SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.48 issue2Use of anti-gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccines in African elephants (Loxodonta africana): A reviewVasectomies of male African elephants as a population management tool: A case study author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand



Related links

  • On index processCited by Google
  • On index processSimilars in Google


Bothalia - African Biodiversity & Conservation

On-line version ISSN 2311-9284
Print version ISSN 0006-8241


BERTSCHINGER, Hendrik J.; DELSINK, Audrey; VAN ALTENA, J.J.  and  KIRKPATRICK, Jay F.. Porcine zona pellucida vaccine immunocontraception of African elephant (Loxodonta africana) cows: A review of 22 years of research. Bothalia (Online) [online]. 2018, vol.48, n.2, pp.1-8. ISSN 2311-9284.

BACKGROUND: The native porcine zona pellucida (pZP) vaccine has been successfully used for immunocontraception of wild horses, white-tailed deer and approximately 90 zoo species for more than 25 years. OBJECTIVES: To provide proof of concept and test contraceptive efficacy of pZP in African elephants. Once completed, test the population and behavioural effects on cows in the Greater Makalali Private Game Reserve (GMPGR). Following the GMPGR, test efficacy, population effects, safety and reversibility in 25 reserves with populations ranging from 9 to 700 elephants. METHOD: Histological sections were reacted with anti-pZP antibodies to provide proof of concept. From 1996 to 2000, 21 and 10 cows were treated with pZP vaccine in the Kruger National Park (KNP) and monitored for pregnancy. Population effects of pZP with Freund's adjuvants (three vaccinations in Year 1 with one annual booster) were studied on 18 cows in the GMPGR. Another six game reserves with a total of 90 cows were added to the project. The project was then expanded to include another 18 reserves. RESULTS: Binding of anti-pZP antibodies to elephant zona proteins was demonstrated in vitro. The KNP provided efficacy results of 56% and 80%, respectively. The contraceptive efficacy in the GMPGR and additional six reserves was 100% following calving of pregnant cows. Safety and lack of impact on social behaviour were demonstrated. In larger populations, efficacy was > 95%. CONCLUSION: Contraceptive efficacy and safety of pZP vaccine could be demonstrated in small to large populations. The methodology is now being implemented in approximately 800 cows on 26 reserves across South Arica.

        · text in English     · English ( pdf )


Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License