Scielo RSS <![CDATA[In die Skriflig ]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2305-085320150001&lang=es vol. 49 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Matthean</b><b> Perspectives</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>The theme of God's speech in Hebrews' introduction formulae</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Alhoewel die voorkoms en gebruik van die Ou Testament in die meeste navorsing oor Hebreërs besonder baie aandag geniet, is dit nie die geval met die Hebreërskrywer se gebruik van inleidingsformules vir sy Ou-Testamentiese aanhalings nie. Die gevolg is dat daar tot op hede betreklik min selfstandige navorsing oor die Hebreërskrywer se tema van God se spraak by sy inleidingsformules gedoen is. In hierdie artikel word Hebreërs se inleidingsformules in besonderhede nagegaan om te bepaal wat die aard en inhoud van die Hebreërskrywer se verwysings na die tema van God se spraak in sy inleidingsformules is. Daar word onder andere bepaal dat Hebreërs 38 direkte aanhalings vanuit die Ou Testament bevat, dat die Hebreërskrywer, met slegs een uitsondering, elke inleidingsformule met 'n werkwoord van sê inlei, dat 'n Persoon van die Drie-eenheid in 34 van die 38 direkte aanhalings (± 89%) die onderwerp en gevolglike Spreker van die Ou-Testamentiese woorde is, dat die Hebreërskrywer al drie Persone van die Drie-eenheid as God beskou, en dat die Hebreërskrywer oortuig is dat die Ou Testament geïnspireer is en God se geldige en relevante openbaring bly.<hr/>Whilst the occurance and function of the Old Testament in research on Hebrews enjoys a lot of attention, this is not the case for the writer of Hebrews' use of introduction formulae for his Old Testament quotations. The result is that up to date relatively few independent studies have been made on the writer of Hebrews' theme of God's speech in his introduction formulae. In this article the introduction formulae in Hebrews are researched in detail to determine the nature and content of the writer of Hebrews' reference to the theme of God's speech in his introduction formulae. Amongst other things it is determined that Hebrews has 38 direct quotations from the Old Testament, that with the exception of one introduction formula the writer of Hebrews introduces each direct quotation with a verb of saying, that a Person of the Trinity is the subject and consequential Speaker of the Old Testament words in 34 of the 38 direct quotations (± 89%), that the writer of Hebrews views all three Persons of the Trinity as God, and that the writer of Hebrews is convinced that the Old Testament is divinely inspired and remains God's valid and relevant revelation. <![CDATA[<b>The education of prospective ministers as an invitation to life: Moving from moral failure to moral excellence through a process of moral formation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article discusses the importance of the moral formation of students who are in training for the Christian ministry. Moral formation is defined and its importance is discussed with reference to the scholarly debate, both in South Africa and elsewhere. The complex nature of moral formation, the individuality of students and the multiplicity of contexts in which formation takes place are noted. A model that has God's grace and human volition at its core and discusses the goals, obstacles and means of moral formation, is presented. It extends beyond a 'head, hearts and hands' approach and discusses the crucial areas of thinking, being, relating and doing. It seeks to avoid the extremes of both indoctrination and laissez-faire non-involvement with ministerial students.<hr/>Hierdie artikel bespreek die belangrikheid van morele vorming van studente in Christelike bedieningsopleiding. Morele vorming word gedefinieer en die belangrikheid daarvan word bespreek met verwysing na die wetenskaplike debat in Suid-Afrika en elders. Die komplekse aard van morele vorming, die individualiteit van studente en die veelheid van kontekste waarin vorming plaasvind, word genoteer. 'n Model wat God se genade en menslike wilsinspanning as kern het en wat die doelwitte, struikelblokke en middele tot morele vorming beskryf, word voorgelê. Dit strek veel verder as 'n 'kop-, hart- en hande'-benadering en bespreek die kritieke areas van denke, wese, verhoudings en handel. Dit streef daarna om die uiterstes van indoktrinasie sowel as laissez-faire onbetrokkenheid teenoor teologiese studente te vermy. <![CDATA[<b>Landscape of congregational singing in the Dutch Reformed Church at the beginning of the 21<sup>st</sup> century: Preliminary exploration</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Musiek en sang binne die Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk (NG Kerk) is in 'n proses van radikale verandering. Binne 'n 'global village' kan die ses strominge van kerkmusiek soos Paul Basden (2004) dit beskryf het, van groot waarde wees om die huidige prosesse in die NG Kerk te identifiseer en te beskryf. Hierdie prosesse word dikwels oorvereenvoudig deur die gebruik van die term 'blended worship'. 'n Dieper kyk na die bedoeling en betekenis van die term 'blended worship' wys dat die term in baie gevalle nie vir die huidige situasie of prosesse in die NG Kerk geskik is nie. Die huidige situasie veronderstel nie net die gebruik van nuwe vorms van musiek naas die oue nie, maar in baie gemeentes impliseer dit 'n wegbeweeg van die oue na die nuwe. Die uitdaging bly steeds om binne hierdie situasie getrou aan die Woord van God te bly, maar ook om effektief na die behoefte van die mense van ons tyd te handel.<hr/>Music and singing in the Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) is in a process of radical change. Within a global village, the six views of worship as identified by Paul Basden (2004) could be of great value in understanding die processes and streams within the music of the DRC. Variations and combinations of these views (streams) could be observed within the present-day liturgical singing within the DRC. This process is often oversimplified by using the term blended worship; a closer look at blended worship illustrates that the term blended worship in its original intention does not fit the current situation or process. The current situation does not only imply new forms of music combined with the old forms, it often implies a move away from the old in the direction of the new. Within this process the challenge of the DRC will be to stay faithful to the Word of God as well as contemporary society. <![CDATA[<b>The Double Love Commandment</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The Gospel of Matthew was written during a period of dispute between the Matthean community and their fellow Jews, with the Pharisees playing a leading role. The Matthean community was heir to the same scriptures as its opponents. They continued to have a firm commitment to the Torah, but they developed a distinctive understanding of it based on Jesus' teaching. The formation of this community is investigated in this article, considering the Mediterranean perspectives of group-oriented societies prevalent in the first century. Such a group provided a sense of self and an interactive support system, where love functioned to bind the group together. The subordinates showed their undivided loyalty towards their superiors because of the favours they received from them, whilst they supported and cared for other members within the group as they care for themselves. Reading the double love commandment of Matthew 22:34-40 from this perspective reveals significant aspects of the community's identity with regard to their commitment to God and their view of their neighbours.