Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Acta Structilia]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2415-048720210002&lang=en vol. 28 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Building performance evaluation of public housing in Harare, Zimbabwe</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2415-04872021000200001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This study sought to evaluate the performance of residential building spaces in public housing in Harare, Zimbabwe. It specifically measured building performance indicators determined by the building's characteristics and the physical, locational and service attributes of buildings. A quantitative research design was adopted, in which questionnaires and observations were used in data collection. A two-stage sampling technique was used, because the population could be subdivided into clusters. From residents in three clusters, which include Highfield-Venice Flats, Avenues Flats and Mbare Flats, 263 respondents were conveniently chosen. Results from the independent t-test that was conducted showed that, at 95% confidence level, there exist significant differences in residential satisfaction among residents of Highfield-Venice Flats and those of Avenues Flats (t = 2.159, p-value= 0.035>0.05). Overall, residents are dissatisfied with the attributes of the buildings in which they live and the general residential situation. There is a general dissatisfaction with the buildings, suggesting that the building performance is not meeting their needs and expectations. Housing attribute preferences, privacy, dwelling proximity, and neighbourhood attachment showed a significant and positive impact on general residential satisfaction. Hence, there is a need to improve housing attribute preferences such as improving the quality of air and lighting as well as noise levels, since respondents expressed dissatisfaction with these attributes. Housing ceilings can be installed to reduce noise levels. More so, the quality of air and lighting can be improved by inserting more air ventilations and wider windowpanes. Privacy should be improved by ensuring that the residential structures have boundary walls that may be needed by the residents. More so, dwelling proximity ought to be improved. The Ministry of National Housing and Social Amenities and other public housing institutions can consider developing structures such as shopping centres, public schools as well as roads and social amenities such as parks, pools and workout facilities before they build residential houses.<hr/>Hierdie studie poog om die prestasie van residensiéle bouruimtes in openbare behuising in Harare, Zimbabwe, te evalueer. Die studie het spesifiek die bouprestasie-aanwysers gemeet wat bepaal word deur die gebou se eienskappe en die fisiese, ligging- en dienskenmerke van geboue. 'n Kwantitatiewe navorsingsontwerp is aangeneem waarin vraelyste en waarnemings in data-insameling gebruik is. Monsters is in twee stadiums geneem omdat die populasie in groepe onderverdeel kon word. Uit inwoners in drie groepe wat Highfield-Venice woonstelle, Avenues woonstelle en Mbare woonstelle insluit, is 263 respondente gerieflik gekies. Resultate van die onafhanklike t-toets wat uitgevoer is, het getoon dat daar op 95% vertrouensvlak beduidende verskille bestaan in die tevredenheid tussen inwoners van Highfield-Venice woonstelle en dié van Avenues woonstelle (t = 2.159, p-waarde = 0.035> 0.05). In die algemeen is inwoners ontevrede oor die eienskappe van die geboue waarin hulle woon en die algemene woongebied. Daar is 'n algemene ontevredenheid oor die geboue wat daarop dui dat die bouprestasie nie aan hul behoeftes en verwagtinge voldoen nie. Voorkeure ten opsigte van behuising, privaatheid, nabyheid van die woning en woonbuurte het 'n beduidende en positiewe impak op die algemene tevredenheid van die woonplek. Daarom is dit nodig om voorkeure vir behuisingskenmerke te verbeter, soos die verbetering van die kwaliteit van lug en beligting sowel as die geraasvlakke, aangesien respondente ontevrede was met hierdie eienskappe. Huisplafonne kan ge'ínstalleer word om geraasvlakke te verminder. Die kwaliteit van lug en beligting kan verbeter word deur meer lugventilasies en groter vensters in te voeg. Privaatheid moet verbeter word deur te verseker dat die woonstrukture grensmure het wat deur die inwoners nodig mag wees. Die nabyheid van die woonstel moet verbeter word. Die Ministerie van Nasionale Behuising en Sosiale Geriewe