Scielo RSS <![CDATA[South African Journal of Occupational Therapy]]> vol. 44 num. 2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Patterns of sensory integration dysfunction in children from South Africa</b>]]> While patterns of sensory integration (SI) function and dysfunction have been studied in the US for more than 50 years exploration of whether or not similar patterns exist in cultures and communities outside of that country has been limited, with no studies conducted in South Africa to date. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the similarities and differences of patterns of SI dysfunction between children in South Africa and those in the US. A quantitative, analytical study was conducted on a convenience sample of 223 children who were identified as experiencing sensory integration difficulties. The Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests (SIPT) were used as the measuring instrument and correlation and factor analyses were applied in order to describe similarities and differences. Consistencies in tests loading on patterns of Visuodyspraxia, Somatodyspraxia, Bilateral Integration and Sequencing dysfunctions and Tactile and Visual Discrimination dysfunctions were found. Therefore, this research confirmed similarities in the patterns of dysfunction in children in South Africa and confirmed the value of the SIPT in identifying sensory integration dysfunctions cross-culturally. <![CDATA[<b>Experiences of mothering drug-dependent youth: influences on occupational performance patterns</b>]]> Substance use by youth in South Africa is a serious problem. The prevalence of substance use and the influence on individuals has been well researched; however, little is known about the experiences of mothers of drug-dependent youth. In this study, a qualitative approach was used to explore how the occupational performance patterns (roles, rituals, routines and habits) of mothers were influenced by the addictive behaviours of their drug-dependent, young adult children. The participants comprised six mothers of youth who were in-patients at a drug rehabilitation centre in Cape Town. The social worker and the occupational therapist at the centre were key informants. Data were gathered through individual interviews with the key informants and two focus groups with the mothers. Five themes emerged from the thematic analysis of the data: (1) "They take everything" (2) "The peace keeper" (3) "I can't take it anymore" (4) Role plays of mothers (5) "We also still need a life". The study contributes to the knowledge base of occupational science by providing insight into the occupational challenges experienced by mothers of drug-dependent youth. There is a need for interventions that support and promote the wellbeing of mothers such as these. <![CDATA[<b>The prevalence of burnout amongst therapists working in private physical rehabilitation centers in South Africa: a descriptive study</b>]]> Health care service providers are at risk of burnout due to the nature of their jobs and their personalities. No research has been published on the prevalence and causes of burnout in therapists working in physical rehabilitation units in South Africa. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of burnout and identify causes in therapists working in physical rehabilitation in South Africa. A descriptive, quantitative study was done. Study participants comprised 49 therapists (14 occupational therapists, 13 physiotherapists, 7 therapy assistants, 4 social workers, 1 dietician, 5 speech therapists and 5 psychologists) from six private rehabilitation units in South Africa. No sampling was done. The prevalence of burnout was established with the Maslach Burnout Inventory Manual (MBI). Demographic and employment data were gathered through a questionnaire. MBI scores were categorised as high, moderate or low on the subscales of emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and decreased personal accomplishment. The maximum likelihood and chi-squared tests were used for statistical analysis. A p value of <0.05 was deemed statistically significant. The prevalence of burnout was high: 57.14% suffered from emotional exhaustion, 20.40% from depersonalisation and 38.77% from decreased personal accomplishment. Not having children (p = 0.029), poor coping skills (0.031), an overwhelming workload (0.039),and poor work environment (0.021) had a statistically significant relationship with emotional exhaustion. An overwhelming patient load (0.012), seldom achievable deadlines (0.036), postponing contact with patients (0.02) and poor work environment (0.04) had a statistically significant relationship with depersonalisation. Male gender (0.023), not having children (0.038), less than four years of tertiary education (0.036), low income levels (0.022), high administration load (0.003) and postponing contact with patients (0.011) had a statistically significant relationship with personal accomplishment.Ensuring on-going support emotional support and job satisfaction of therapists is important if an institution is to provide continuing quality rehabilitation