<hr/>Die Matteusevangelie is gedurende 'n periode van konflik tussen die Matteusgemeenskap en mede-Jode geskryf met die Fariseërs in 'n leidende rol. Die Matteusgemeenskap het van dieselfde geskrifte as hulle opponente gebruik gemaak. Hulle was steeds aan die Torah lojaal, maar het 'n unieke interpretasie daarvan gehuldig, gebaseer op die onderrig van Jesus. In hierdie artikel word die vorming van die Matteusgemeenskap ondersoek met inagneming van die Mediterreense beskouing van groepgeoriënteerde gemeenskappe wat tipies van die eerste eeu was. So 'n groep het aan individue 'n bewustheid van eie waarde verskaf te midde van 'n interaktiewe ondersteuningsisteem waarin liefde as samebindende faktor gefunksioneer het. Ondergeskiktes het onverdeelde lojaliteit teenoor hulle meerderes betoon vanweë die gunste wat hulle van die meerderes geniet het, terwyl hulle mekaar onderling ondersteun en versorg het, soos wat hulle na hulleself sou omsien. Deur die dubbele liefdesgebod van Matteus 22:34-40 vanuit hierdie perspektief te lees, kom betekenisvolle aspekte van die gemeenskap se identiteit na vore ten opsigte van hulle toewyding aan God en hulle beskouing van hulle naaste. <![CDATA[<b>Behold the glory of the King: The chiastic structures of Matthew 21-25</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The Olivet Discourse is complex and difficult to interpret, but crucial to any preaching about eschatology. By identifying two chiastic structures that mirror each other, namely in Matthew 21:1-23:39 and 24:1-25:46, the relation and correspondence of the parts to each other and to the whole may be identified. Whereas the centre of the chiastic structure of Matthew 21:1-23:39 emphasises the authority and identity of Jesus Christ, the Lord and Son of David, the centre of the chiastic structure of 24:1-25:46 focuses on the sign and coming of the Son of Man. Matthew 21:1-25:46 could be a major literary unit that emphasises the King's entrance into, rejection of and exit from the temple and Jerusalem during his first coming, juxtaposed with the sign and coming of the Son of Man to Jerusalem in glory. Until then, the Lord expects his followers to watch, to be ready and prepared as they labour faithfully for him in these last days.<hr/>Die Olyfberg-diskoers is kompleks en moeilik om te interpreteer, dog onontbeerlik vir enige prediking oor die eskatologie. Deur die eiening van twee chiastiese strukture wat mekaar weerspieel, naamlik in Matteus 21:1-23:39 en 24:1-25:46, kan die verhouding en ooreenkomste van die dele tot mekaar en die geheel ge'identifiseer word. Waar die middelpunt van die chiastiese struktuur in Matteus 21:1-23:39 die gesag en identiteit van Jesus Christus, die Here en Seun van Dawid, beklemtoon, fokus die middelpunt van die chiastiese struktuur in 24:1-25:46 op die teken en koms van die Seun van die Mens. Matteus 21:1-25:46 sou 'n belangrike literere eenheid kon wees wat die Koning se ingang na, verwerping en agterlaat van die tempel en Jerusalem tydens sy eerste koms beklemtoon teenoor die teken en koms van die Seun van die Mens na Jerusalem in heerlikheid. Tot dan verwag die Here van sy volgelinge om te waak, om gereed en voorbereid te wees terwyl hulle getrou in hierdie laaste dae vir Hom arbei. <![CDATA[<b>The <i>Semeia </i>in the Gospel according to John</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die semeia in die Evangelie van Johannes word eerstens geanaliseer in verhouding tot soortgelyke wonderverhale, veral in die sinoptiese evangelies en ten tweede in verhouding tot die breër Johannese narratief. Duidelike ooreenkomste met sommige van die sinoptiese wonderverhale word bespreek. Dit lei tot die bevraagtekening van die sogenaamde 'semeia-bron'-teorie. Opvolgend op hierdie diskussie word Johannes se eie interpretasie van die wonders nagegaan. Daar word veral aan die vervlegting van die wonderverhale met die teologie van Johannes aandag gegee, veral ten opsigte van die verhouding tussen die Vader en die Seun, geloof, die menslikheid van Jesus en die lyding van Jesus.<hr/>The semeia in the Gospel of John are analysed, first in relation to other similar miracle narratives, especially in the synoptic gospels, and secondly in perspective of the broader narrative of John's Gospel. Clear links with some of the synoptic miracle narratives are discussed, questioning the 'semeia source' theory. This discussion is followed by a consideration of John's own interpretation of the miracles, exploring the interwovenness of the miracle stories with the theology of John, especially regarding the relation between the Father and the Son, the humanness of Jesus, the passion of Jesus and faith. <![CDATA[<b>Perspectives on family and youth ministry embedded in the <i>missio Dei </i>- an African perspective</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The largest part of the population in Africa is classified as youth, but most churches in Africa are still without a contextual African family and youth theology. In many instances, the first question which is asked by churches is how to reach families and youth, without understanding who the ones are that are involved and what the calling is of those who participate in the ministry, as well as who those families and youth are that are ministered too. This article will contribute to the theological understanding of why a family and youth ministry specific for Africa is important. Since identity is a key issue in family and youth ministry, the article takes a short reality check on African family and youth ministry in relation to identity. A missional hermeneutical key is proposed and attention is given to the what question. In the last part, family and youth ministry is discussed from the missio trinitatis Dei perspective to give perspectives on the how, who and what questions.<hr/>Die meeste kerke in Afrika beskik nie oor 'n kontekstuele teologie vir 'n gesins- en jeugbediening spesifiek vir Afrika nie, alhoewel die grootste gedeelte van die bevolking in Afrika as jeug geklassifiseer word. Wanneer daar aan gesins- en jeugbediening gedink word, is die eerste vraag wat gewoonlik gevra word hoe dit gedoen word, sonder om duidelikheid te verkry oor wie by die bediening betrokke is en wat die roeping van die bedienaars is, asook wie die gesinne en die jeug is wat bedien word. Hierdie artikel wil 'n bydrae lewer tot die teologiese verstaan van waarom 'n eie gesins- en jeugbediening vir Afrika belangrik is. Aangesien die vraag oor identiteit wesenlik in gesins- en jeugbediening is, word oorsigtelik na omstandighede in Afrika gekyk om daardeur gesinne en die jeug se identiteit binne 'n bepaalde konteks te plaas. 'n Missionale hermeneutiek word as sleutel voorgestel om die roepings- of wat-vraag te beantwoord. Laastens word gesins- en jeugbediening in Afrika vanuit die missio trinitatis Dei bespreek as 'n perspektief om die hoe, wie en wat-vrae te beantwoord. <![CDATA[<b>Theological training in the black Reformed Churches in South Africa (RCSA)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article presents a historic analysis of theological training in the black Reformed Churches in South Africa (RCSA) - Southland Synod (Coloured), Synod Midlands (black) and Synod Soutpansberg (black) - and highlights the major trends with regard to theological training. Four phases are identified: (1) 1910-1951, informal training of evangelists and ministers on a local basis; (2) 1952-1960, the beginning of formal training of ministers and evangelists; (3) 1961-1989, training under the 1961 Theological Training Policy for the black RCSA; and (4) 1990 to today, theological training in the black RCSA in the context of the new South Africa.<hr/>Die artikel bied 'n historiese ontleding van teologiese opleiding in die swart Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika - Suidland Sinode (Kleurling), Middellande Sinode (swart) en Soutpansberg Sinode (swart) - en beklemtoon die belangrikste tendense met betrekking tot teologiese opleiding. Vier fases word in die artikel geidentifiseer: (1) 1910-1951, informele opleiding van evangeliste en leraars op 'n plaaslike basis; (2) 1952-1960, die begin van die formele opleiding van predikante en evangeliste; (3) 1961-1989, opleiding onder die 1961 Teologiese Opleidingsbeleid in die swart GKSA; en (4) 1990 tot vandag, teologiese opleiding in die swart GKSA in die konteks van die nuwe Suid-Afrika. <![CDATA[<b>What is 'the sign of the Son of man in heaven' (Mt 24:30)?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es What does the 'sign of the Son of man in heaven' in Matthew 24:30 denote? In broad terms, there are two ways to interpret the phrase. Firstly, that the coming of the Son of man in the clouds is the 'sign of the Son of man' and the phrase explains the sign, much like lightning is depicted as a sign in Matthew 24:27. Secondly, the sign is interpreted in terms of various objects that will precede the coming of the Son of man. What is the significance of the term, 'the sign of the Son of man?' In the discussion the phrase juxtaposed with its context in the Gospel, the apocalyptic discourse with its judgement on the established religious institution of the Jews as represented by the temple in Jerusalem, before its exegesis is discussed. The purpose is to describe the possible denotations for 'the sign in heaven of the Son of man'.