On-line version ISSN 2309-8392
MVENENE, Jongikhaya. A social and economic history of the African people of Gcalekaland, 1830-1913. Historia [online]. 2014, vol.59, n.1, pp. 38-58. ISSN 2309-8392.
This article examines the history of the people of Gcalekaland from the nineteenth century to the early twentieth century. Primacy is given to factors which led to abject poverty and the subjection of the Gcaleka kingdom by the colonial governing authorities, such as the social and economic consequences of the wars of dispossession; the interference of the colonial government and the missionaries in the relations between amaGcaleka and amaMfengu; the rinderpest of 1896-97; the South African War of 1899-1902; and the Natives Land Act of 1913. All these factors contributed to the demise of the House of Gcaleka.
Keywords : AmaGcaleka; amaMfengu; Nciba River; Mbhashe River; rinderpest; abject povert.