Scielo RSS <![CDATA[South African Journal of Occupational Therapy]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2310-383320170003&lang=es vol. 47 num. 2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Editorial Comment</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2310-38332017000300001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>Convergent validity of the Occupational Therapy Adult Perceptual Screening Test (OT-APST) with two other cognitive-perceptual tools in a South African context</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2310-38332017000300002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es BACKGROUND AND AIM: Occupational therapists working in the field of neuro-rehabilitation need to use screening tools which demonstrate validity and reliability to correctly identify patients with cognitive-perceptual impairments. The Occupational Therapy Adult Perceptual Screening Test (OT-APST) is a screening tool which was developed to identify patients with visual perceptual problems and apraxia following a stroke or other forms of acquired brain injury. Other instruments commonly used in South Africa are the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA) and the Rivermead Perceptual Assessment Battery (RPAB). These tools evaluate similar constructs such as visual agnosia, body scheme, unilateral neglect and constructional skills but are too lengthy to use as screening tools. The aim of the study was to determine the convergent validity of the OT-APST with two other cognitive-perceptual tools, namely the Dynamic Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (DLOTCA) and the RPAB when administered to patients with a primary diagnosis of stroke. METHOD: A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 32 participants with a primary diagnosis of stroke. Participants completed the three tools and subscales were compared with the DLOTCA cognitive areas and the RPAB items. RESULTS: Five subscales of the OT-APST had significant correlations with similar DLOTCA and/or the RPAB subscales. Only the Apraxia subscale did not correlate with the referencing tools. CONCLUSION: This study provides further evidence of the convergent validity of the OT-APST when compared to the DLOTCA and RPAB. Although the OT-APST was standardised on an Australian population, it proved to be another option of a visual perceptual screening tool to identifying visual perceptual problems in patients with stroke in South Africa. <![CDATA[<b>Supported Employment for people with mental disabilities in South Africa: cost calculation of service utilisation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2310-38332017000300003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es INTRODUCTION: Supported Employment (SE) is a strategy that facilitates positive employment outcomes for people with mental disabilities in open labour market settings. SE's cost-effectiveness has been established internationally, but not in South Africa. This paper reports on the cost and affordability of SE services offered to people with mental disabilities in South Africa. METHOD: A longitudinal descriptive study was used to determine the cost of SE service components utilised by people with mental disabilities, from two programmes in the Western Cape. The utilisation of service elements was captured in 15-minute time units. Data collection continued for 12 months, commencing when a job had been identified and preparation for placement had ensued. Time utilisation data were used to calculate cost, using a government sessional salary (R189/hour) and a medical aid reimbursement rate (R367/hour) of occupational therapists acting as job coaches. FINDINGS: The findings show SE services to be less than 10% of the cost of a monthly disability grant, and 10% - 21% lower than the current subsidy per consumer in a protective workshop. CONCLUSION: Evidence from the study thus reflects the cost of SE services to people with mental disability as substantially lower than the current government investment in disability grants and protective workshops subsidies. <![CDATA[<b>Visual perception of five-year-old English-speaking children in Bloemfontein using the Beery VMI-6, DTVP-3 and TVPS-3</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2310-38332017000300004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es BACKGROUND AND AIM: The Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test ofVisual-motor Integration 6th edition (Beery VMI-6), Development Test of Visual Perception 3rd edition (DTVP-3) and Test of Visual Perceptual Skills 3rd edition (TVPS-3) are the latest editions of three commonly used visual perception tests, not yet widely studied in South Africa. Research on previous editions of these tests on South African children has been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the new versions of the tests that have more recently become available in South Africa. METHODS: This article reports on a quantitative, cross-sectional investigation into the visual perception and visual-motor performance of five-year-old English-speaking children, by using the three tests mentioned above. Sixty-eight (68) children were selected from English Language of Learning and Teaching (ELOLT) Bloemfontein schools. Children completed the tests according to the prescribed procedures, in a specific order and with adequate breaks between tests. RESULTS: The findings showed that the children's performance on the Beery VMI-6 and DTVP-3 compared well to the American normative sample. However, all the children in this study scored below average in all the subtests, with the exception of the test of visual memory, and all of the composite TVPS-3 scores. CONCLUSIONS: The TVPS-3 should be used with caution and preferably not as the only visual perception measuring instrument. Occupational therapists in South Africa should consider the suitability of the tests and develop instruments specifically appropriate for the South African context. <![CDATA[<b>Street Play as occupation for pre-teens in Belhar, South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2310-38332017000300005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Street play is often overlooked as an important activity for young people and can have negative connotations associated with it. There is currently no documented research which describes the meaning children and young people ascribe to street play. What people do every day - which may promote meaning, health and well-being - is regarded as occupation within occupational science and occupational therapy. This paper explores the experiences of pre-teens who engage in street play within the context of Belhar, South Africa. It reports on a study conducted to gain insight into street play from the perspectives of this group of young people, with the purpose of informing occupation-focussed occupational therapy with this population in contexts similar to Belhar. The findings of the study support an occupational justice approach to occupational therapy, which requires interdisciplinary research and practice, in order to inform policies such as the Open Streets initiatives that should promote children and young people's meaningful participation in society. They also challenge the traditional treatment modalities and