<hr/>Waarop dui die 'teken van die Seun van die mens in die hemel' in Mattheus 24:30? Breedweg is daar twee maniere om die frase te interpreteer. In die eerste plek is die koms van die Seun van die mens in die wolke die 'teken van die Seun van die mens'; die frase verduidelik die teken soos weerlig as 'n teken soos dit in Mattheus 24:27 gebruik word. Tweedens kan die teken geïnterpreteer word ten opsigte van die verskillende voorwerpe wat die koms van die Seun van die mens voorafgaan. Wat is die betekenis van die term, 'die teken van die Seun van die mens?' In die bespreking word die frase teenoor sy konteks in die Evangelie geplaas, naamlik Jesus se apokaliptiese diskoers met sy oordeel oor die gevestigde godsdienstige instelling van die Jode soos deur die tempel in Jerusalem verteenwoordig is. Hierna word die eksegese van die teks bespreek. Die doel is om die moontlike denotasies van 'die teken in die hemel van die Seun van die mens' te beskryf. <![CDATA[<b>Reading Matthew 13 as a prophetic discourse: The four parables presented in public</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article proposes that the task of Jesus' disciples could be to juxtapose new and old unconditional prophecies concerning the kingdom of heaven. Matthew 13 can be read as a prophetic discourse and specific, prophetic referents are identified to gain insight into the prophecies contained in these parables. From a pre-millennial perspective, the kingdom of heaven is seen to exist in terms of the New Covenant in a spiritual sense from the cross of Christ onwards, but it will also be established in a literal sense in terms of the Davidic Covenant when Christ returns. This article discusses the four parables of Matthew 13 that were presented in public.<hr/>Hierdie artikel stel voor dat dit die taak van Jesus se dissipels sou kon wees om nuwe en ou onvoorwaardelike profesieë oor die koninkryk van die hemele met mekaar te vergelyk. Matteus 13 kan as 'n profetiese diskoers gelees word en spesifieke, profetiese referente word ge'identifiseer om die profesieë in hierdie gelykenisse te begryp. Vanuit 'n pre-millenniale perspektief blyk dit dat die koninkryk van die hemele in 'n geestelike sin in terme van die Nuwe Verbond vanaf Christus se kruis en daarna bestaan, maar dit sal ook in 'n letterlike sin tot stand kom in terme van die Dawidiese Verbond wanneer Christus terugkeer. Hierdie artikel bespreek die vier gelykenisse van Matteus 13 wat in die openbaar aangebied is. <![CDATA[<b>Reading Matthew 13 as a prophetic discourse: The four parables presented in private</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The task of Jesus' disciples might be to juxtapose 'new and old' unconditional prophecies of the kingdom of heaven. After describing its setting, the four parables in Matthew 13, presented in private, are considered from a pre-millennial perspective. The parable of the hidden treasure may indicate how Jesus Christ first authenticates and then hides his authority and power to rule as King in terms of the Davidic Covenant over the literal Davidic kingdom - before he then goes to the cross. Having been to the cross, the parable of the pearl merchant may show how the first, spiritual phase of the kingdom commences when Christ Jesus starts his pearl ministry as High Priest in terms of the New Covenant. The parable of the dragnet has in view the transition from the spiritual phase of the kingdom into its future phase. An overview of the four privately given parables of Matthew 13 is then provided. After this a summary of the new and old prophecies contained in the eight parables of Matthew 13 is presented, followed by the conclusion.<hr/>Die taak van Jesus se dissipels sou kon wees om 'nuwe en ou' onvoorwaardelike profesieë van die koninkryk van die hemele met mekaar te vergelyk. Nadat die konteks beskryf is, word die vier gelykenisse in Matteus 13 wat privaat aangebied is vanuit 'n pre-millenniale perspektief oorweeg. Die gelykenis van die verborge skat sou kon aantoon hoe Jesus Christus sy gesag en mag om as Koning in terme van die Dawidiese Verbond oor die letterlike Dawidiese koninkryk te regeer, eers bevestig en dan verberg - waarna Hy kruis toe gaan. Nadat Hy gekruisig is, sou die gelykenis van die pêrelkoper kon aantoon hoe die eerste, geestelike fase van die koninkryk 'n aanvang neem as Christus Jesus sy pêrelbediening as Hoëpriester in terme van die Nuwe Verbond begin. Die gelykenis van die net toon die oorgang van die geestelike fase van die koninkryk van die hemele na die toekomstige letterlike fase. 'n Oorsig oor die vier gelykenisse van Matteus 13 wat privaat aangebied is, word dan verskaf. Daarna word 'n opsomming van die nuwe en ou profesieë wat die agt gelykenisse van Matteus 13 bevat gegee, gevolg deur die slot. <![CDATA[<b>Bread: From grain to life. Validating the use of metaphor</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Metaphors have always lent strength to human communication. A closer examination will reveal their value for theological conversation, in particular as a vehicle for meaning. Meaning includes both linguistic and cognitive aspects. Bread has been a favourite subject of metaphor. When the concept bread is viewed metaphorically in the context of the Bible, it becomes evident that it transcends the usual boundaries set by metaphorical understanding. Bread, as metaphor, becomes a vehicle of transition from grain to spiritual life. This is possible because metaphor in the Bible is to be understood within the context of special revelation of God, the story of the Bible.<hr/>Metafore versterk kommunikasie tussen mense. Nadere ondersoek openbaar die waarde van metafore vir teologiese gesprek, en in besonder as 'n spreekbuis vir betekenis. Betekenis sluit taalkundige sowel as kognitiewe aspekte in. Brood is 'n algemene begrip wat in metafore gebruik word. Wanneer die begrip brood metafories in bybelse konteks gebruik word, oortref dit gewoonlik die gewone gebruiksbegrensing daarvan. Brood as metafoor kan ook gesien word as die oorgangsmedium van graan tot geestelike lewe omdat metafore in die Bybel binne die konteks van 'n spesiale openbaring van God verstaan moet word - die storie van die Bybel. <![CDATA[<b>Eschatological hope in Haggai: A homiletic reading</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In this article historical research into Haggai's eschatological sayings (Hg 2:6-9, 20-23) is combined with a homiletic approach to these two sayings, employing a canon-historical methodology. First, Haggai's silence about the past of the, in 539 BC returned, exiles is investigated. His evaluation of this period will be compared with the one by Ezra-Nehemiah. His emphasis on the present time as decision time with a view to the eschatological future, will be examined. Attention will be given to the role the rebuilt temple played in his prophecies, and the kind of contribution he made to prophetic eschatology. Secondly, the homiletic approach to Haggai's eschatological sayings requires a canonical reflection on their relationship with the New Testament eschatology with a view to strengthen the community of faith's eschatological prospects in the present time.<hr/>In hierdie artikel word 'n historiese ondersoek na Haggai se eskatologiese uitsprake (Hag 2:6-9, 20-23) met 'n homiletiese benadering tot albei uitsprake gekombineer met behulp van 'n kanon-historiese metodologie. Eerstens word Haggai se stilswye oor die verlede van die teruggekeerde ballinge van voor 522 v.C. ondersoek en met die beoordeling van dieselfde tydperk deur Esra-Nehemia vergelyk. Sy nadruk op die huidige tyd as beslissingstyd met die oog op die eskatologiese toekoms word bestudeer. Aandag word ook aan die rol geskenk wat die tempel in sy profesieë gespeel het en watter bydrae hy tot die profetiese eskatologie gemaak het. Tweedens vereis die homiletiese benadering van die eskatologiese uitsprake in Haggai om vanuit 'n kanonieke oogpunt op die verhouding met die Nuwe-Testamentiese eskatologie te reflekteer, met die doel om die geloofsgemeenskap se eskatologiese verwagtings in die huidige tyd te versterk. <![CDATA[<b>Daniel Dragonslayer - Bel and the dragon, Verses 23-27 (OG/Th)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100015&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In this article, aspects of narrative critique, genre, editorial critique, the body and space are uniquely combined into a body-space framework. This spatial framework is used to examine the second episode of 'Bel and the Dragon', called 'Daniel Dragonslayer'. It is postulated that the second episode of 'Bel and the Dragon' should be read in a reciprocal relationship with not only 'Bel and the Dragon', but also the larger Book of Daniel. Firstly, such an analysis indicates that the smaller episode is part of a larger clash of deities. Secondly, it shows that the editor / author utilises the episode to create a new cosmology. In this new cosmology, the Jewish deity is an almighty one, whilst other deities are seen as false and not real living gods. In his own way, the editor or author contributes to the way in which Jews regarded their God within the reality of the diaspora.