Scielo RSS <![CDATA[In die Skriflig ]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2305-085320150002&lang=en vol. 49 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Redaksionele voorwoord</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000200001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Editorial foreword</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000200002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Theology of the kingdom (Basileiology)? Theological reflections on the place and role of the kingdom of God in church and theology</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000200003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Hierdie artikel is 'n poging om aan te toon dat daar 'n groot leemte bestaan in die wyse waarop die klassieke leerstukke in dogmatiek in die verlede hanteer is, omdat dit 'n sentrale tema soos die koninkryk van God óf volkome geïgnoreer, óf totaal onderbelig het. Hierdie leemte word vervolgens nader ondersoek. Eers word aandag gegee aan die eskatologiese modelle wat in hierdie verband ontstaan het. Daarna word op die sentraliteit van die tema van die koninkryk in die Ou en Nuwe Testament gefokus en hierna word op die dinamiese uitwerking daarvan gelet wat dit op die samelewing behoort te hê. Die konklusie waartoe die outeur kom, is dat die tema van die koninkryk van God in die geheel gesien in die kerk en in die teologie totaal onderbeklemtoon was en steeds is. Vir 'n relevante kerkbeskouing (ekklesiologie) kan dit 'n groot bevryding bring indien die fokus van die kerk na die (gekome en komende) ryk van God verskuif. Die dogmatiek benodig 'n afsonderlike locus wat oor die Basileiologie handel.<hr/>This article is an attempt to demonstrate that there is a great void in the way in which classical doctrine was treated in dogmatics in the past, since it either completely ignored a central theme like the kingdom of God, or shed altogether insufficient light on it. This void will subsequently be investigated more closely. Firstly, attention is given to the eschatological models which came into being for it. Next, the focus is on the centrality of the theme of the kingdom in the Old and New Testament after which its dynamic effect on society is pointed out. The conclusion reached by the author is that the theme of the kingdom of God was and is on the whole underemphasised in the church and in theology. For a relevant view of the church (ecclesiology) it could be liberating if the church shifted its focus to the kingdom of God (that has come and is coming). Dogmatics needs a separate locus dealing with Basileiology. <![CDATA[<b>Embracing a vision of the New Jerusalem (Rv 21:1-22:5) to impact on life and society</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000200004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Apocalyptic biblical literature has played a significant role in motivating and mobilising Christians. As part of this genre, the Apocalypse of John has played this mobilising role within the church throughout its history. Jerusalem is often incorporated into this genre to conjure up different emotions and images to impact many different people. For example, the Jew annually recites the words to fellow Jews at every Passover meal: 'Next year in Jerusalem'. Most Christians know the hymn 'The holy city', originally penned by Frederic Weatherly in 1892. It lifts many a spirit as it conjures up the idea of a beautiful, perfect, heavenly city of God. However, there is more to this apocalyptic vision, which will be explored in this article. The city upholds the hope of decent godly living today. Whilst Jerusalem is a city with an extremely chequered history, it remains to be the launching pad of a dream that believers can embrace in order to impact society for the better. The vision in Revelation 21-22 is the launch of the 'idea' of God's intention for society today, and the 'implementation impetus' is the primary role of the church. In the greater scheme of things, the world community is the target group for a better society for everyone.<hr/>Apokaliptiese Bybelliteratuur het 'n beduidende rol in die motivering en aansporing van Christengemeenskappe gespeel. Die Openbaring van Johannes het hierdie motiveringsrol deurgaans in die geskiedenis van die kerkas deel van dié genre vertolk. Jerusalem is dikwels hierby ingesluit om 'n verskeidenheid van emosies en beelde op te roep ten einde 'n impak op 'n verskeidenheid mense te maak. Die Jood, byvoorbeeld, haal jaarliks die volgende woorde teenoor mede-Jode tydens die Paasmaaltyd aan: 'Volgende jaar in Jerusalem'. Die meeste Christene ken die gesang 'The holy city' wat oorspronklik deur Frederic Weatherly in 1892 geskryf is. Dit hef menige gelowiges se gemoedere op omdat dit die beeld van 'n pragtige, perfekte stad van God oproep. Daar is egter meer aan hierdie openbaringsuitsig wat in hierdie artikel verder ondersoek word. Die hemelstad bekragtig die hoop vir 'n godvrugtige lewe vandag. Alhoewel Jerusalem 'n stad met 'n uiters veelbewoë geskiedenis is, is dit tog die beginpunt vir hierdie droom van gelowiges om die samelewing te verbeter. Die visioen in Openbaring 21-22 is die bekendstelling van die 'idee' van God se bedoeling vir ons hedendaagse samelewing en die 'vervullende beweegkrag' is die primêre rol van die kerk. Holisties beskou, is die wêreldgemeenskap die teikengroep vir 'n beter samelewing vir almal. <![CDATA[<b>The confluence of 'wisdom' and 'apocalyptic' in <i>4QInstruction</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000200005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A confluence of sapiential and apocalyptic thought is found in 4QInstruction. This article investigates this phenomenon in 4QInstruction by studying the two main genres used in the book, indicating the central role of the term raz nihyeh [the existing secret] in the book and presenting a cognitive analysis of this term in 4Q416 2 III. The thesis is proposed that an extended embodied, chronistic and spatial view of the world is found in this passage.