Scielo RSS <![CDATA[South African Journal of Occupational Therapy]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2310-383320150003&lang=en vol. 45 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2310-38332015000300001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>The 23<sup>rd</sup> Vona du Toit Memorial Lecture 2<sup>nd</sup> April 2014. Economic Occupations: The 'hidden key' to transformation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2310-38332015000300002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This lecture aims to acknowledge both individual and collective professional achievements by occupational therapists in South Africa. It highlights specific work done which contributes to the development of occupational therapy nationally and internationally. In line with the Congress theme, "Rooted in Africa: diverse realities and possibilities", it acknowledges the diverse realities and contexts in which occupational therapy is practised particularly in developing countries. The transformation process that is taking place in South Africa seems to be focussing on politics rather than on the economic needs of the majority of the population which result from poverty and unemployment. The lecture proposes that occupational therapists should prioritise economic occupations which could lead to greater economic freedom and empowerment of clients and their communities. <![CDATA[<b>Validity of the Stellenbosch University On-road Assessment</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2310-38332015000300003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: Internationally, occupational therapists are the professional group called upon to assess fitness to drive. Fitness to drive is assessed through a comprehensive driving evaluation consisting of a clinical battery of tests and an on-road assessment. The on-road assessment is the criterion standard for assessing fitness to drive. Such an assessment has not yet been developed or validated in the South African context. PURPOSE: This study empirically quantified the face, content and construct validity of the Stellenbosch University on-road assessment. METHODS: Firstly face validity was established using feedback from peer reviewers, secondly, content validity using the ratings of expert reviewers, and thirdly construct validity was established by assessing between group differences in young drivers who drove the road-course. RESULTS: Peer review indicated acceptable face validity. Expert reviewers had an average rater agreement percentage of 94%, indicating favourable content validity. One (of two) on-road outcome measures, the Global Rating Score, discriminated between two groups of drivers, indicating construct validity. CONCLUSION: This study introduced the first empirical on-road assessment in the South African context. The findings provided foundational information for occupational therapists interested in assessing in-traffic fitness to drive abilities. Implications for practice, research and policy were discussed. <![CDATA[<b>Work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremity with reference to working posture of secretaries</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2310-38332015000300004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the prevalence of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) of the upper extremity and low back among secretaries in a state public service and their associations with working posture. METHODOLOGY: A cross sectional survey was carried out among 150 secretaries randomly selected within the Lagos State Civil Service Secretariat, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria, by using a 52-item questionnaire which captured information on work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). Working posture was assessed by measuring the variation in craniovertebral angle (CVA) and using Rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) scores of participants. RESULTS: The prevalence of WMSDs of low back, neck, shoulder and hand of the participants in this study was observed to be 71.3%, 59.3%, 48.0% and 28.0% respectively The results of this study showed a significant difference in CVA and the RULA scores (p = 0.02), between participants with neck pain and those without neck pain, hand pain and those without hand pain (p = 0.003), low back pain and those without low back pain (p = 0.004. CONCLUSION: This study shows a high prevalence of upper extremity and low back musculoskeletal disorders among secretaries in Lagos State Civil Service Secretariat, Ikeja, Lagos Nigeria. Neither CVA nor RULA scores were associated with shoulder pain. <![CDATA[<b>Learning styles of first year occupational therapy students studying at a university in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2310-38332015000300005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en INTRODUCTION: Occupational therapists by the very nature of their scope of practice have to apply an evolving broad spectrum of knowledge and skills to be able to fulfil their various roles as therapists. In order to understand how occupational therapy students learn, learning style studies have been conducted in various countries. Due to differing terminology used by the various measurement instruments, it is difficult to compare findings to allow for generalisation of the results. The aim of this study was to identify the learning style profiles of first year occupational therapy students at a university in South Africa. These profiles are used to broaden their self-knowledge in order to become socially and professionally well-adjusted therapists that take responsibility for their own continual learning. METHOD: A descriptive study to determine a learning style profile by means of the instrument known as the Felder-Soloman Index of Learning Styles was undertaken. A convenience sample of 114 first year occupational therapy students between 2009 and 2011 was used. FINDINGS: Results indicated sensing, visual, active and sequential learning styles as the most representative learning styles. The active learning style being the most dominant. CONCLUSION: Occupational therapy students should be encouraged and assisted to determine their own learning styles. Understanding their own learning style profiles may equip students better to fulfil the need to become lifelong learners. Further studies may identify possible changes to this learning style profile due to the changing demographics of occupational therapy students. <![CDATA[<b>Clinical education of occupational therapy students: Reluctant clinical educators</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2310-38332015000300006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Clinical education is essential to the development of clinical and professional competencies in occupational therapy students during the mandated 1000 hours of clinical practice. Students' concerns about the quality of their clinical education were raised during a routine HPCSA accreditation visit. These concerns resulted in a qualitative study which used hermeneutic phenomenology as the strategy to explore, examine and understand the 'lived experiences' of clinical education within the context of occupational therapy practice by those who provide it and who receive it. Focus groups were used to collect the data. The purpose of the focus groups was for the participants to discuss and reflect on their experiences and to identify the factors that framed those experiences and perceptions. The three groups of eight participants from each of the following: the final year students (n=32), the on-site clinical educators who had supervised final year students (n=43) and from the university clinical educators (n=12), were invited to participate. Data from the focus groups were analysed within and across