<hr/>In hierdie artikel word aspekte van narratiewe-kritiek, genre, redaksie-kritiek, die liggaam en ruimte op 'n unieke wyse gekombineer om 'n beliggaamde ruimteraamwerk te vorm. Hierdie beliggaamde ruimteraamwerk word gebruik om die tweede episode van 'Bel en die Draak', naamlik 'Daniel, die Draakjagter', te analiseer. Die artikel stel voor dat hierdie tweede episode van 'Bel en die Draak' in 'n resiproke verhouding met 'Bel en die Draak', sowel as met die boek Daniël gelees moet word. Indien die teks op hierdie voorgestelde wyse ontleed word, kom verskeie punte na vore. Eerstens word aangedui dat die kleiner episode deel van 'n groter gode-oorlog vorm. Tweedens, die skrywer/redakteur gebruik die kleiner episode as deel van 'n proses om 'n nuwe kosmologie te skep. Volgens hierdie nuwe kosmologie is die Joodse God 'n almagtige God, terwyl ander gode vals en nie ware lewende gode is nie. Op sy eie manier lewer die skrywer/redakteur 'n bydrae tot die ontwikkeling van die Jode se godsbeskouing tydens die diaspora. <![CDATA[<b>Matthew 13 and the feasts of the LORD</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100016&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es After summarising the results of reading Matthew 13 as a prophetic discourse containing 'new and old' prophecies that have been, or will still be, literally fulfilled, this article links the parables of Matthew 13 to the prophetic and typological fulfilment of the feasts of the Lord.<hr/>Na 'n samevatting van die resultate van 'n interpretasie van Matteus 13 as 'n profetiese diskoers wat 'nuwe en ou' profesieë bevat wat letterlik vervul is of nog vervul gaan word, word die verband tussen die gelykenisse van Matteus 13 en die profetiese en tipologiese vervulling van die feeste van die Here aangetoon. <![CDATA[<b>Nestorian 'merchant missionaries' - A model for Christian Chinese migrants</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100017&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Both the Old and New Testament lay a foundation for the role of migrants in God's mission, missio Dei. With the unprecedented rise of the Global South to prominence in the world mission enterprise, China is poised to play a major role in fulfilling the Great Commission Mandate. Already Christian Chinese migrants are in many countries, possibly in over 140 countries of the world, including many of the unreached, unengaged people groups. The Nestorians, also called 'merchant missionaries', were amongst the first to take the gospel to China. They can serve as a methodological mission model, using some basic biblical principles, to help Christian Chinese migrants today, especially the Wenzhou businessmen, to fulfil their apostolic role in world mission.<hr/>Sowel die Ou as die Nuwe Testament lê 'n fondament vir die rol van nomades (rondtrekkendes) in God se missie (missio Dei). Met die Globale Suide se ongeëwenaarde toename in prominensie ten opsigte van die onderneming van wêreldsending, is China gereed om 'n hoofrol in die verwesenliking van die Groot Sendingopdrag te vertolk. Chinese Christen nomades is alreeds in 140 lande van die wêreld besig, waarvan baie tussen die onbereikte, onbesette mensegroepe is. Die Nestoriane, of 'kooplui-sendelinge', was van die eerste sendelinge wat die evangelie na China geneem het. Hulle voorbeeld kan as 'n sendingmodel dien om Chinese Christen nomades te help, veral die Wenzhou-sakemanne, om hulle apostoliese rol in wêreldsending te vervul. <![CDATA[<b>Kuyper's</b><b> razor?</b><b> rethinking science and religion, trinitarian scholarship and God's eternity</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100018&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article explores three research fields in contemporary Christian scholarship and argues that the way they are approached is often questionable due to the basic assumptions, the methods or the implications. The following allegations are proposed. Research on the relationship between religion and science is based on a framework of assumptions which does not reflect the biblical standpoint properly. Trinitarian scholarship expects too much from the presumed correspondence between Trinity and created reality, whilst it tends to neglect other resources available to Christian scholarship. Scientific reflection on God's eternity is speculative in as much as it tries to transcend the modal horizon of knowledge. In these three cases (other cases are also briefly mentioned) it is argued that 'Kuyper's razor' (an approach promoted in the Kuyperian reformational tradition) would help rethinking research in these areas.<hr/>Hierdie artikel verken drie navorsingsterreine in die kontemporêre Christelike wetenskap en voer aan dat die manier waarop hulle benader word dikwels bedenklik is weens basiese aannames, die metodes of die implikasies daarvan. Die volgende kritiek word voorgestel. Navorsing oor die verhouding tussen religie en wetenskap is op 'n raamwerk van aannames gebaseer wat nie 'n behoorlike weerspieëling van die skriftuurlike standpunt is nie. Trinitariese navorsing verwag te veel van die veronderstelde ooreenkoms tussen die Drie-eenheid en die geskape werklikheid, terwyl dit neig om ander hulpbronne wat vir die Christelike wetenskap beskikbaar is, te verwaarloos. Wetenskaplike besinning oor God se ewigheid is spekulatief vir sover dit poog om die modale horison van kennis te transendeer. Dit word aangevoer dat 'Kuyper se skalpel' ('n benadering wat in die Kuyperiaans-reformatoriese tradisie bevorder word) sal help om navorsing in hierdie drie gevalle (ander gevalle word ook kortliks genoem) te heroorweeg. <![CDATA[<b>The Jewish Setting of the Epistle of James</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100019&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Many older commentators understood the Epistle of James to address itself to Jews of the diaspora, whether Christian or not. Although few modern scholars have seriously reckoned with this possibility, much is to be said for the thesis. It makes sense for example of important features of the epistle that otherwise would remain unclear, such as its dearth of explicit Christology, its seeming lack of distinctive Christian sentiments, and its thoroughly Jewish orientation. The author was a Jewish Christian still hoping for a Christian place within the Jewish synagogue; he wished for irenic relations with those who did not confess Jesus to be the Messiah. He was thus intentionally quiescent about much for apologetical purposes, a strategy with clear parallels in other ancient Christian literature.<hr/>Die Jakobusbrief is deur baie van die ouer kommentaarskrywers gesien as 'n selfverklarende geskrif aan die Jode van die diaspora - hetsy Christene of nie-Christene. Hoewel van die moderne navorsers heelhartig daarmee saamstem, bestaan daar heelwat twyfel oor hierdie siening. Dit maak egter sin ten opsigte van sekere belangrike beskrywings van die brief wat andersins onverklaarbaar sou wees soos die gebrek aan uitdruklike Christologie, die skynbare gebrek aan kenmerkende Christelike sentimente en die grondige Joodse oriëntering daarvan. Die skrywer was 'n Joodse Christen wat steeds gehoop het vir erkenning binne die Joodse sinagoge en versoenende verhoudings met diegene wat nie vir Jesus as die Messias erken het nie, verlang het. Dus was hy met voorbedagde rade baie stil oor baie dinge om apologetiese redes - 'n strategie wat duidelike parallelle met ander antieke Christelike literatuur toon. <![CDATA[<b>An attempt to define the constitutive elements of a pentecostal spirituality</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100020&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Pentecostal spirituality is defined as the integration of beliefs and practices into the affections that are themselves evoked and expressed by those practices and beliefs. This article investigates these practices and beliefs by examining pentecostal publications to define the most important constitutive elements of a pentecostal spirituality. The most important theological beliefs are justification by faith in Christ, sanctification as a second definite work of grace, healing as provided in the atonement, the premillennial second coming of Christ, and the baptism in the Spirit. However, when these theological beliefs are translated into pentecostal practice, it seems that their spirituality is essentially biblical, apocalyptical eschatological, missional, and affective. These elements are discussed in order to attempt to define the constitutive elements of a pentecostal spirituality.