Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
On-line version ISSN 2411-9717
OCHONOGOR, O.F. et al. Microstructure characterization of laser-deposited titanium carbide and zirconium-based titanium metal matrix composites. J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. [online]. 2012, vol.112, n.10, pp. 905-910. ISSN 2411-9717.
Laser metal deposition (LMD) is an additive manufacturing technique whereby a stream of metal powder is consolidated by a focused laser beam on the surface of a substrate or engineering component. The interaction zone between the laser beam and powder particles is scanned superficially, generating tracks of deposited material. The tracks are overlapped in a deposition strategy in accordance with slices of a CAD model. Successive layers of material are built up to fabricate a near net shape part. In this work, the technique is used to fabricate metal matrix composites (MMCs) by using an elementally blended feedstock combining metal and ceramic powders in the melt pool, which melt and solidify to create the required morphology. Ti6Al4V + TiC MMCs were produced with 10, 20, and 30 vol.% reinforcing ceramic, and Zr + TiC MMCs were fabricated with 10, 20, and 30 vol.% TiC. The deposited thin walls were analysed using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and indentation testing. In both systems, the analysis revealed the presence of partially melted TiC particles embedded in the metal matrix along with fine dendrites of re-solidified ceramic. The dendritic structures in the Ti-based composites were confirmed as TiC, whereas in the Zr-based composite the Zr metal reacts with the TiC to form ZrC, leaving Ti in solid solution. Both the MMCs show an increase in microhardness with increasing ceramic (carbide) content, reaching a peak HV01 value of 500 in the Zr- based MMC and HV01 of 550 in the Ti based MMC.
Keywords : laser metal deposition; metal matrix composites; Ti6Al4V; zirconium; titanium carbide; zirconium carbide..