en ander openbare behuisingsinstellings kan die ontwikkeling van strukture soos winkelsentrums, openbare skole sowel as paaie en sosiale geriewe soos parke, swembaddens en oefensentrums oorweeg voordat hulle woonhuise bou. <![CDATA[<b>Factors influencing the quality of low-income housing in Polokwane municipality South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2415-04872021000200002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Recent South African and international evidence highlights the broad and lasting impacts of households, particularly those on low income, when unable to afford higher income counterparts to live in apartments, maintained public housing, and other high-quality houses. A broad range of low-income houses recently built in South African local municipalities are reportedly defective, due to poor building and construction quality. This study aims to assess and determine the factors influencing high-quality housing positively impacting on the lives of a significant proportion of low-income housing projects. Reasons for and obstacles to quality design, construction quality and the development of low-income housing projects were identified. To assess the research questions, a quantitative survey (n=103) was carried out, simple random and purposive sampling techniques were used to select contractors who were active in low-income housing projects within the Polokwane Municipality. The quantitative data gathered were analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) to determine a combination of descriptive and non-parametric statistics of the data computing the frequencies, mean scores and standard deviations. Selected results show that poor-quality and low-income housing projects are perceived to be related to the contractors, builders and construction practitioners not complying with the standards, variously because of insufficient training or accountability to public authorities and end users of low-income houses, i.e., the beneficiaries. The respondents were of the view that house builders and local government authorities could use five factors, namely quality standards, management, involvement of people, process design and process, planning and scheduling to assess non-conformance to quality requirements in low-income housing projects in South Africa. The finding of this study provides a platform for improving the quality of housing design, construction projects, sustainability and an opportunity for local and international design and construction professionals to rethink design in the context of low-income housing projects.<hr/>Onlangse Suid-Afrikaanse en internasionale bewyse beklemtoon die breé en blywende impak van huishoudings, veral dié op lae inkomste, wanneer hulle nie in staat is om hoér-inkomste eweknieé te kan bekostig, in woonstelle te woon, openbare behuising te onderhou of in ander hoé-gehalte huise te kan woon nie. 'n Wye reeks lae-inkomstehuise wat onlangs in Suid-Afrikaanse plaaslike munisipaliteite gebou is, is glo gebrekkig, wat verband hou met swak bou- en konstruksiegehalte. Die doel van hierdie studie is om die faktore wat hoé kwaliteit behuising beínvloed wat 'n positiewe impak het op die lewens van 'n beduidende deel van lae-inkomstebehuisingsprojekte te bepaal. Redes en struikelblokke vir kwaliteitontwerp, konstruksiekwaliteit en die ontwikkeling van lae-inkomstebehuisingsprojekte is ge'ídentifiseer. Om die navorsingsvrae te assesseer, is 'n kwantitatiewe opname (n=103) uitgevoer, eenvoudige ewekansige en doelgerigte steekproeftegnieke is gebruik om kontrakteurs te kies wat aktief is in lae-inkomstebehuisingsprojekte binne Polokwane Munisipaliteit. Die kwantitatiewe data wat ingesamel is, is ontleed deur gebruik te maak van Statistiese Pakket vir die Sosiale Wetenskappe (SPSS) om 'n kombinasie van beskrywende en nie-parametriese statistieke van die data te bepaal wat die frekwensies, gemiddelde tellings en standaardafwykings bereken. Resultate het getoon dat behuising en lae-inkomstebehuisingsprojekte van swak gehalte beskou word as verwant aan die kontrakteurs, bouers en konstruksiepraktisyns wat nie aan die standaarde voldoen nie, en hulle verskil vanweé onvoldoende opleiding of aanspreeklikheid teenoor openbare owerhede en eindgebruikers van lae-inkomstehuise, dit wil sé die begunstigdes. Die respondente was van mening dat huisbouers en plaaslike regeringsowerhede vyf faktore, naamlik gehaltestandaarde, bestuur, betrokkenheid van mense, prosesontwerp en proses, beplanning en