<hr/>Pinksterspiritualiteit kan gedefinieer word as die integrasie van oortuigings en praktyke in die gevoelens wat deur daardie praktyke en oortuigings uitgelok en uitgedruk word. Die artikel ondersoek die praktyke en oortuigings deur na publikasies vanuit Pinkstergeledere te kyk ten einde die belangrikste samestellende elemente van 'n Pinksterspiritualiteit te definieer. Die belangrikste teologiese leerstellings is regverdiging deur die geloof in Christus, heiligmaking as 'n tweede besliste werk van genade, genesing as deel van die versoeningswerk, die verwagting van die premillennialistiese tweede koms van Christus, en die doop in die Heilige Gees. Wanneer die teologiese leerstellings in die Pinksterpraktyk vertaal word, blyk dit dat die spiritualiteit in wese bybels, apokalipties-eskatologies, missionaal en affektief is. Hierdie elemente word bespreek in 'n poging om die essensiële elemente van 'n Pinksterspiritualiteit te definieer. <![CDATA[<b>Little faith: A pragmatic-linguistic perspective on Matthew's portrayal of Jesus' disciples</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100021&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article argues that fear is central to the state of being of Jesus' disciples when their religious experience is characterised as 'little faith' in the Gospel of Matthew. A pragmatic-linguistic reading strategy is applied to that passage in the Gospel of Matthew where the implications of fear for the experiences of the disciples can be observed most clearly, namely Matthew 13:53-17:27. In this passage their state of being is described as 'little faith' and it is conveyed that the integrity of the disciples' commission would not be accepted by their hearers unless they overcome their fear.<hr/>Die artikel voer aan dat vrees sentraal in die eksistensiële belewenis van Jesus se dissipels staan wanneer hulle godsdienstige ervaring in die Evangelie van Matteus as kleingeloof gekarakteriseer word. 'n Pragmaties-linguistiese leesstrategie word op die betrokke gedeelte, Matteus 13:53-17:27, toegepas waar die implikasies van vrees in die dissipels se ervaring die duidelikste waargeneem kan word. Hulle eksistensiële belewenis word as kleingelowig beskryf en dit word duidelik gekommunikeer dat die integriteit van hulle opdrag om disssipels van ander mense te maak, nie deur die hoorders aanvaar sal word alvorens hulle hulle vrees oorwin het nie. <![CDATA[<b>Moral considerations concerning income inequality</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100022&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The income inequality evident today has reached ethically unwarranted levels. In the Old and New Testament the Bible teaches us that disparity in wealth ought to meet the norms of justice and equity. Differences in income must be proportional to differences in the workers' performance and the responsibilities they assume. Employers and trade unions have the duty to ensure that these boundaries are respected. The government's obligation is to take measures against the abuse of power monopolies, but it does not have to pursue income equality as such. Finally, where greed still rules society, Christians have the task to model a different life.<hr/>In die hedendaagse samelewing kan aansienlike inkomsteverskille nie eties verantwoord word nie. In sowel die Ou as Nuwe Testament leer die Bybel ons dat verskille in inkomste aan die norm van regverdigheid en billikheid moet voldoen. Inkomsteverskille moet in 'n sinvolle verhouding tot die verskil in prestasie en verantwoordelikheid staan. Werkgewers en vakbonde moet in hierdie opsig die nodige grense in stand hou. Die owerheid kan maatreëls instel teen die wanpraktyke van magsmonopolieë, maar nie teen inkomste-ongelykhede as sulks nie. Wanneer hebsug die botoon in 'n samelewing voer, is dit die taak van Christene om 'n eie lewenstyl te handhaaf.<hr/>In de hedendaagse maatschappij zijn de inkomensverschillen groter dan ethisch verantwoord is. Het Oude en Nieuwe Testament van de Bijbel leren dat financiële verhoudingen moeten voldoen aan de normen van rechtvaardigheid en billijkheid. Inkomensverschillen moeten in redelijke verhouding staan tot het verschil in prestatie en verantwoordelijkheid. Werkgevers en vakorganisaties moeten hier de verantwoorde grenzen bewaken. De overheid neemt maatregelen tegen misbruik van machtsmonopolies ten eigen bate, maar voor haar is nivellering niet een doel op zich. En als in de maatschappij de hebzucht nog de boventoon voert, is het de taak van christenen hier een eigen stijl te vertonen. <![CDATA[<b>A rhetorical analysis of Romans 9:1-10:4</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100023&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die artikel is 'n poging om Paulus se retoriese strategie uit die teks self te rekonstrueer, eerder as om 'n klassieke of moderne retoriese model op die teks toe te pas. 'n Voorstel vir so 'n teksgesentreerde benadering word kortliks opgesom, gevolg deur 'n beskrywing van die retoriese situasie wat Paulus in die brief wil ondersoek. Daar word geargumenteer dat Romeine 9:1-10:4 'n integrale deel van Paulus se retoriese strategie vorm met die doel om sy gehoor te oortuig om sy siening van God se verlossingsplan, asook sy beoogde sending na Spanje te steun. In die proses van oorreding gebruik hy verskillende soorte argumente en retoriese tegnieke om die trefkrag van sy kommunikasie te verhoog. Die gevolgtrekking is dat 'n teksgesentreerde benadering (met fokus op die funksionele aspekte van die teks) 'n beter alternatief as die bestaande benaderings (met fokus op die formele aspekte van die teks) bied.<hr/>This article is an attempt to reconstruct Paul's rhetorical strategy from the text itself, rather than applying ancient or modern rhetorical models to his letters. A proposal for such a text-centred approach is briefly summarised, followed by a discussion of the rhetorical situation that Paul wants to address in this letter. It is argued that Romans 9:1-10:4 forms an integral part of his rhetorical strategy, aimed at persuading his audience in Rome to support his view on God's plan of salvation as well as his forthcoming mission to Spain. In the process of persuasion Paul uses various types of argument and rhetorical techniques to enhance the impact of his communication. The conclusion is that a text-centred approach (with its focus on the functional aspects of the text) provides a better alternative to existing approaches (which focus on the formal aspects of the text). <![CDATA[<b>Wisdom's rebellion: Kingdom politics as a guerrilla drama</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100024&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article aims at exploring kingdom politics in South Africa as a guerrilla drama, not only of a contemporary play of wisdom as human virtue, but specifically in the form of the personified Wisdom's play (cf. Christ's parable of the children on the marketplace; Lk 7). Firstly, it investigates the availability of hermeneutical space for such an enterprise, attending to the concept of rebellion vis-à-vis a scripture-based, imaginative, theodramatic articulation of the Wisdom's play of the parable. Secondly, the public space for the enactment of such a 'wisdom's rebellion' is probed. It should not be neutrally indifferent to, but positively advancing of, the nearly universally accepted 'golden rule'. The public space should, in the public imagination, be seen and treated as a kind of public theatre, hospitable to a plurality of worldviews, each freely and imaginatively enacting its own political alternatives before the critical eyes of a democratic voting public. A follow-up article will attempt to outline the difference it might make to the human dignity of the participants (actors) and in their humane political actions (theodramatic roles), if they can imagine themselves as performing (not only theorising about and not only feeling passionately about) wisdom's subversive play of God's kingdom in South Africa.