<hr/>'n Samevloeiing van wysheids- en apokaliptiese denke kom in 4Qlnstruction voor. Hierdie artikel ondersoek bogenoemde verskynsel in 4Qlnstruction deur die betudering van die twee hoofgenres wat in die boek voorkom. Dit dui die sentrale rol van die term raz niyeh [die geheim wat bestaan] in die boek aan en bied 'n kognitiewe analise van hierdie term in 4Q416 2 III. Dit word gestel dat 'n uitgebreide beliggaamde, kronistiese en ruimtelike beskouing van die wêreld in hierdie gedeelte voorkom. <![CDATA[<b>Exegesis and preaching: Romans 7:14-25 as test case</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000200006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Eksegese is nie 'n eksakte wetenskap nie. Dikwels is meer as een geldige lesing van die teks moontlik. Dit bring mee dat predikers dikwels keuses tussen eksegetiese opsies moet uitoefen. Romeine 7:14-25 is so 'n geval. Dit word allerweë erken as 'n crux interpretum. Die eksegetiese opsies wissel oor die identiteit van die 'ek' in hierdie perikoop, asook oor die stadium in die 'ek' se lewe - vóór of ná sy bekering. Hierdie artikel beredeneer die eksegetiese opsie dat Paulus hier oor sy lewe praat vóór hy 'n volgeling van Christus geword het. Vervolgens word aangetoon watter implikasies dit vir die prediking het.<hr/>Exegesis is not an exact science. Often, more than one valid reading of the text is possible. This results in preachers often having to choose between exegetical options. Romans 7:14-25 is a case in point. It is widely recognised as a crux interpretum. The exegetical options vary on the identity of the 'I' in this pericope as well as on the stage in the life of the 'I' - whether before or after his conversion. This article argues the exegetical option that Paul is speaking here about his life before he became a follower of Christ. Subsequently the implications this choice holds for preaching on this pericope is discussed. <![CDATA[<b>Interpersonal forgiveness in Matthew 18:15-35</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000200007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die artikel ondersoek die omskrywing van interpersoonlike vergifnis in Matteus 18:15-35 ten einde die argument van David Konstan, naamlik dat interpersoonlike vergifnis, volgens die moderne verstaan daarvan, nie in die Ou of Nuwe Testament voorkom nie, te evalueer. Interpersoonlike vergifnis is, volgens Konstan, die hantering van 'n daad deur 'n individu wat direk en intensioneel 'n ander persoon benadeel het. Dit veronderstel twee handelende agente: 'n oortreder en 'n benadeelde wat albei die skadelike aspek van 'n daad erken en bereid is om 'n morele transformasie te ondergaan om dit reg te stel. Die artikel argumenteer dat Matteus 18:23-35 na die vergifnis van morele skuld verwys en nie, soos Konstan beweer, na die afskryf van finansiële skuld nie. Dit handel dus wel oor interpersoonlike vergifnis en word Matteuse se etiek van interpersoonlike vergifnis daardeur verbreed. Indien hierdie gedeelte in ag geneem word in die beskrywing van Matteus se etiek, wil dit voorkom asof Matteus meer elemente onderliggend aan die moderne verstaan van interpersoonlike vergifnis hanteer as wat Konstan identifiseer.<hr/>This article examines the description of interpersonal forgiveness in Matthew 18:15-35 in order to evaluate the argument of David Konstan that interpersonal forgiveness, according to the modern understanding thereof, does not occur in the Old or New Testament. Interpersonal forgiveness is described by Konstan as the addressing of an act by an individual, which directly and intentionally had harmed another person. It assumes two active agents: a transgressor and a victim, whom both acknowledge the harmful aspect of a specific act and who are willing to undergo a moral transformation in order to rectify the transgression. The article argues that Matthew 18:23-35 does not, as Konstan claims, refer to the remission of a financial debt, but rather to the forgiveness of moral guilt. It is thus an example of interpersonal forgiveness that expands Matthew's ethics of interpersonal forgiveness significantly. If it is taken into consideration it appears as if the description of Matthew's ethics encompasses more elements underlying the modern understanding of interpersonal forgiveness than have been identified by Konstan. <![CDATA[<b>Matthew and the <i>Torah </i>in Jewish society</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000200008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The role of the Torah is the subject of a full-scale discussion in the first Gospel. This article investigates the socio-historical setting that produced this text with such an emphasis on Torah observance. To address these issues, the Matthean text is read against its socio-historical setting to discover issues that were prevalent in the community where the text was produced and read. The Matthean community is plotted within the Jewish religious society, focussing on the role of the Torah within this society. It is argued that the crisis of 70 CE led to a reconsideration of the correct interpretation of the Torah. The Jewish society was fragmented and this led to an urge to consolidate. During these developments the Torah was used by newly formed communities to define their norms of existence against others. In the first Gospel, the author defines his and his community's position on the terms of specific Torah observance. The narrator assures his community of the correctness of their conviction to follow the teachings of Jesus.