recommend further research and discussion into rhetoric(s) such as play as power and identity. <![CDATA[<b>Inter-professional education: Healthcare students' experiences</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2310-38332017000300006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es INTRODUCTION: Inter-professional education has been identified as a strategy to overcome some challenges facing healthcare throughout the world. The aim of inter-professional programmes within institutions of higher education is to improve teamwork between healthcare professionals. Different professionals with a variety of skills are required to work effectively in a team for comprehensive and cost-effective healthcare. A number of research studies have investigated the outcomes of inter-professional education, but limited information is available to explain the mechanisms that led to these outcomes. This study could assist Inter-Professional Education (IPE) facilitators at institutions of higher education when developing and implementing IPE programmes. METHOD: Qualitative data of the final-year healthcare students' experiences of an inter-professional education programme were generated by means of a reflective essay. The essays were completed after participating in an inter-professional education programme and thematically analysed. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION: The findings of the study generated three main themes: the first theme was the outcomes of interprofessional education as experienced by the healthcare students, the second identified an environment in which teamwork was promoted, and the third identified certain attributes that team members needed for effective teamwork. The second and third themes were identified as mechanisms that lead to the outcomes described in theme one. It is recommended that facilitators of inter-professional education implement these mechanisms for optimal teamwork. <![CDATA[<b>Professionalism - A case for medical education to honour the societal contract</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2310-38332017000300007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es BACKGROUND: This study explores the concept ofprofessionalism from the vantage point of a cohort of students as well as professionally qualified and practising occupational therapists. With the changes health care delivery is experiencing nationally as well as internationally, there is an urgent need to identify students and qualified professionals' expectations of what influences the development thereof, as well as elicit perceptions of attributes which contribute to professionalism. METHODS: The study is primarily a descriptive study with a specific focus on a mixed method of quantitative and qualitative research designs, using interpretative phenomenological analysis methodology. Data were gathered from 56 final-year and 55 professionally registered occupational therapists, who participated in a pen-and-paper questionnaire consisting of three sections. RESULTS: The results of this study indicated a clear differentiation between the influence of both the formal and hidden curricula and that clinical competence, client-centred practice and professional standards contributed mostly to professional behaviour. CONCLUSION: This study brings to light the experiences of students and professional practitioners to what they expect would influence the professional conduct. The findings are open to theoretical generalizability and raise issues that may be used by academic staff in the preparation of students to become more professional, as well of future Continuous Professional Development training. <![CDATA[<b>Cyberculture and Occupational Therapy: Creating Connections</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2310-38332017000300008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This paper explores the contemporary challenges and possibilities that cyberculture adds to occupational therapy. This analysis is necessary because we are experiencing a gradual and irreversible virtualisation of our everyday life and actions along with the expansion of cyberspace. The theoretical techniques of occupational therapy and the theories of Pierre Levy suggest that these challenges are at a minimum on two levels: (1) the need to update our object of intervention: human participation and occupation in the context of cyberculture, and (2) the identification and creation of current demands and new methods of intervention, respectively, in this field that originate from the ethical, aesthetic, political, and social shaping of human relations. <![CDATA[<b>Joining the Dots: Theoretically Connecting the Vona du Toit Model of Creative Ability (VdTMoCA) with Supported Employment</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2310-38332017000300009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The Vona du Toit Model of Creative Ability (VdTMoCA) presents a framework for understanding client motivation and action in occupational therapy, emphasising the relationship between motivation and action. Similarly, motivation to work is regarded as the primary and in some instances, the only eligibility criterion for inclusion in supported employment services. This commentary explores the potential theoretical link between the VdTMoCA and supported employment, primarily applied to the South African context. It is aimed at occupational therapists already familiar with the VdTMoCA. The following aspects of the VdTMoCA are theoretically applied to the context of supported employment: (1) motivation and action, (2) purposeful activity and (3) the use of graded challenges. It is tentatively concluded that the VdTMoCA may be compatible for use in supported employment at lower levels of creative ability. This would require that it is used as a means enabling participation in competitive employment, as opposed to raising the threshold for those considered appropriate candidates for employment. <![CDATA[<b>Occupational Therapy Association of South Africa position statement on rehabilitation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2310-38332017000300010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The Vona du Toit Model of Creative Ability (VdTMoCA) presents a framework for understanding client motivation and action in occupational therapy, emphasising the relationship between motivation and action. Similarly, motivation to work is regarded as the primary and in some instances, the only eligibility criterion for inclusion in supported employment services. This commentary explores the potential theoretical link between the VdTMoCA and supported employment, primarily applied to the South African context. It is aimed at occupational therapists already familiar with the VdTMoCA. The following aspects of the VdTMoCA are theoretically applied to the context of supported employment: (1) motivation and action, (2) purposeful activity and (3) the use of graded challenges. It is tentatively concluded that the VdTMoCA may be compatible for use in supported employment at lower levels of creative ability. This would require that it is used as a means enabling participation in competitive employment, as opposed to raising the threshold for those considered appropriate candidates for employment.