<hr/>Hierdie artikel stel ondersoek in na koninkrykspolitiek in Suid-Afrika as 'n guerrilladrama wat die vorm van 'n wysheidspel aanneem; nie alleen 'n eietydse spel van wysheid as 'n menslike deug nie, maar veral as spel van die gepersonifieerde Wysheid (vgl. Christus se gelykenis van die kinders wat op die markplein speel; Luk 7). Eerstens word na die beskikbaarheid van 'n hermeneutiese ruimte vir so 'n onderneming gevra. Daarby word aandag geskenk aan die konsep van rebellie in verband met 'n skriftuurlik gefundeerde, verbeeldingryke, teodramatiese uitwerking van Wysheid se spel na aanleiding van die genoemde gelykenis. Tweedens word die publieke ruimte vir 'Wysheid se rebellie' heuristies afgetas. Hierdie ruimte mag nie neutraal-onverskillig wees nie, maar moet positief-bevorderend staan teenoor die feitlik universeel-aanvaarde 'goue reël'. Die publieke ruimte moet in die publieke verbeelding as 'n soort publieke teater gesien en hanteer word, waar 'n pluraliteit van wêreldbeskouings gasvry verwelkom word sodat elkeen vrylik en verbeeldingryk, tussen die ander, sy eie politieke alternatief voor 'n kritiese, demokratiese kieserskorps kan 'uitbeeld'. 'n Opvolg artikel sal probeer aantoon watter verskil dit aan die menslike waardigheid van die deelnemers (akteurs) en aan hulle menswaardige politieke aksies kan maak, wanneer hulle in hulle verbeelding hulleself nie net as denkers oor of passievol-voelendende deelnemers van Wysheid se subversiewe drama van God se koninkryk in Suid-Afrika beskou nie. <![CDATA[<b>The history of the interpretation of Matthew: Lessons learned</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100025&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Scholars pay attention to the history of interpretation of biblical texts and of their reception for multiple good reasons. This essay urges that, in addition to the reasons typically offered, careful Wirkungsgeschichte can sometimes bring to light credible exegetical and historical proposals that were once in the commentary tradition but dropped out for no apparent or good reason. Such proposals need to be restored to the tradition. I shall offer several illustrations, including the old association of Matthew 5:21-26 with the sacrifice of Cain and Abel and the ancient linking of Matthew 9:20-21 and 14:36 with the prophecy of Malachi 4:2 ('The Son of Righteousness will arise with healing in his wings'). The article also, however, draws attention to some of the limitations of Wirkungsgeschichte for historical exegesis.<hr/>Navorsers skenk aan die interpretasiegeskiedenis van bybelse tekste en die ontvangs van die verskillende tekste om verskeie redes aandag. Hierdie artikel toon aan dat, behalwe vir redes wat normaalweg aangebied word, 'n noukeurige 'Wirkungsgeschichte' soms geloofwaardige eksegetiese en historiese voorstelle na vore kan bring wat tevore wel tot die kommentaretradisie behoort het, maar gaandeweg in onbruik verval het. Sodanige voorstelle behoort weer tot die tradisie toegevoeg te word. Ter stawing hiervan kan verskeie voorbeelde genoem word soos die bekende assosiasie van Matteus 5:21-26 met die offer van Kain en Abel en die oeroue koppeling van Matteus 9:20-21 en 14:36 met die profesie van Maleagi 4:2 ('Die son van geregtigheid sal verrys met genesing in sy vleuels'). Hierdie artikel vestig egter ook die aandag op sekere beperkings van die 'Wirkungsgeschichte' vir die historiese eksegese. <![CDATA[<b>The nature of the law's fulfilment in Matthew 5:17: An exegetical and theological study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100026&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The relationship between law and gospel remains something of a conundrum for biblical scholarship. Matthew 5:17, and in particular what is meant by Jesus' having come to fulfil the law and the prophets, contributes significantly to this ongoing discussion. What precisely is meant by 'to fulfil the law and the prophets' is an exegetical enigma. Utilising an eclectic array of methods, including literary, historical and theological approaches, this article attempts to articulate the nature of fulfilment in Matthew 5:17. In addition to arguments made on the basis of historical-critical exegesis, including the discussion of the nature of πληρόω in Matthew's Gospel, the sense in which the law prophesies and the contribution of the so-called antitheses of 5:21-48, we argue that the biblical-theological theme of the Kingdom of God clarifies a salvation-historical reading of Matthew 5:17. When it is said that Jesus has come to fulfil the law and the prophets, an eschatological or salvation-historical reading shows that what the law pointed towards has arrived in the teaching and ministry of Jesus. A biblical-theological reading of the Kingdom of God helps us, however, to add a measure of precision to this statement. Jesus fulfils the law and the prophets by bringing into being what was anticipated. The law and prophets anticipated the arrival of the Kingdom of God. Fulfilment, then, should be construed in terms of this motif. Jesus fulfils the law and the prophets by inaugurating the Kingdom of God to which they pointed. This renders discussion over whether Jesus fulfils the law and the prophets through either his teaching or his activity unnecessary, since the Kingdom of God is inaugurated through both.<hr/>Die verhouding tussen die wet en die evangelie bly in 'n mate raaiselagtig ten opsigte van die bybelse wetenskap. Matteus 5:17, en veral die bedoeling van Jesus se koms om die wet en die profete te vervul, dra aansienlik by tot hierdie deurlopende bespreking. Wat presies bedoel word met 'om die wet en die profete te vervul', is 'n eksegetiese raaisel. Deur gebruik te maak van 'n eklektiese verskeidenheid van metodes wat literêre, historiese en teologiese benaderings insluit, poog hierdie artikel om die aard van die vervulling in Matteus 5:17 duidelik te omskryf. Benewens die gewone argumente, onder andere die bespreking van die aard van πληρόω in die Matteusevangelie, die profetiese mag van die wet en die bydrae van die sogenaamde teenstellings van Matteus 5:21-48 wat op die basis van histories-kritiese eksegese geopper word, word aangevoer dat die bybels-teologiese tema van die koninkryk van God die heilshistoriese lesing van Matteus 5:17 verskerp. Wanneer beweer word dat Jesus gekom het om die wet en die profete te vervul, bewys 'n eskatologiese of saligheid-historiese verstaan daarvan dat dít waarna die wet heengewys het, vervul is deur die onderrig en bediening van Jesus. 'n Bybels-teologiese verstaan van die Koninkryk van God help ons om hierdie stelling met meer noukeurigheid waar te neem. Jesus vervul die wet en die profete deur die verwagting van die koms van die Koninkryk van God te volvoer. Vervulling moet dus in terme van hierdie motief vertolk word. Jesus vervul die wet en die profete deur die vestiging van die Koninkryk van God waarna die wet en profete heenwys. Dit maak die debat oor die kwessie of dit Jesus se onderrig of sy werking was wat die wet en die profete vervul het, onnodig, omdat die Koninkryk van God deur albei gevestig is. <![CDATA[<b>The motive of forgiveness in the Gospel according to Matthew</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100027&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article explores the importance of the motif of forgiveness in the Gospel according to Matthew. It takes the arrangement (τάξις) of Matthew as an ancient biography (βίος) of Jesus as its point of departure for describing its ethics of forgiveness. The importance of the motif of forgiveness for Matthew is apparent from the relative frequency with which it is addressed in his Gospel and from the manner in which it is interwoven with his narration of the birth, ministry and death of Jesus. Thereafter the social-historical setting of the Gospel's initial readers is briefly described in terms of the external (a growing schism with formative Judaism) and internal challenges (intrapersonal conflict) they faced in an attempt to understand the reason for the prominence of the motif of forgiveness in it. Finally, Matthew's view of forgiveness is systematised by describing the different agents (God, Jesus and the disciples) of forgiveness in his Gospel. The article argues that the birth, life and death of Jesus as well as his words and deeds are integrated in a clear and compelling manner into Matthew's ethics of forgiveness. For Matthew the confession that God had forgiven his people through Jesus, is the main reason why they are compelled to forgive others.