<hr/>Die betekenis van die Torah is die onderwerp van 'n grootskaalse bespreking in die eerste Evangelie. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die sosio-historiese situasie wat aanleiding gegee het tot die ontstaan van hierdie teks wat soveel klem op die onderhouding van die Torah plaas. Om hierdie vraagstuk te ondersoek, word die Matteusteks in sy sosio-historiese konteks gelees ten einde die heersende vraagstukke in die gemeenskap waarbinne die teks ontstaan het, te identifiseer. Die Matteusgemeenskap word binne die Joodse godsdienstige gemeenskap gesitueer met die fokus op die Torah in daardie gemeenskap. Die artikel voer aan dat die krisis van 70 AE tot die herbesinning van die korrekte interpretasie van die Torah gelei het. Die Joodse gemeenskap was gefragmenteer en dit tot 'n strewe na konsolidasie gelei. Te midde van hierdie ontwikkelings, is die Torah deur nuut-gevormde gemeenskappe gebruik om hulle eie norme van bestaan teenoor dié van ander te definieer. In die eerste Evangelie definieer die outeur sy en sy gemeenskap se posisie in terme van spesifieke Torah-onderhouding. Die verteller verseker sy gemeenskap van die korrektheid van hulle oortuigings om die leringe van Jesus na te volg. <![CDATA[<b>The plenipotentiary idea as Leitmotiv in John's Gospel</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000200009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In this article the plenipotentiary idea in John's Gospel is studied in relation to Jewish institution(s) of agency. It is argued that the missionary idea in John's Gospel is a Leitmotiv (central or dominant theme) that integrates the Christology and Soteriology in the fourth Gospel. Jesus is presented as being God's empowered plenipotentiary who was sent by God to give life and to judge - qualities that were judged to be the prerogative of the Creator-God. After the resurrection, Jesus empowers his disciples to become plenipotentiaries who are called to continue the mission that God had started in and through Jesus. Unlike some scholars who argue that John is a sectarian writing aimed at an in-group, the author of this article argues that John's idea of mission is one that encourages an openness towards outsiders, motivated by love and other regarded, and expressed in a boundary transcending manner.<hr/>In hierdie artikel word die konsep van gesantskap in Johannes se Evangelie in verhouding tot die Joodse konsepte van gesantskap bestudeer. Daar word aangevoer dat die missionale of gesantskapskonsep 'n leitmotief (sentrale of dominante tema) in Johannes se Evangelie is, en dat dit met die Christologie en die Soteriologie in die vierde Evangelie geïntegreer is. Jesus word as God se gevolmagtigde verteenwoordiger (gesant of plenipotensiaris) aangebied wat deur God gestuur is om lewe te gee en te oordeel - kwaliteite wat tradisioneel gesproke die prerogatief van God alleen is. Ná die opstanding bemagtig Jesus sy dissipels as sy gevolmagtigde verteenwoordigers wat geroep en gestuur is om die doel wat God in en deur Jesus begin het, te kontinueer. In teenstelling met sommige geleerdes wat beweer dat Johannes 'n sektariese geskrif is wat op die 'in-groep' in teenstelling met die 'uit-groep' gemik is, of dat Johannes geen sensitiwiteit vir buitestanders het nie, argumenteer die outeur van hierdie artikel dat Johannes se idee van sending 'n openheid teenoor buitestanders impliseer wat deur liefde gemotiveer is en op so 'n wyse uitgeleef behoort te word dat dit (sosiale en ander) grense transendeer. <![CDATA[<b>The joy of seeing Christ: A thematic study of joy in the Gospel of John</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000200010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en An investigation of the recurring references to joy in the fourth Gospel brings to light that joy is developed in the Gospel as a distinct theme. This theme is developed in typical Johannine style within a spiral-like pattern, with its climax in the joy of seeing Jesus as the risen Lord. Furthermore, starting with Abraham in the Old Testament and climaxing in Jesus' appearance after his resurrection, joy in the fourth Gospel is evolved within the broad theological framework of God's covenant and his kingdom.<hr/>'n Ondersoek na die herhaalde verwysings na blydskap in die vierde Evangelie bring aan die lig dat blydskap in hierdie Evangelie tot 'n selfstandige tema uitgebou word. Die tema is volgens die tipiese spiraalpatroon van Johannes se gedagtegang gerangskik, met sy klimaks in die blydskap daarvan om Jesus as die opgestane Here te sien. Binne hierdie patroon word die blydskaptema vanaf Abraham in die Ou Testament tot by Jesus se verskyning ná sy opstanding openbaringshistories ontvou en binne die breë raamwerk van die verbond en die koninkryk van God ontwikkel. <![CDATA[<b>Johannine research in Africa, part 1: An anlytical survey</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000200011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article is the first of two parts that contribute to the history of African biblical research. Africa's theological 'awakening', following the colonial period, includes the discipline of New Testament studies. In this article the contributions of theologians working in Africa on the field of Johannine studies are surveyed and evaluated. In certain areas theologians from Africa performed very well, whilst other areas should receive more attention.