services. <![CDATA[<b>Barriers and strategies to increase research involvement of South African occupational therapists</b>]]> Limited involvement in conducting and publishing research constitutes a threat to the occupational therapy profession. This article reports on the qualitative phase of a mixed methods study that aimed to explore the barriers to, and support for, South African occupational therapy research. Purposive sampling was used to identify 26 occupational therapists, with varying levels of research involvement, to participate in four focus groups. A further 12 individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants with research publishing experience. Inductive reasoning identified four main themes: 1) challenges to research; 2) research education and motivation; 3) research process; and 4) research output. Factors influencing research involvement could be viewed either as a barrier or a support depending on an individual's view and circumstances. A need for both academic and clinical research, an occupational therapy research data base, scientific evidence, more knowledge and use of evidence based practice, more research skills development, streamlining the process, and more collaborative research was identified. South African occupational therapists should contribute to evidence creation through coordinated research participation and publication. A national research strategy is needed to address the identified barriers. <![CDATA[<b>In-hand manipulation of children aged four and five-years-old: translation, rotation and shift movements, in Bloemfontein</b>]]> BACKGROUND AND AIM: Children are often referred to occupational therapy for deficits in hand function, specifically in-hand manipulation problems. There is however no standardised measurement instrument with age-related norms available that evaluates all in-hand manipulation components. The aim of the study was to describe the in-hand manipulation skills of a multicultural group of four- and five-year-old children in Bloemfontein. METHODS: A quantitative, descriptive study that included 98 four and 97 five-year-old English-speaking children was conducted. An observation checklist was compiled from non-standardised activities and standardised tests published in the literature to cover all aspects of in-hand manipulation. Video footage of each child performing the activities was used to score the checklists RESULTS: A total of 195 children participated in the study, with 98 (50.3%) in the four-year-old and 97 (49.7%) in the five-year-old groups. The following percentages of four-year-old children had successful task completion (without compensation): finger-to-palm translation 11.2%, simple rotation 29.6%, complex rotation 44.9%, complex rotation with stabilisation 13.3% and shift movements 68.4%. The following percentages of five-year-olds had successful completion (without compensation): finger-to-palm translation 22.7%, simple rotation 45.4%, complex rotation 46.4%, complex rotation with stabilisation 10.3% and shift movements 67.0% CONCLUSIONS: Although the findings cannot be generalised to the SA population, they do contribute to the body of knowledge regarding the developmental trends of four and five-year-old children's in-hand manipulation, by indicating that both age groups do not have fully developed in-hand manipulation and use compensatory methods. The observation checklist developed for and used in this study does however provide a comprehensive, inexpensive and quick method to assess IHM <![CDATA[<b>Co-morbidities of hearing loss and occupational therapy in preschool children</b>]]> INTRODUCTION: Many children with hearing impairment present with one or more health-related conditions defined as a co-morbidity in addition to hearing loss. Families and professionals are then faced with various challenges that often complicate the assessment, management and educational placement of these children. Appropriate holistic intervention is essential for the development and quality of life of the child. This study describes the co-morbidities within the field of occupational therapy, speech therapy and physiotherapy that pre-school children with hearing loss present with at the Centre for Language and Hearing Impaired Children (CLAHIC) and its implications for management. METHOD: A descriptive, retrospective research design was employed. Using a non-probability, purposive sampling strategy the records of 62 children diagnosed with a hearing loss that attended the CLAHIC from 1999 to 2010, were reviewed. RESULTS: The prevalent co-morbidities identified in this study were found mostly within the field of Occupational Therapy and included fine and gross motor delay, visual motor integration disorders and bilateral integration disorders. Further findings indicated that co-morbidities of hearing loss are independent of the degree of the hearing loss. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that pre-school children with hearing loss, irrespective of the etiology and degree of hearing loss, should be screened for prevalent co-morbidities, such as fine and gross motor difficulties