Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
On-line version ISSN 2411-9717
Print version ISSN 0038-223X
TSWELENG, D.. Low-cement chrome-oxide-free castable for use in ironmaking rotary kilns. J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. [online]. 2013, vol.113, n.8, pp.651-658. ISSN 2411-9717.
In the Evraz Highveld production process, iron ore is prereduced in rotary kilns prior to charging into submerged arc furnaces (SAFs). Owing to the highly aggressive slags that are formed within the combustion zones of these kilns, chrome-oxide-containing low-cement castables have been used for some years in the kiln lining. Due to concerns around the potentially harmful effects should Cr(V1) be present in the spent linings, Highveld and its suppliers of kiln castables devoted time to developing alternative chrome-free lining materials. Such materials needed to be cost-effective and ensure good performance and improved kiln availability. This paper discusses all the parameters surrounding this development.
Keywords : Low-cement castable; chrome-oxide free; chrome (VI); titaniferous magnetite ore; rotary kiln; submerged arc furnace; open slag bath furnace; Evraz Highveld Steel & Vanadium Limited.