<hr/>Hierdie artikel is die eerste van twee, wat saam 'n bydrae tot die geskiedenis van Bybelnavorsing in Afrika wil lewer. Afrika se teologiese bewuswording wat op die koloniale periode volg, sluit die dissipline van Nuwe-Testamentiese navorsing in. In hierdie artikel word die bydrae van teoloë wat in Afrika werk, ondersoek en ge-evalueer. In sekere areas het die teoloë uit Afrika besonder goed gevaar, maar ander areas behoort meer aandag te geniet. <![CDATA[<b>Revelation 21:1-8 in text and preaching</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000200012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Openbaring 21:1-8 bring 'n belangrike wending in hierdie boek. Die koms van 'n nuwe hemel, 'n nuwe aarde en 'n nuwe Jerusalem word aangekondig. Die oue is verby. Die nuwe het gekom. Hoe behoort Openbaring 21:1-8 uitgelê, vertolk en verstaan te word? Hoe behoort daar oor hierdie teks gepreek te word? Hierdie en nog meer vrae word in hierdie artikel bespreek. Vanweë onder andere die literêre genre daarvan, stel die boek Openbaring unieke uitdagings aan diegene wat dit wil uitlê, verstaan en daaroor wil preek. Deur Openbaring 21:1-8 en homiletiese teorie met mekaar in verband te bring, word hierdie Skrifgedeelte vir die prediking ontgin. Deur die benutting van 'n literêr-estetiese benadering tot prediking in 'n skuiwende kultuur - soos deur Cas Vos en Cas Wepener ontwikkel - word die nuwe hemel en aarde, die nuwe Jerusalem en die lied 'Hot Gates' met mekaar gekombineer om nuwe betekenismoontlikhede te ontdek. Deur intertekstueel en inkulturerend te werk te gaan, word parameters vir die uitleg en verstaan van Openbaring 21:1-8 geformuleer en voorstelle vir die prediking van hierdie Skrifgedeelte word gemaak.<hr/>Revelation 21:1-8 presents an important turning point in this book. A new heaven, a new earth and a New Jerusalem are introduced. The old has passed. The new has come. How should Revelation 21:1-8 be read, interpreted and understood? How should this text be preached? These and other questions are asked in this article. Because of its literary genre, amongst other factors, the Book of Revelation poses unique challenges to anyone who wants to interpret and understand or preach about it. Revelation 21:1-8 is investigated by engaging the text and homiletic theory with each other. By utilising a literary-esthetical approach to preaching in a changing culture - as developed by Cas Vos en Cas Wepener - the new heaven and earth, the new Jerusalem and the song 'Hot Gates' are engaged with one another in order to find possible new meanings. By working intertextually and inculturating, parameters for the explanation and understanding of Revelation 21:1-8 are explicated and suggestions with regard to preaching this text are made. <![CDATA[<b>The Christian marriage - a social construct or a covenantal relation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000200013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In die huweliksetiek van die postmoderne era pleit verskeie christelike teoloë vir 'n eietydse inkleding van die huwelikskonsep. As beginpunt word die standpunt oorweeg dat daar nie sprake van 'n sogenaamde 'bybelse huwelik' kan wees nie omdat die huwelik as instelling 'n sosiale konstruk is wat kultureel en tradisioneel bepaal word. So kan alternatiewe saamblyverhoudings deur christene in die huidige postmoderne era as geldig aanvaar word. Na die bespreking van sommige van die outeurs wat hierdie mening huldig se standpunte, pleit hierdie artikel vir die siening dat die huwelik verbondsgegewe en 'n instelling van God is. As sodanig is dit 'n instelling waar man, vrou en God verbind word in 'n interdimensionele spirituele verhouding wat uitstyg bo die patriargalisme en androsentrisme wat tradisioneel aan 'n christelike huwelik toegeskryf is. Deur te let op die skeppingsaard van die huwelik (imago dei en verbond) en die christologiese en pneumatologiese perspektief op hierdie instelling, word betoog dat dit nie maar net 'n sosiale konstruk is nie, maar dat dit 'n goddelike instelling is wat deur hoër beginsels, ontgin uit bybelse openbaring, ingerig behoort te word. As kerke die gedagte van die huwelik as 'n verbondsgegewe bedien, kan hulle bydra tot die vestiging van huwelike wat deur menswaardigheid, liefde, getrouheid en die ontwikkeling van die geestesgawes van man sowel as vrou gekenmerk word.<hr/>In the postmodern ethics of marriage several christian theologians plead for a contemporary definition of the concept of marriage. They choose as a point of departure that the concept biblical marriage cannot be accepted as valid, because marriage is a social construct determined only by tradition and culture. Alternative forms of cohabitation should also be accepted by christians as valid in the contemporary postmodern environment. Following a discussion of the works of some of these authors who hold this opinion, this article attempts to make a case for the view that marriage should regarded as an institution of God and a covenantal reality, where husband, wife and God are bonded in an interdimensional relationship that overarches the patriarchalism and androcentrism that is usually ascribed to a christian marriage. By paying attention to the