Scielo RSS <![CDATA[South African Journal of Occupational Therapy]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2310-383320110001&lang=es vol. 41 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Editorial comment</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2310-38332011000100001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>Research ethics guidelines and occupational therapy: Can we risk thinking they do not apply to us (or the populations we study)?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2310-38332011000100002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>The developmental status of street children in Potchefstroom, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2310-38332011000100003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Owing to the high rate of school failure among the street children of the Thakaneng Shelter in Potchefstroom, South Africa, a study was conducted to determine the neuro-motor, sensory-motor, and cognitive-perceptual developmental status of these children. A descriptive study, using the standardised Quick Neurological Screening Test, the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration and Motor Co-ordination and the Test of Visual-Perceptual Skills (non-motor) - lower level, was implemented. There were 17 participants in the 6-12 years age group. The findings revealed that sensory-motor and cognitive-perceptual deficits were most dominant, particularly those necessary for school-related tasks and consequently progress at school. The results confirmed the need for an intervention program that would focus on the skills required for school performance. <![CDATA[<b>Assessing tactile perception in limited visibility could be child's-play: Developing the Tupperware Neuropsychological Task</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2310-38332011000100004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In task-environments with limited visibility (e.g. rescue workers in smoke), individuals rely on tactile perception as a primary mode of data acquisition. They need to translate tactile information into three-dimensional images, to solve problems mentally, before translating them into motor actions. To assess this ability in an inexpensive, standardised way, the Tupperware Neuropsychological Task (TNT) was developed. It is a timed task using the Tupperware™ Shape O Toy. Participants completed the TNT blindfolded, and also completed standardised measures of spatial visualisation, tactile form perception and memory, and fine motor coordination. Healthy adults (N=170) aged 19 to 30 completed the tasks on all tests on an individual basis. This paper reports normative data for the TNT, including mean completion time and standard deviations. It also reports small but significant correlations with other measures of tactile form perception, mental rotations, motor manipulation and tactile recall. This suggests that the TNT taps all these constructs in one task, which would make it an economical measure of the functions required to work effectively in low visibility environments. <![CDATA[<b>The effect of psycho-motor play on motor and body perception competence for young children with developmental delays</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2310-38332011000100005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This paper aims to describe how psycho-motor play advances motor competence and body perception, by helping to shape a positive self-image and activate movement. The participants were 4-7 year-old children with developmental delays who attended an inclusive nursery school. The measurement tools used for the pre-test and post-tests were the Mot 4-6 test, the Perception/Motor Competence Test and the Psycho-Educational Profile. The children participated in a six week programme in which they were exposed to various pieces of play equipment. For the data analysis, the total result of the children's performance was averaged and statistical significance with the t-test and Wilcoxon-test used to determine the difference between pre and post programme scores. The following results were obtained: Firstly, psycho-motor play was effective in the improvement of balance, postural control, and the coordination in the motor competence of Young Children with Developmental Delays (YCDD). Secondly, psycho-motor play was effective for the improvement of body scheme (a component of body perception) and spatial orientation. <![CDATA[<b>Through the lens of a peer: Understanding leisure boredom and risk behaviour in adolescence</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2310-38332011000100006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es There has been very little research investigating leisure boredom and risk behaviour among adolescents in South Africa. Using a qualitative approach, this study investigated adolescents' perceptions of leisure boredom and risk behaviour during free time. The sample of participants comprised three groups of adolescents: a community group, a school group and a group who had dropped out of school. Participants documented their free time experiences by taking photographs that were later discussed in focus groups. The findings showed that the participants were bored in their free time mainly because they had nothing to do. The low socio-economic environment where they lived contributed to occupational deprivation and imbalance in their free time, maintaining or 'trapping' the adolescents within the situation and contributing to feelings of boredom. The participants spent much of their free time 'hanging out' on street corners or in backyards, which allowed them to socialise, but inevitably led to boredom. Participants felt that boredom was part of life, although some perceived it to be 'dangerous' because it often led to risky behaviour. In conclusion, the study showed that for the participants, leisure is an occupational concern due to the occupational deprivation and imbalance occurring within their free time. Occupational therapists should consider how leisure boredom influences adolescent health, wellbeing and development, and plan