<hr/>Die artikel ondersoek die tema van vergifnis in die Evangelie volgens Matteus. Dit neem die opbou (τάξις) van Matteus as 'n antieke biografie (βίος) van Jesus as vertrekpunt vir die beskrywing van die etiek van vergifnis daarvan. Vir Matteus blyk die belangrikheid van vergifnis uit die relatiewe frekwensie waarmee dit voorkom in die Matteusevangelie en die wyse waarop dit met sy vertelling van die geboorte, bediening en dood van Jesus verweef is. Die sosio-historiese agtergrond van die Matteusevangelie se aanvanklike lesers word ook kortliks beskryf in terme van die eksterne ('n groeiende skisma met formatiewe Judaïsme) en interne uitdagings (intrapersoonlike konflik) wat hulle in die gesig gestaar het in 'n poging om die rede vir die prominensie van die vergifnistema in Matteus te bepaal. Ten slotte word Matteus se siening van vergifnis gesistematiseer deur die beskrywing van die verskillende agente (God, Jesus en die dissipels) van vergifnis in sy Evangelie. Die artikel argumenteer dat die geboorte, lewe en dood van Jesus, sowel as sy woorde en dade op 'n duidelike en oortuigende wyse in Matteus se etiek van vergifnis geïntegreer is. Vir Matteus is God se vergifnis van sy volk se sondes deur Jesus, die primêre rede waarom hulle genoodsaak is tot die vergifnis van ander se oortredings teen hulle. <![CDATA[<b>Shattering the idols: Confronting the obstinate hold of dehumanising powers on post-apartheid South Africans with the living presence of the crucified and resurrected Lord</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100028&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This practical-theological article focuses on the spiritual dimension of forces that are influencing the social fabric of post-apartheid South Africans. Working with Eswine's assumption, we reflect on the hold of idols on the hearts and minds of people. The spiritual powers at work in society develop into idols and place their own desires above God's purpose for humanity and creation. Rather than serving the ends of human life, the powers exercise dominion over human beings, restricting and dehumanising them and destroying the fabric of integrated social life by means of the blinding and hardening hold of idolatry. In the post-apartheid South African society this idolatry manifests in the illusion of power flowing from entitling oneself to self-aggrandisement and in the false sense of stability flowing from the efforts of the middle class in establishing a sophisticated first-world enclave aimed at protecting themselves from the third-world masses. The purpose is to develop the contours for a homiletic theory aimed at shattering the obstinate hold of idols by means of the prophetic act of ministering the living presence of the crucified and resurrected Christ in the hearts and minds of preachers and listeners. A theory is envisioned for an iconoclast action that originates from a different power and wisdom base than is the case with the dominating forces and the hold of their idols, namely a field of force with the integrating presence of the risen Christ at its heart; a space where a liberated and reconciled humanity will be able to flourish.<hr/>Hierdie prakties-teologiese artikel, fokus op die geestelike dimensie van magte wat in 'n post-apartheid Suid-Afrikaanse samelewing 'n invloed op die sosiale omgewing uitoefen. Die uitgangspunt van Eswine dien as aansporing vir die besinning oor die houvas wat afgode op die harte en gedagtes van gelowiges het. Die funksionering van geestelike magte in die samelewing word ondersoek. Hierdie magte verhef hulself tot afgode en plaas hulle eie begeertes bo God se wil vir die skepping en die mens. In plaas daarvan om God se wil vir die onderhouding van die menslike lewe te eerbiedig oefen hierdie magte heerskappy oor mense uit deur afgodery waardeur die geïntegreerdheid van die samelewing gedisintegreer word. Mense word verblind om die invloed van afgodery in hulle lewens te vestig. In 'n post-apartheid Suid-Afrikaanse samelewing manifesteer dit deur die illusie van mag voortvloeiend uit selfverheerliking, asook in die middelklas se koorsagtige poging om hulleself in v n gemaklike eerste-wêreldenklawe te isoleer as beskerming teen die Derdewêreldse massas. Die outeurs wil 'n homiletiese teorie vir die verydeling van afgodery ontwerp wat in die teenwoordigheid van die gekruisigde en opgestane Christus in die harte en gedagtes van hoorders gegrond is. Hierdie kragveld open 'n lewensruimte waarin gelowiges, bevry van die mag van afgodery, versoend sal kan floreer. <![CDATA[<b>Mission, migration and human development: A new approach</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100029&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Migration has been a fact of Judaeo-Christian life since the days when Abram left Ur of the Chaldeans to find God's promised land. It has become a far greater reality since the late 20th century, mainly as a result of wars, intranational conflicts, and natural disasters. As a result we have to deal with a larger number of internally or externally displaced persons (migrants) in Africa at the beginning of the 21st century than ever before. At the same time Africa reports on record numbers in terms of church growth. It is therefore clear that migration and Christian mission to migrants are serious items on the agenda of Christian mission in Africa. The article argues that migration is largely a result of a growing phenomenon of dehumanisation in Africa and worldwide: people tend to regard other people no longer as fellow human beings, created in the image of God. For this reason a very important missionary responsibility is to promote humanisation according to the gospel proclaimed by the new human being, Jesus of Nazareth. This calls for human development of migrants as well as indigenous Christians. It is my contention that the Christian community in Africa has not yet grasped this missionary vocation as it should have. Therefore, the article argues that Christian mission in Africa faces the task of humanising relationships between indigenous Christians and other migrants, and that this can be done through a well-developed programme of human development in which both migrants and indigenous Christians should participate.<hr/>Migrasie is 'n realiteit van die Judese-Christelike lewe sedert Abram Ur van die Galdeërs verlaat het om God se beloofde land te vind. Dit het egter 'n groter realiteit geword sedert die laat twintigste eeu hoofsaaklik as gevolg van oorloë, intranasionale konflik en natuurrampe. As gevolg hiervan moes daar na 'n groter getal migrante in Afrika omgesien word aan die begin van die een-en-twintigste eeu as ooit tevore. In dieselfde periode het die kerk in Afrika met rekordgetalle gegroei. Dit behoort duidelik te wees dat migrasie en Christensending aan migrante hoog op die agenda van Christensending in Afrika behoort te wees. Hierdie artikel spruit voort uit die veronderstelling dat migrasie hoofsaaklik die gevolg van die groeiende verskynsel van verontmensliking (dehumanisering) in Afrika en wêreldwyd is, naamlik om ander mense nie as die beeld van God te erken nie. Om hierdie rede is dit die verantwoordelikheid van sending om menslike ontwikkeling aan die hand van die evangelie, soos dit deur die nuwe mens, Jesus van Nasaret verkondig is, te bevorder. Dit is 'n roeping wat geldend is ten opsigte van migrante sowel as plaaslike Christene. Hierdie artikel veronderstel dat die Christelike gemeenskap nog nie hierdie sendingroeping na behore verstaan nie en sien die taak van sending in Afrika daarom as die vermensliking (humanisering) van die verhouding tussen plaaslike Christene en ander migrante. Hierdie doel kan verwesenlik word deur 'n behoorlik ontwikkelde program van menslike ontwikkeling waarin sowel migrante as Christene moet deel hê. <![CDATA[<b>'Met hart en mond en hande': Die integrale bediening van Woord en daad volgens 'n <i>missio Dei</i>-perspektief</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100030&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die Sendingwetenskap, kerke en sendingorganisasies dink wêreldwyd opnuut na oor die bybelse fundering vir die integrasie van Woord en daad in die verkondiging van die evangelie. Die Lausanne-beweging het 'n kongres in Kaapstad gehou, waar 4200 kerkleiers van 198 lande vanaf 16 tot 25 Oktober 2010 vergader het. Die program het besinnings ingesluit oor hoe om kwessies soos armoede, ongeregtigheid en die voorspoed-teologie skrifgetrou te hanteer. Die Miga-netwerk is 'n groeiende wêreldwye koalisie van kerke en organisasies wat hulle in die lig van Miga 6:8 tot die uitbou van integrale sending verbind. Die Gospel Coalition is 'n netwerk van teoloë wat hulle daartoe verbind het om gelowiges te stimuleer sodat hulle geloof in die evangelie van Christus verdiep. Die doel is ook dat bedieningspraktyke 'n teosentriese en Christosentriese fokus vertoon. Hierdie koalisie het verskeie debatte oor aspekte van integrale sending in hulle mondstuk, Themelios, gepubliseer. Die World Reformed Fellowship het in hulle geloofsverklaring duidelik gestel dat gelowiges uit gehoorsaamheid aan die opdrag van God met twee hande na alle mense moet uitreik, naamlik die hand wat hulle roep om hulle sonde te bely, om te glo en só die ewige versoening met God deur Christus te ontvang, en tweedens die hand wat deur dade van dankbaarheid en deernis die goedheid van God se koninkryk in die naam van Christus na vore bring.Verskeie missiologiese publikasies het onlangs verskyn wat uitdruklik oor integrale en dus die behoefte aan holistiese sending handel.