Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
On-line version ISSN 2411-9717
OZKAHRAMAN, H.T.. Breakage mechanisms and an encouraging correlation between the Bond parameters and the friability value. J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. [online]. 2010, vol.110, n.3, pp. 153-159. ISSN 2411-9717.
It is important to know the breakage mechanism in materials since this knowledge influences the results of subsequent grinding operations. There are two distinct failure mechanisms in breakage: one is tensile micro crack generation at low stresses, which leads to macroscopic failure by disintegration, and the other is formation of shear zones under heavier dynamic impact forces, which generates more fines as seen in crush zones in blasting. Tensile fracturing simply breaks the material into fragments. It is seen as the disintegration of the specimen into two or more separate fragments. This happens under the absence of lateral stresses and the material is free to expand. On the other hand, compressive-shear breakage produces finer fragments due to shear stresses. The first mechanism is observed in laboratory tensile and bending strength tests and the second mechanism is observed both in laboratory brittleness tests and in situ blasting operations under dynamic impact forces. The friability of rocks and ores can be determined by a brittleness test. A test apparatus to determine the friability value has been designed to suit limestone strength characteristics used in cement production. The friability and stored strain energy values of barite, marble, limestone and bauxite have been determined and compared with the corresponding Bond work index (W) and grindability index (G) of these materials. The physico-mechanical properties of the tested materials have also been determined to investigate their effect on friability and grinding. The relationships obtained between the indices were in surprisingly good agreement, with high correlations (0.99 and 0.97). The Bond work index and grindability index can therefore be estimated from the friability value, which can be determined more rapidly than the Bond test. But for certain rock types such as andesites the relationships does not hold.
Keywords : comminution; tensile stress; shear forces; brittleness test; strain energy.