skedulering kan gebruik om die nie-nakoming aan gehaltevereistes in lae-inkomstebehuisingsprojekte in Suid-Afrika te meet. Die bevinding van hierdie studie bied 'n platform vir die verbetering van kwaliteit van behuisingsontwerp, konstruksieprojekte, volhoubaarheid en 'n geleentheid vir plaaslike en internasionale ontwerp- en konstruksiekundiges om ontwerp in die konteks van lae-inkomstebehuisingsprojekte te heroorweeg. <![CDATA[<b>Factors that determine construction health and safety agent collaboration on construction projects: a Delphi study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2415-04872021000200003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The construction industry (CI) continues to be the cause of injuries and illnesses to many workers worldwide. Collaboration between the construction health and safety agent (CHSA) and other built environment professionals may improve the impact of the CHSA on health and safety (H) performance. However, no study has identified the factors that determine CHSA collaboration on construction sites. A three rounds Delphi study was conducted to identify the factors that determine CHSA collaboration. A panel of 14 experts serving the CI were selected from four continents and were asked to identify additional factors and validate the factors identified from literature. Microsoft Excel 2016 was used to analyse the data; group medians were calculated to reach consensus, and open question responses were summarised qualitatively. The experts confirmed the existence of the factors identified in the literature. The factors that determine CHSA collaboration on construction projects include mutuality, trust, enabling environment, personal characteristics, common purpose, institutional support, and project context. Drawing from the findings, the study suggests that these seven factors can influence CHSA collaboration. The study is limited to 14 experts and more experts could have provided more information. The factors that determine CHSA collaboration identified in this study may not be exhaustive and another study may provide different factors. Further research could adopt other research methods such as the quantitative method, in order to determine the impact of these factors on CHSA collaboration. Factors that determine CHSA collaboration on construction projects should be identified, implemented, and monitored, in order to increase the influence of CHSA on H performance.<hr/>Die konstruksiebedryf (KI) is steeds die oorsaak van beserings en siektes vir baie werkers wéreldwyd. Samewerking tussen die konstruksiegesondheids- en veiligheidsagent (KGVA) en ander professionele persone in die bou-omgewing kan die impak van die KGVA op gesondheids- en veiligheidsprestasie (G) verbeter. Geen studie het die faktore ge'ídentifiseer wat KGVA-samewerking op konstruksieterreine bepaal nie. 'n Delphi-studie van drie rondtes is uitgevoer om die faktore wat KGVA-samewerking bepaal, te identifiseer. 'n Paneel van 14 kundiges uit die KI, is uit vier kontinente gekies. Kenners is versoek om addisionele faktore te identifiseer en die faktore wat uit literatuur ge'ídentifiseer is, te bekragtig. Microsoft Excel 2016 is gebruik om die data te ontleed en groepmediane is bereken om konsensus te bereik en antwoorde op oop vrae is kwalitatief opgesom. Kenners het die bestaan van die faktore wat in die literatuur ge'ídentifiseer is, bevestig. Die faktore wat KGVA se samewerking oor bouprojekte bepaal, is onder meer wedersydsheid, vertroue, omgewing, persoonlike eienskappe, gemeenskaplike doel, institusionele ondersteuning en projekkonteks. Uit die bevindinge het die studie voorgestel dat hierdie sewe faktore KGVA-samewerking kan beí'nvloed. Die studie is beperk tot 14 kundiges en meer kundiges kon meer inligting verskaf het. Die faktore wat KGVA-samewerking bepaal wat in hierdie studie ge'ídentifiseer is, is moontlik nie volledig nie en 'n ander studie kan verskillende faktore verskaf. Verdere navorsing kan ander navorsingsmetodes gebruik, soos die kwantitatiewe metode, om die impak van hierdie faktore op KGVA-samewerking te bepaal. Faktore wat KGVA-samewerking op konstruksieprojekte bepaal, moet ge'ídentifiseer, ge'ímplementeer en gemonitor word om die invloed van KGVA op G te verhoog. <![CDATA[<b>Drivers and effects of sustainable construction in the South African construction industry</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2415-04872021000200004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Sustainable