Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
On-line version ISSN 2411-9717
Print version ISSN 0038-223X
MOODLEY, S et al. Fluidization behaviour of various titania feedstocks. J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. [online]. 2012, vol.112, n.6, pp.467-471. ISSN 2411-9717.
In the chloride process for TiO2 pigment production, various titania feedstocks (i.e. rutile, synthetic rutile, slag, and upgraded titania slag (UGS)) are chlorinated in a fluidized bed reactor with petroleum coke at temperatures between 1000°C and 1100°C to yield gaseous metal chlorides. Although feedstock preference is largely based on TiO2 content, feedstock physical properties (i.e. density, sphericity, size distribution, and porosity) differ; these differences will affect fluidization behaviour and can inadvertently affect conversion efficiency. For example, a high carryover from the reactor reduces particle residence time and decreases conversion rates. Owing to dwindling rutile reserves in the world, most chloride producers are forced to feed blends of feedstocks to their chlorinators; and so it becomes important to understand whether blends have an effect on the hydrodynamic properties of the bed. This paper describes the physical characterization of different feeds and the determination of the elutriation constants for slag, rutile, synthetic rutile, and a blend (i.e. 50 wt% rutile, 50 wt% slag). A common feature of the tests was that particles finer than 75 μm tended more than any other size to be elutriated. The tested rutile, classified as a Geldart Group B material, had the lowest carryover, whereas the slags had the highest. Interestingly, the elutriation constant (ki) of the blend is lower than those of either of its individual components.
Keywords : fluidization; elutriation; titania feedstocks; blowover; chlorination; hydrodynamics..