creational character of marriage (imago dei and covenant) and the christological and pneumatological perspectives on this institution, the article argues that marriage cannot be seen merely as a social construct, but that it is a divine institution that should be constructed according to the higher moral principles derived from the unfolding biblical revelation. If churches minister the idea of marriage as a covenantal relation, they can contribute to the establishment of christian marriages qualified by human dignity, love, faithfulness and the development of the spiritual gifts of both husband and wife. <![CDATA[<b>Mark's distinctive emphasis on the temple's torn curtain</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000200014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article asks several questions: What is distinctive about Mark's description about the rending of the curtain in the Jerusalem Temple during Jesus' crucifixion?; What is his rhetorical strategy in doing so?; What role does the temple play in Jewish religion? What role does the Temple play in Jesus' ministry and message?; and What is the context of the narrative about the torn temple curtain? The conclusion is that Mark utilises the description to demonstrate God's judgement on the worship at the temple, but at the same time illustrates how the way between heaven and earth is opened at the moment of the death of God's Son.<hr/>Verskeie vrae kom in hierdie artikel aan die bod: Wat is onderskeidend in Markus se beskrywing van die gordyn in die Jerusalemtempel wat tydens Jesus se kruisiging skeur?; Wat is die evangelis se retoriese strategie?; Watter rol speel die tempel in Joodse godsdiens?; Watter rol speel dit in Jesus se bediening en boodskap?; en Wat is die konteks vir die narratief binne die Evangelie oor die gordyn wat skeur? Die gevolgtrekking is dat Markus die beskrywing benut om God se oordeel oor die tempel te demonstreer, maar terselfdertyd illustreer dit ook hoe die weg tussen hemel en aarde oopgebreek word in die oomblikke toe God se Seun sterf. <![CDATA[<b>Ambrosiaster's exposition of the Letter to Philemon and the rhetorical analysis of the letter</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000200015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die studie van Paulus se brief aan Filemon het gebaat by die hernude belangstelling in die retoriese analise van Nuwe-Testamentiese geskrifte, in die sin dat 'n groot aantal retoriese analises van die brief gepubliseer is. Hierdie retoriese analises is vanuit 'n verskeidenheid perspektiewe gedoen, maar tot dusver het niemand nog die manier sistematies ondersoek waarop die vierde-eeuse outeur, wat later die naam Ambrosiaster gekry het, die brief in sy kommentaar op die Pauliniese briewe geïnterpreteer het nie. Hierdie artikel bied dus 'n oorsig van Ambrosiaster se interpretasie van die brief aan Filemon en dui aan watter bydrae dit tot die retoriese analise van die brief kan maak.<hr/>In recent times, the study of Paul's letter to Philemon benefitted from the renewed interest in the rhetorical analysis of New Testament writings, in the sense that a large number of rhetorical studies of the letter have been published. These rhetorical analyses of the letter have been done from different perspectives, but thus far, no one has systematically investigated the way in which the fourth-century author, who was later called Ambrosiaster, interpreted the letter in his commentary on the Pauline letters. Accordingly, this article offers an overview of Ambrosiaster's interpretation of the letter to Philemon, and then outlines the contribution that his reading of the letter can make to the rhetorical interpretation of it. <![CDATA[<b>1 John: 'Effects' in biblical texts that constitute 'lived experiences' in the contemplative reading of those texts</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000200016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en It is evident according to 1 John 2:28-3:10 that the eschatological events predicted in this text have implications for how people should live prior to these events. This essay explores this eschatological pericope by analysing a number of the linguistic effects used in the text in order to determine how the assumed spiritualities embedded in this pericope are generated to influence the readers. These linguistic effects form part of the rhetoric used by the author to awaken certain spiritualities (lived experiences) in readers in order to motivate them to act according to the recommendations given in the text. Four effects identified and examined in this essay that constitute 'lived experiences' in the contemplative reading of texts are (1) the dynamic interaction between text and reader, (2) the composition of images, (3) the dialectic of pretension and retention and (4) entanglement in a text.