Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
On-line version ISSN 2411-9717
Due to increasing concerns of global rare earth element shortfalls in the near future, possible alternative sources of rare earth elements have recently become of economic interest. One such alternative is decanting acid mine water originating primarily from abandoned old mines in the Witwatersrand region of the Republic of South Africa. In this study, a novel way of rare earth element removal from the acid mine drainage was employed, making use of bentonite clay, which has very good adsorbent properties, as a rare earth element carrier material. The process can be economically viable only, if the elements can be selectively removed from the bentonite clay carrier material so as to yield reusable clay. Acid leaching was proposed to liberate the adsorbed rare earth elements from the bentonite clay. Accordingly, acid leaching experiments were performed to study the desorption of three commonly-found rare earth elements, namely neodymium, samarium, and dysprosium, from bentonite clay in the presence of sulphuric and hydrochloric acid. It was established that the three rare earth element species could be selectively removed as a group from iron, magnesium, and manganese metals through the careful manipulation of the pH. An investigation into the kinetic aspects of the rare earth element desorption process from the bentonite clay was also undertaken. The applicability of various kinetic models such as zero-order, pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order, elovich, parabolic diffusion, and power function were tested to describe the time-dependent desorption of rare earth elements from bentonite clay. It was determined that the pseudo second-order kinetic model represented the dissolution processes for neodymium, samarium, and dysprosium from bentonite clay the most accurately.
Keywords : rare earth elements; REE; bentonite clay; acid mine drainage; AMD; leaching; removal.