords : direct reduction; DR process; rotary kiln; modelling; numerical optimization.