<hr/>Volgens 1 Johannes 2:28-3:10 is dit duidelik dat die eskatologiese gebeure waarna daar in die teks verwys word, implikasies het vir hoe die mens vóór hierdie gebeure behoort te lewe. Die artikel ondersoek hierdie eskatologiese perikoop deur 'n aantal van die taalkundige effekte in die teks te analiseer om vas te stel hoe die veronderstelde spiritualiteite wat in die perikoop ingebed is, gegenereer is. Hierdie taalkundige effekte vorm deel van die teksretoriek wat deur die outeur aangewend is om bepaalde spiritualiteite in lesers wakker te maak met die doel om hulle te motiveer om volgens die aanbevelings wat in die teks vervat is, te handel. Vier effekte wat in hierdie artikel geïdentifiseer en ondersoek word en wat spiritualiteite of 'geleefde ervaringe' deur die kontemplatiewe lees van tekste tot stand bring, is (1) die dinamiese interaksie tussen teks en leser, (2) die samestelling van beelde, (3) die dialektiek van pretensie en retensie en (4) 'verstrengeling met 'n teks. <![CDATA[<b>Jan A. du Rand, New Testament scholar: A lifelong love relationship with the Johannine New Testament writings</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000200017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In hierdie artikel word 'n oorsig van die akademiese bydrae van prof. Jan A. du Rand, emeritus professor in Nuwe Testament aan die Universiteit van Johannesburg en Buitengewone Professor van die Noordwes-Universiteit in Potchefstroom gebied. Ná 'n bondige biografiese oorsig, word Du Rand se akademiese bydrae onder die volgende opskrifte bespreek: Doktorale leiding, Publikasietendense, Griekse taalfase, Johannesevangelie- en -entolëfase, Openbaringfase, Paulusfase en ander publikasies, Hermeneutiese bydrae, Besondere boekpublikasies, Akademiese gemeenskapsbetrokkenheid, Bydrae tot vakverenigings, Bybelvertaling, Informele en kerklike bydraes en Toekennings.<hr/>In this article an overview is presented of the academic contribution of Prof. Jan A. du Rand, emeritus Professor in New Testament Studies at the University of Johannesburg and Extraordinary Professor at the North-West University in Potchefstroom. After a brief biographic overview, his academic contribution is discussed under the following headings: Doctoral supervision, Publication trends, Greek language phase, John's Gospel and entolëphase, Revelation phase, Pauline phase and other publications, Hermeneutical contributions, Special book publications, Academic community involvement, Contributions to academic societies, Bible translation, Informal and ecclesiastic contributions, and Awards. <![CDATA[<b>Fulfilment of Scripture and Jesus' Teachings in Matthew</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000200018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en One of the most intriguing aspects of the experience of reading the gospels, for both beginning students and those who have been at it for decades, is the growing awareness of how the gospels convey their message. Our attention is usually focused first on what the message is: the storyline, the plot, the climax or resolution, and its implications. As we continue to read and reread, we may find that we begin to grow interested in various features of the narrative, such as its organisation, collections of material (parables or miracle stories), repetitions, the ways characters are represented or the narrator's comments. These are not incidental features of the gospel narrative. On the contrary, they are the elements with which it is constructed and that guide the reader's experience of the narrative. In this article we will explore how Matthew leads its Jewish-Christian readers, sometime late in the 1st century and during the process of the separation of early believers from the synagogue, to accept Jesus' teachings as a new teaching on righteousness and functionally at least a new Torah. Specifically, we will analyse the role of repetition and redundancy in Matthew's narrative rhetoric in relation to this theme.<hr/>Een van die boeiendste aspekte wat beginnerstudente sowel as ervare lesers met die bestudering van die evangelies ondervind, is die groeiende bewustheid van hoe die boodskap oorgedra word. Normaalweg word die aandag eerstens op die boodskap gevestig: die storielyn, die verloop, die hoogtepunt en die ontknoping, en die implikasies daarvan. Met die lees en herlees daarvan word 'n groeiende belangstelling ondervind in die onderskeie kenmerke van die narratief soos die samestelling daarvan, die tipe gegewens (gelykenisse of wonderwerke), herhalings, die manier hoe die karakters voorgestel word en die verteller se kommentaar. Hierdie is nie toevallige kenmerke van die evangelie-narratief nie. Inteendeel, dit is die elemente waaruit dit saamgestel is en wat die leser se ervaring van die narratief begelei. In hierdie artikel word die wyse ondersoek waarop Matteus, in die eerste eeu na Christus en gedurende die skeidingsproses van die vroeë gelowiges uit die sinagoge, die Joodse-Christenlesers lei om Jesus se onderrig as 'n nuwe lering oor regverdigheid en, wat meer is, 'n nuwe Torah te aanvaar. 'n Spesifieke analise word gemaak oor die rol van herhaling en toutologie in Matteus se narratiewe retoriek wat verband hou met hierdie tema. <![CDATA[<b>Jesus in Judea</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000200019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Jesus' mission in Judea (Jn 3:22-36) finds little attention paid to the geographical setting of this mission. Connected with this lack of interest is the question regarding a 'Jew' with whom the disciples of John the Baptist are reported to be in controversy according to John 3:25. A look at the geographical structure of Jesus' mission in John 2:13-4:54 may throw new light on these issues. Apparently, the mission of Jesus in this section of the Fourth Gospel follows a geographical scheme similar to the one outlined in Acts 1:8: the disciples are to be the witnesses of Jesus in Jerusalem and in all Judea and Samaria and until the end of the earth. Different from this outline, Jesus' mission, according to John, leads him to Galilee. All God's people are to hear his preaching and come to faith before the great controversies with the leaders of the Jewish people in John 5-10. If a mission of Jesus in Judea forms part of his mission to Israel, the Ἰουδαῖος of John 3:25 should be understood rather as a 'Judean'.