construction is hardly practised in Africa, despite the consistent campaign for its adoption. This study investigates the drivers and effects of sustainable construction in South Africa. The quantitative survey research design was adopted for the study and the respondents were the construction organisations in Johannesburg, South Africa. The study identified 17 significant drivers of sustainable construction, with construction cost as the dominant variable. The important environmental (8), economic (12), and social benefits (7) of sustainable construction were also determined. The challenges (24) of sustainable construction were also identified. The study recommended that measures for low construction cost should be put in place, and awareness campaigns should be enhanced. Economic benefits are still behind environmental benefits, and this could affect some prospective adopters. Lack of knowledge and weak economies were prevalent challenges that underscore the need for Western support for African nations to comfortably adopt sustainable construction.<hr/>Volhoubare konstruksie word min in Afrika beoefen ten spyte van die konsekwente veldtog vir die aanvaarding daarvan. Hierdie studie ondersoek die dryfvere en uitwerking van volhoubare konstruksie in Suid-Afrika. Die kwantitatiewe opname-navorsingsontwerp is vir die studie gebruik en die respondente was konstruksie-organisasies in Johannesburg, Suid-Afrika. Die studie het 17 beduidende drywers van volhoubare konstruksie geïdentifiseer met konstruksiekoste as die dominante veranderlike. Die belangrike omgewings- (8), ekonomiese (12) en maatskaplike voordele (7) van volhoubare konstruksie is ook bepaal. Die uitdagings (24) van volhoubare konstruksie is ook geïdentifiseer. Die studie het aanbeveel dat maatreëls vir lae konstruksiekoste ingestel moet word, en bewusmakingsveldtogte verbeter moet word. Ekonomiese voordele is steeds agter omgewingsvoordele en dit kan sommige voornemende gebruikers raak. Gebrek aan kennis en swak ekonomieë was algemene uitdagings wat die behoefte aan Westerse ondersteuning vir Afrika-lande beklemtoon om gemaklik volhoubare konstruksie aan te neem. <![CDATA[<b>Examining the maturity of South Africa's government departments to implement the Infrastructure Delivery Management System (IDMS)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2415-04872021000200005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The purpose of this exploratory study is to examine the maturity of South Africa's provincial government departments in engaging with the Infrastructure Delivery Management System (IDMS) towards facilitating effective infrastructure delivery. Furthermore, the study sought to formulate evidence-based interventions that could be utilised by these government departments to engender successful delivery of infrastructure assets and associated services to their beneficiaries. This research was descriptive and employed the quantitative research approach. Data was elicited from three provincial government departments in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Structured maturity modelling questionnaires were deployed for data collection from the respondents. The emergent data was analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), Version 26. A One-Way ANOVA, aimed at enabling a comparative analysis of differences in the degree of maturity between the three provincial government departments that utilise the IDMS, was conducted. Results from the study indicate that the three departments (cases) had a maturity rating between 3 and 4, signifying well-defined and documented standard processes that can be improved over time. However, an IDMS-ready organisation would ideally have a maturity rating at level 5. In addition, the leadership dimension was found to be a driver of all other dimensions, where a high maturity level under this dimension directly correlates with improved maturity in the other dimensions. It is recommended that adequate management and leadership support is needed to improve organisational maturity in relation to IDMS implementation. The study was confined to KwaZulu-Natal, due to the short survey period for information gathering and data collection. The COVID-19 pandemic also had a great impact on the undertaking of some key research processes mostly affecting the research methodology, particularly during data collection. This study is the first of its kind in South Africa to assess the maturity of provincial government departments to implement the IDMS, which is indicative of an evaluation void gap.