interventions accordingly. <![CDATA[<b>Employing people with disabilities in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2310-38332011000100007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es South Africa has developed policy and legislation to overcome barriers that people with disabilities face in the labour force, yet there remain practical issues relating to the implementation of these policies. This research aimed at identifying the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions and experiences of employers when hiring People with Disabilities (PWDs). Two organisations were selected using a purposive sampling method where interviews were conducted based on a completed questionnaire. It was found that there was a lack of knowledge about disability and although there were negative attitudes presented toward disabled people from fellow employees as well as physical barriers to their employment within the organisations, there were also clear benefits. These benefits were related to among others, the positive contribution made by the employees with a disability. <![CDATA[<b>Correlating the Developmental Test of Visual Perception-2 (DTVP-2) and the Test of Visual Perceptual Skills Revised (TVPS-R) as assessment tools for learners with learning difficulties</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2310-38332011000100008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Learners are often referred to occupational therapists to assess their visual perceptual functioning. It is, therefore, imperative that the occupational therapists use the best assessment tools to obtain accurate and reliable results that lead to effective intervention which will be noticeable in the classroom functioning of these learners. A study was therefore conducted which correlated the results of the Developmental Test of Visual Perception (second edition) (DTVP-2) and the Test of Visual Perceptual Skills Revised (TVPS-R) in a cohort of 173 learners from Grade 1 to Grade 4 (children aged 6 years to 11 years). The learners attended a remedial school in Kwa-Zulu Natal (South Africa). The DTVP-2 and TVPS-R appear to be of equal value when assessing a learner for visual perceptual difficulties. However, when specific sub-tests were used as a guide to focus therapy strategies, differences appear. <![CDATA[<b>Visual motor integration in children living in childcare institutions in Gauteng</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2310-38332011000100009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The research examined the relationship between institutionalisation factors and visual motor integration. A quantitative study of 50 children from nine childcare institutions of varying socio-economic circumstances, within the Gauteng Province, was undertaken. The participants came from different race groups, genders and their ages ranged from 6 to 10 years. Interview questionnaires were used to obtain the relevant information on client and environmental factors related to the institutions that could influence visual motor integration. The Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration, 4th Edition (DTVMI) was used to obtain an objective measure of the participants' visual motor integration abilities. The analysis of the data revealed statistically significant differences in the mean standard scores related to age, types ofplay engaged in and the socioeconomic circumstances of the institutions. Other factors contributing to lower scores included length of institutionalisation, health, coping with academic tasks and the play resources available in the institutions. <![CDATA[<b>Cognition, Brain and Consciousness. Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2310-38332011000100010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The research examined the relationship between institutionalisation factors and visual motor integration. A quantitative study of 50 children from nine childcare institutions of varying socio-economic circumstances, within the Gauteng Province, was undertaken. The participants came from different race groups, genders and their ages ranged from 6 to 10 years. Interview questionnaires were used to obtain the relevant information on client and environmental factors related to the institutions that could influence visual motor integration. The Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration, 4th Edition (DTVMI) was used to obtain an objective measure of the participants' visual motor integration abilities. The analysis of the data revealed statistically significant differences in the mean standard scores related to age, types ofplay engaged in and the socioeconomic circumstances of the institutions. Other factors contributing to lower scores included length of institutionalisation, health, coping with academic tasks and the play resources available in the institutions. <![CDATA[<b>Occupational therapy: An African Perspective</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2310-38332011000100011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The research examined the relationship between institutionalisation factors and visual motor integration. A quantitative study of 50 children from nine childcare institutions of varying socio-economic circumstances, within the Gauteng Province, was undertaken. The participants came from different race groups, genders and their ages ranged from 6 to 10 years. Interview questionnaires were used to obtain the relevant information on client and environmental factors related to the institutions that could influence visual motor integration. The Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration, 4th Edition (DTVMI) was used to obtain an objective measure of the participants' visual motor integration abilities. The analysis of the data revealed statistically significant differences in the mean standard scores related to age, types ofplay engaged in and the socioeconomic circumstances of the institutions. Other factors contributing to lower scores included length of institutionalisation, health, coping with academic tasks and the play resources available in the institutions.