<hr/>Daar is tot onlangs nie veel aandag aan die geografiese agtergrond van Jesus se sending in Judea geskenk nie. Saam met hierdie gebrek aan belangstelling is die vraagstuk ten opsigte van die sogenaamde 'Jood' wat volgens Johannes 3:25 in 'n argument met die dissipels van Johannes die Doper betrokke was. 'n Blik op die geografiese agtergrond van Jesus se sending volgens Johannes 2:13-4:54 kan meer lig op hierdie kwessies werp. Jesus se sending, soos in die Vierde Evangelie beskryf, volg klaarblyklik dieselfde geografiese struktuur soos dit in Handelinge 1:8 voorkom: die dissipels sal Jesus se getuies in Jerusalem, die hele Judea en Samaria, en tot aan die uithoeke van die aarde wees. Volgens Johannes lei Jesus se sending Hom egter na Galilea waar al God se volgelinge na sy leringe luister en tot geloof kom voor die verskeie konfrontasies met die Joodse leiers sou plaasvind soos in Johannes 5-10 beskryf. Indien Jesus se sending in Judea deel vorm van sy sending in Israel, kan die Ἰουδαῖος, soos in Johannes 3:25 beskryf, eerder as 'Judeër' verstaan word. <![CDATA[<b>Biblical Spirituality and transformation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000200020&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Transformation is one of the key elements of the human spirituality phenomenon and is one of the foundational areas of study within the discipline of Christian Spirituality. Transformation entails the meaningful, deep changes within individuals as they are touched by the Holy and as they mature in their experience of and expression given to their faith. This article places that dynamism within the framework of the academic discipline of Biblical Spirituality, which is briefly described in the first part. After depicting the concept of transformation in some detail, its relationship with and its occurrence in the Bible are outlined.<hr/>Transformasie is een van die sleutelelemente binne die menslike spiritualiteitsverskynsel en is een van die grondbeginsels van die studieveld binne die Christelike Spiritualiteitskunde. Transformasie behels betekenisvolle en diepgaande verandering in individue namate hulle deur die Heilige aangeraak word, groei in die belewenis van hulle geloof en hoe uitdrukking daaraan gegee word. Hierdie artikel plaas dié dinamiek binne die raamwerk van die akademiese dissipline van die Bybelse Spiritualiteit wat kortliks in die eerste gedeelte beskryf word. Nadat die transformasiekonsep in redelike besonderhede uiteengesit is, word die verwantskap daarvan aan, en die voorkoms daarvan in die Bybel omskryf. <![CDATA[<b>'Walking the talk': Paul's authority in motion in 2 Corinthians 10-13</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000200021&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en One's gait or incessus served as a prominent visual indicator of moral character and status in ancient Graeco-Roman societies. Nobles, aristocrats and slaves walked differently. Linking on to this 'common-sense knowledge', Paul's opponents in 2 Corinthians 10-13 shamed him publicly due to his inability to do the 'leadership walk' amongst the Corinthians. Whilst rhetorically engaging with these stereotypes, the apostle simultaneously deconstructs them with regard to the deep structure of the text. A new form of spiritual authority, which is also embodied in the weakness of Christ on the cross, surfaces in Paul's own bodily humiliations and apparent powerlessness.<hr/>Individue se liggaamstaal of incessus was 'n prominente visuele aanduiding van morele karakter en status binne antieke Grieks-Romeinse gemeenskappe. Adelikes, aristokrate en slawe het almal op verskillende maniere geloop. In die lig van hierdie algemene kennis het Paulus se opponente in 2 Korintiërs 10-13 hom in die publiek verneder vanweë sy onvermoë om die 'leierskaploop' te doen tussen die Korintiërs. Terwyl Paulus enersyds in gesprek tree met hierdie stereotipe idees, dekonstrueer hy dit in dieselfde asem ten opsigte van die dieptestruktuur van die teks. 'n Nuwe vorm van geestelike outoriteit, wat ook in die swakheid van Christus aan die kruis geleë is, kom na vore in Paulus se eie liggaamlike vernederings en oënskynlike kragteloosheid. <![CDATA[<b>Violence and non-violence in Revelation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000200022&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Hierdie artikel ondersoek die algemeen aanvaarde interpretasie van Openbaring as 'n boek met 'n nie-gewelddadige boodskap wat sy lesers oproep om nie wraak te neem teen hulle vyande en vervolgers nie. In die eerste afdeling van die artikel word sommige van die belangrikste redes vir hierdie interpretasie ondersoek. Daarna word bespreek hoe die diepsinnige nie-gewelddadige boodskap met gewelddadige taal en inhoude gekombineer en aangebied word. Eerstens word dus aandag gegee aan die oproep tot die lesers om nie geweld te beoefen nie, aan die lewering van getuienis, aan die vergeesteliking van die oorlogstaal en aan goddelike geweld. Daarna ondersoek die artikel in meer diepte hoe die geweldlose boodskap van die boek ingebed is en gekarakteriseer word deur geweldstaal, hoe die skynbaar positiewe uitbeelding van vroue met gender-geweld deurspek is en hoe uitermatig gewelddadig die goddelike oordeel is. Die artikel eindig met kort hermeneutiese opmerkings oor hoe die gewelddadige aspekte van Openbaring se geweldlose boodskap benader kan word.