the focus groups using open and then axial coding. Three themes emerged. This paper only reports on the code: Reluctant Clinical Educators within Theme 2: Challenges to quality. Reluctant Clinical educators were highlighted in each focus group and the impact of this reluctance on clinical education is described. <![CDATA[<b>OT student's experiences of stress and coping</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2310-38332015000300007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en BACKGROUND: It is well known that tertiary education is highly stressful for students, particularly in the medical and health science fields. Studies have indicated that occupational therapy students are no exception, experiencing stressors in many areas of their life. OBJECTIVE: This study explored the sources of stress & coping mechanisms employed by all levels of undergraduate occupational therapy students within a four-year degree programme at a tertiary institution in South Africa, more specifically to determine the types and frequency of stressors and coping styles employed. METHOD: A descriptive survey design was utilised using a demographic and stress survey and a standardised coping questionnaire. 101 undergraduate students enrolled for the year under review were selected via saturation sampling of which 99 formed the sample. Participants ranged between 17-28 years of age, the majority of which were English speaking females. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Amongst first year students, personal stressors were the most significant overall stressor whereas academic stressors were the most highly ranked stressors in the second to fourth year students. Both problem-focused and emotion-focused coping was utilised by students. The results of this study provide a snapshot of a cohort of students' experience of stress and the coping mechanisms employed. This may be a starting point for student support services in identifying the presence of stressors and types of coping in order to explore more deeply the consequences of this on students' overall well-being and performance. <![CDATA[<b>An action research approach to profile an occupational therapy vocational rehabilitation service in public health care</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2310-38332015000300008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The need for occupational therapists to profile their vocational rehabilitation services, initiated an action research project, within a PhD study. The PhD study was aimed at transforming vocational rehabilitation services in occupational therapy departments in Gauteng public healthcare through action research. The aim of the project was to develop a tool that would allow occupational therapists doing vocational rehabilitation, to systematically and comprehensively profile their services. The profile tool could be used for practice reflection, research, to assist with planning, policy making and/or quality management. It will be used in the final phase of the PhD study to allow for critical reflection on vocational rehabilitation practice transformation in Gauteng public healthcare. The profile tool was designed and developed during action research cycles in public healthcare vocational rehabilitation units. It was refined through further action research cycles with occupational therapists that offer vocational rehabilitation services in Gauteng's public healthcare. The service profiles generated from these cycles were presented for participant validation. The final profile tool was sent for critical appraisal to a panel of experts acting as 'critical friends'. The processes of designing, developing, refining, validating and disseminating the tool are presented in this article as a contribution to the practice of vocational rehabilitation and to conclude the dissemination outcome of action research. <![CDATA[<b>Professional competencies in vocational rehabilitation: Results of a Delphi study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2310-38332015000300009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en INTRODUCTION: Opportunities for South African occupational therapists to deliver appropriate vocational rehabilitation services to workers with disabilities in the open labour market, increased within the context of current South African disability equity legislation. However research into the identification of professional competencies required to practise in this area of work had not been undertaken and this is necessary to ensure that occupational therapy curriculum content presented at South African universities are aligned with practice requirements. Research was therefore undertaken as part of the study for a master's degree, to identify these competencies. METHOD: A Delphi technique was employed using a panel of 35 occupational therapists representing various practice settings and meeting pre-determined expert criteria. Three rounds of questionnaires were sent to the research participants requesting them to identify knowledge, skills and values reflecting professional competencies. RESULTS: Following a process of data analysis, 16 professional competencies were identified as being necessary to deliver vocational rehabilitation services to workers with disabilities in the South African open labour market. CONCLUSION: Based on the results of this study, recommendations are made for inclusion of professional competencies in an under- and postgraduate curriculum level. The results of this research should be further communicated to the Professional Board for Occupational Therapy, Medical Orthotics, Prosthetics and Art Therapy for consideration by the Education Committee. <![CDATA[<b>Ethical misconduct of HPCSA registered Occupational Therapists in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2310-38332015000300010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In South Africa, the health care professions are regulated by statutory bodies which are organs of the state and can enforce laws such as the Health Professions Act. The Health Professions Act provides the parameters within which the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) can sanction members if they are in contravention of its regulations. During the period under analysis i.e. between 2007 and 2013, only three penalties were imposed against two occupational therapy practitioners. Although the number of penalties can be viewed as insignificant the value of the research is in the fact that cognisance needs to be taken by the profession of the relevant ethical issues in these cases. It is recommended that occupational therapists should always inform their clients appropriately and should also form informal mentoring groups. <![CDATA[<b>Occupational Therapy Association of South Africa (OTASA). Position Statement on Occupational Therapy in Primary Health Care (PHC)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2310-38332015000300011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In South Africa, the health care professions are regulated by statutory bodies which are organs of the state and can enforce laws such as the Health Professions Act. The Health Professions Act provides the parameters within which the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) can sanction members if they are in contravention of its regulations. During the period under analysis i.e. between 2007 and 2013, only three penalties were imposed against two occupational therapy practitioners. Although the number of penalties can be viewed as insignificant the value of the research is in the fact that cognisance needs to be taken by the profession of the relevant ethical issues in these cases. It is recommended that occupational therapists should always inform their clients appropriately and should also form informal mentoring groups.