Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
On-line version ISSN 2411-9717
Print version ISSN 0038-223X
HOLAPPA, L.. Towards sustainability in ferroalloy production. J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. [online]. 2010, vol.110, n.12, pp.703-710. ISSN 2411-9717.
Ferroalloy production is an energy-intensive industrial sector with significant CO2 emissions. In this paper the current situation in ferroalloy processes is discussed from the standpoint of global environmental issues, trends and development. Progress and data of ferroalloys production are frequently compared with the steel industry, which is a closely related sector and the main user of ferroalloys. Emission factors of processes and electricity production are examined as well as possibilities and future scenarios of how to diminish CO2 emissions. As a part of this study a questionnaire was submitted to experts in the field of ferroalloys worldwide to survey opinions on the ferroalloy industry today and in the near future (2020). Eighteen questions concerning raw materials, energy, environmental aspects, by-products and economic aspects were responded to by seventeen experts, the answers were analysed and conclusions were drawn.
Keywords : Ferroalloys; energy; CO2 emissions; electricity; sustainability; questionnaire.