<hr/>This article questions the widely accepted interpretation of the Revelation of John in the New Testament as a book with a non-violent message that calls on its readers to refrain from vengeance. First of all, after a discussion of some good reasons for this interpretation, the article subsequently points out how the profound non-violence of the message is combined with and presented in violent language. Attention is therefore paid to Revelation's message to its readers to refrain from violence, to its call to witness, its spiritualising of war-like language and its focus on divine judgement. The article then investigates in more depth how the non-violent message of the book is embedded in and characterised by violent language, how its seemingly positive portrayal of women is in fact permeated by gender violence and how it portrays a divine violence that has an extremely violent nature. The article concludes with brief hermeneutical remarks that reflect on how the violent dimensions of Revelation's non-violence can be interpreted. <![CDATA[<b>Johannine research in Africa, part 2: An annotated bibliography</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000200023&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Hierdie artikel ondersoek die algemeen aanvaarde interpretasie van Openbaring as 'n boek met 'n nie-gewelddadige boodskap wat sy lesers oproep om nie wraak te neem teen hulle vyande en vervolgers nie. In die eerste afdeling van die artikel word sommige van die belangrikste redes vir hierdie interpretasie ondersoek. Daarna word bespreek hoe die diepsinnige nie-gewelddadige boodskap met gewelddadige taal en inhoude gekombineer en aangebied word. Eerstens word dus aandag gegee aan die oproep tot die lesers om nie geweld te beoefen nie, aan die lewering van getuienis, aan die vergeesteliking van die oorlogstaal en aan goddelike geweld. Daarna ondersoek die artikel in meer diepte hoe die geweldlose boodskap van die boek ingebed is en gekarakteriseer word deur geweldstaal, hoe die skynbaar positiewe uitbeelding van vroue met gender-geweld deurspek is en hoe uitermatig gewelddadig die goddelike oordeel is. Die artikel eindig met kort hermeneutiese opmerkings oor hoe die gewelddadige aspekte van Openbaring se geweldlose boodskap benader kan word.<hr/>This article questions the widely accepted interpretation of the Revelation of John in the New Testament as a book with a non-violent message that calls on its readers to refrain from vengeance. First of all, after a discussion of some good reasons for this interpretation, the article subsequently points out how the profound non-violence of the message is combined with and presented in violent language. Attention is therefore paid to Revelation's message to its readers to refrain from violence, to its call to witness, its spiritualising of war-like language and its focus on divine judgement. The article then investigates in more depth how the non-violent message of the book is embedded in and characterised by violent language, how its seemingly positive portrayal of women is in fact permeated by gender violence and how it portrays a divine violence that has an extremely violent nature. The article concludes with brief hermeneutical remarks that reflect on how the violent dimensions of Revelation's non-violence can be interpreted. <![CDATA[<b>Jou</b><b> Ithaka <i>Vgl</i><i>. Die Odusseia, Boek XII Vir Jan du Rand</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000200024&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Hierdie artikel ondersoek die algemeen aanvaarde interpretasie van Openbaring as 'n boek met 'n nie-gewelddadige boodskap wat sy lesers oproep om nie wraak te neem teen hulle vyande en vervolgers nie. In die eerste afdeling van die artikel word sommige van die belangrikste redes vir hierdie interpretasie ondersoek. Daarna word bespreek hoe die diepsinnige nie-gewelddadige boodskap met gewelddadige taal en inhoude gekombineer en aangebied word. Eerstens word dus aandag gegee aan die oproep tot die lesers om nie geweld te beoefen nie, aan die lewering van getuienis, aan die vergeesteliking van die oorlogstaal en aan goddelike geweld. Daarna ondersoek die artikel in meer diepte hoe die geweldlose boodskap van die boek ingebed is en gekarakteriseer word deur geweldstaal, hoe die skynbaar positiewe uitbeelding van vroue met gender-geweld deurspek is en hoe uitermatig gewelddadig die goddelike oordeel is. Die artikel eindig met kort hermeneutiese opmerkings oor hoe die gewelddadige aspekte van Openbaring se geweldlose boodskap benader kan word.<hr/>This article questions the widely accepted interpretation of the Revelation of John in the New Testament as a book with a non-violent message that calls on its readers to refrain from vengeance. First of all, after a discussion of some good reasons for this interpretation, the article subsequently points out how the profound non-violence of the message is combined with and presented in violent language. Attention is therefore paid to Revelation's message to its readers to refrain from violence, to its call to witness, its spiritualising of war-like language and its focus on divine judgement. The article then investigates in more depth how the non-violent message of the book is embedded in and characterised by violent language, how its seemingly positive portrayal of women is in fact permeated by gender violence and how it portrays a divine violence that has an extremely violent nature. The article concludes with brief hermeneutical remarks that reflect on how the violent dimensions of Revelation's non-violence can be interpreted.