<hr/>Die doel van hierdie verkennende studie is om die volwassenheid van die provinsiale regeringsdepartemente in Suid-Afrika te ondersoek deur met die infrastruktuurleweringsbestuurstelsel (IDMS) in verbinding te tree om effektiewe infrastruktuurlewering te vergemaklik. Verder wou die studie bewysgebaseerde intervensies formuleer wat deur hierdie regeringsdepartemente gebruik kan word om 'n suksesvolle aflewering van infrastruktuurbates en verwante dienste aan hul begunstigdes te verseker. Hierdie beskrywende navorsing maak gebruik van die kwantitatiewe navorsingsbenadering. Data is verkry uit drie provinsiale regeringsdepartemente in KwaZulu-Natal, Suid-Afrika. Gestruktureerde volwassenheidsmodelle-vraelyste is ontplooi vir data-insameling vanaf die respondente. Die opkomende data is ontleed met behulp van die Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), Weergawe 26. 'n Eenrigting ANOVA is gebruik, om 'n vergelykende ontleding van die verskille in die mate van volwassenheid tussen die drie provinsiale staatsdepartemente wat die IDMS gebruik, moontlik te maak. Resultate uit die studie dui aan dat die drie departemente (gevalle) 'n volwassenheidsgraad tussen 3 en 4 gehad het, wat goed gedefinieerde en gedokumenteerde standaardprosesse aandui wat mettertyd verbeter kan word. 'n Organisasie wat gereed is vir IDMS het egter ideaal 'n volwassenheidsgraad op vlak 5. Die leierskapdimensie was ook 'n drywer van alle ander dimensies, waar 'n hoë volwassenheidsvlak onder hierdie dimensie direk korreleer met verbeterde volwassenheid in die ander dimensies. Dit word aanbeveel dat voldoende bestuurs-en leierskapsteun nodig is om organisatoriese volwassenheid ten opsigte van IDMS-implementering te verbeter. Die studie was beperk tot KwaZulu-Natal weens die kort opnametydperk vir die versameling van inligting en die insameling van data. Boonop het die COVID-19-pandemie 'n groot impak gehad op die uitvoering van enkele belangrike navorsingsprosesse wat meestal die navorsingsmetodologie beïnvloed het, veral tydens die insameling van data. Hierdie studie is die eerste in sy soort in Suid-Afrika wat die volwassenheid van provinsiale regeringsdepartemente beoordeel het om die IDMS te implementeer, wat 'n teken is van 'n leemte in die evaluering. <![CDATA[<b>Outdoor living wall systems in a developing economy: a prospect for supplementary urban food production?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2415-04872021000200006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Green wall systems have greatly advanced over the past few decades and hold important potential for the future in light of predicted urban population growth, densification, and climate change. This article provides a brief background to living walls, followed by a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the four types of systems that are currently available in South Africa. It makes use of a case study review of three recently implemented edible living walls in Gauteng to reflect on the challenges currently experienced and the future potential benefits, with specific focus on system resilience, economic feasibility, and edible plant possibilities. Interviews were conducted with clients and client representatives, contractors and/or designers on each project. The findings suggest that living walls have indirect commercial value through customer experience and satisfaction, as well as educational value. Should the scale, economic feasibility and resilience of living wall systems be enhanced, they can improve urban food production. The article concludes that this could be achieved in the Global South by using simplistic technologies with lower cost living wall infrastructure systems. When deployed on a large scale, with climate-tolerant indigenous and edible plants in exterior systems, productivity will be improved.<hr/>Groen muur sisteme het in die laaste paar dekades aansienlik ontwikkel, en toon potensiaal om impakte van geprojekteerde populasiegroei, verdigting en klimaatsverandering te versag. Hierdie artikel gee 'n oorsig van groen mure, gevolg deur 'n opsomming van die voor- en nadele van die vier sisteme wat tans in Suid-Afrika beskikbaar is. Drie gevallestudies van onlangs voltooide stedelike projekte met groen mure, gefokus op eetbare plante in Gauteng, word vergelyk deur oor elke projek se voordele en uitdagings te besin, met spesifieke fokus op die sisteem se veerkragtigheid, ekonomiese vatbaarheid en oorlewingsukses van eetbare plantspesies wat gebruik is. Onderhoude is met kliënte, kontrakteurs en ontwerpers van elke projek gevoer. Die bevinding is dat groen mure indirekte kommersiële waarde het, gebaseer op die gebruiker se ervaring en waardering, asook opvoedkundige waarde. Indien geïmplementeer op 'n skaal waar ekonomiese vatbaarheid en omgewingsveerkragtigheid van die sisteme verbeter kan word, kan dit geskik wees vir stedelike voedselproduksie. Die gevolgtrekking is dat verhoogde voedselproduksie in Suid-Afrika gebaseer moet wees op die gebruik van ongekompliseerde tegnologie met meer bekostigbare infrastruktuursisteme. Wanneer eetbare, lokaal-aangepaste plantspesies op 'n groot skaal in ope-lug groen mure geïmplementeer word, kan produktiwiteit verhoog word. <![CDATA[<b>A comparison of three public projects that included community participation to determine the total value add</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2415-04872021000200007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Some of the most pressing and challenging problems facing South Africa are unemployment, poverty, urban redress, infrastructural decay, under-education, and the transformation of the landscape left by apartheid. In an effort to address these problems, the successive democratic governments embarked on a number of initiatives that were aimed at providing relief through building and construction projects, which require the participation by, and employment of local community members. To facilitate the desired redress, various programmes were launched and a number of projects undertaken. Some of these projects were flagship projects that were lauded by the architectural profession and attracted wide publicity. The socio-economic benefits to the community and local area, the extent of skills transfer to the community participants, and the long-term benefits they brought to the community participants are less obvious. This article revisits three such projects as case studies, with the aim of determining the extent to which they helped address the aforementioned problems and the extent of the benefits they brought to their physical and social contexts. This is done through a literature review supported by semi-structured interviews of relevant role players and an observational visit to each, in order to make recommendations suggesting how future projects could be configured to maximise the long-term benefit they could bring to their physical and social environments while addressing the national challenges. It is recommended that infrastructural development programmes such as the Extended Public Works Programme must prioritise the socio-economic upliftment and sustainable empowerment of people and configure projects with this as their main aim.<hr/>Van die dringendste en uitdagendste probleme wat Suid-Afrika in die gesig staar, is werkloosheid, armoede, ruimtelike herskikking, infrastrukturele verval, lae algemene geletterdheids- en opvoedkundige vlakke, en die herskikking van die landskap wat apartheid nagelaat het. In 'n poging om hierdie probleme aan te pak, het opeenvolgende demokratiese regerings programme vir infrastruktuurskepping deur middel van arbeidsintensiewe projekte van stapel gestuur. Van hierdie projekte het prominensie verkry, ontwerppryse van verskeie argiteksinstitute ontvang en aansienlike mediadekking gekry. Die sosio-ekonomiese voordele wat die projekte vir hul omgewings ingehou het, die omvang van opleiding wat gemeenskapsbetrokkenes ontvang het, en watter langtermyn voordele dit vir hulle ingehou het, is minder duidelik. Hierdie artikel neem 'n terugblik op drie sulke projekte as gevallestudies met die doel om vas te stel tot welke mate hulle daarin geslaag het om die bogenoemde probleme aan te spreek en die bydrae wat hulle tot die opheffing van hul fisiese en sosiale omgewings gebring het, te ondersoek. Die doelwit is om op grond van 'n literatuurstudie, opgevolg deur semi-gestruktureerde onderhoude met toepaslike rolspelers en visuele observasies tydens besoeke aan die projekte en analise, aanbevelings te maak aangaande die strukturering van toekomstige projekte, ten einde die voordele wat hulle mag inhou te optimaliseer in die stryd teen die genoemde probleme. Daar word aanbeveel dat programme vir infrastrukturele ontwikkeling, soos die 'Extended Public Works Programme', in hul keuse en strukturering van projekte die sosio-ekonomiese opheffing van mense en die skep van volhoubare werksgeleenthede moet prioritiseer.