<hr/>Missiological reflection indicates that mission organisations and churches worldwide, are reconsidering the biblical foundations of the integration of Word and deed when proclaiming the Gospel. The Lausanne Movement held its global congress in Cape Town, where 4200 church leaders of 198 countries gathered from 16 to 25 October in 2010. The program also included in-depth discussions on dealing in a valid biblical way with issues such as poverty, social justice and prosperity gospel theology. The Micah Network is a growing global coalition consisting of churches and organisations that committed themselves in the light of Micah 6:8 to promote integral mission. The Gospel Coalition is a network of theologians who are committed to stimulate Christian believers in order to deepen their faith in die gospel of Christ. Their aim is that ministry and missionary practice should reflect a Theocentric and Christ-centred vision. This coalition also published several debates in their mouthpiece, Themelios, on aspects of integral mission. The World Reformed Fellowship made it clear in its statement of faith that Christians, in obedience to the commission of our God, have to present two hands to all people, namely the hand calling them to repentance, faith and eternal reconciliation with God through Christ, and secondly, the hand manifesting deeds of mercy and compassion, extending the goodness of God's kingdom on earth in the name of Christ. Several missiological publications have recently been published that explicitly deals with the integration of Word and deeds and the need for holistic missions. Forum discussions and blogs on the Internet are debating whether to embrace, or to reject the concept of integral missions on biblical grounds. This article attempts to make a contribution to the debates by analysing a few key biblical terms in which God reveals himself through the integration of Word and deeds. Thus this calls for a holistic approach in missions, in which people's words and deeds should not be separated when proclaiming the gospel. <![CDATA[<b>Spiritual transformation: Reaching and equipping Sub-Saharan African children</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100031&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Whenever a person engages with a child, the engagement is not neutral - it is 'for better or for worse'. A fair question would be why Christians must reach and equip Africa's children for spiritual transformation. By giving a missional perspective in an attempt to answer the question, this article wants to contribute to the development of an African child and youth theology. In the first part of the article, a specific understanding of theology and how it is practised, is described. Understanding and reaching children are put within a specific theological and missiological understanding also of the local faith community. From a missiological perspective the second part of the article makes use of Christian anthropology to understand Africa's children's context and how the local faith community can equip them spiritually. The third part deals with the concept of spiritual transformation as a process, and the role of the local faith community within this process.<hr/>Indien 'n persoon by 'n kind betrokke raak, is hierdie betrokkenheid nooit 'n neutrale gebeurtenis nie. Daarom is dit billik om te vra hoekom Christene na kinders in Afrika moet uitreik vir geestelike transformasie? In 'n poging om die vraag te beantwoord, verskaf die artikel 'n missiologiese perspektief in 'n poging om 'n bydrae tot die ontwikkeling van 'n Afrika kinder- en jeugteologie te lewer. Die eerste gedeelte van die artikel beskryf die verstaan van teologie en hoe dit bedryf word. Die verstaan van, en uitreik na kinders in die Afrikakonteks, asook die plaaslike geloofsgemeenskap word binne hierdie spesifieke missionale teologiese verstaan beskryf. In die tweede gedeelte van die artikel word daar vanuit die missiologiese perspektief gebruik gemaak van 'n Christelike antropologiese perspektief om die konteks van Afrikakinders te verstaan, asook die manier van geestelike toerusting deur die plaaslike geloofsgemeenskap. Die derde gedeelte van die artikel bespreek geestelike transformasie as 'n proses, asook die rol van die plaaslike geloofsgemeenskap in hierdie proses. <![CDATA[<b>Divine empowerment: The Holy Spirit and church revitalisation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100032&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es How do principles of church revitalisation correlate with the divine work of the Holy Spirit? This article argues that the Spirit is the primary agent of church revitalisation, and church leaders should cooperate with the Spirit as he works for revitalisation. Thus the Spirit empowers church leaders who are used by him to revive, renew, and revitalise a church community. After briefly defining the Spirit's empowerment with biblical examples, this article examines the underlying principles of empowerment for church leaders, followed by briefly considering methodology for church revitalisation. The author concludes by suggesting several signs of biblical empowerment in a local church community.<hr/>Watter plek beklee die goddelike werking van die Heilige Gees in die beginsels van kerkherstel? Hierdie artikel poneer dat die Heilige Gees die primêre agent is om nuwe lewe in die kerk te bring en kerkleiers behoort onder leiding van die Heilige Gees hulle hiervoor te beywer. Die Heilige Gees bemagtig dus die kerkleiers wat Hy gebruik om 'n kerklike gemeenskap te laat herleef, te vernuwe en hulle te besiel met lewenskragtigheid. Die Gees se bemagtiging word kortliks aan die hand van bybelse voorbeelde gedefineer, waarna die grondliggende beginsels vir die bemagtiging van die kerkleiers ondersoek word. Daarna word die metodologie om nuwe lewenskrag in die kerk te bring kortliks oorweeg. Die outeur sluit af deur verskeie tekens uit te lig wat op skriftuurlike bemagtiging van die Heilige Gees in die plaaslike kerkgemeenskap dui. <![CDATA[<b>The understanding and the use of the term <i>Allah </i>as a term for God in translations of the Bible and the Qur'an with specific reference to the Talysh speakers of Azerbaijan</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100033&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The term Allah is a term that quite often evokes strong negative emotions in the Western world. Since both the Bible and the Qur'an are being translated into Talysh, it is worth evaluating what term to use for God, and whether it would have a negative effect or not to use the term Allah in these translations. Suggestions are made from a Western point of view that Tanri, a Turkish term for God, would be a better term to use than Allah, as the term for the word God in translations of the Bible. The Qur'an as well as some Bible translations use the term Allah, which is one of the most common terms for God in the greater Turkic-speaking world in several languages. Should the Talysh Bible translation follow suit to make the translation culturally more acceptable?<hr/>Dieterm Allah is een wat altyd baie sterk negatiewe emosies uitlok in the Westerse wêreld. Aangesien die Bybel sowel as die Koran op die oomblik in Talysh vertaal word, is dit betekenisvol om te evalueer watter term vir God gebruik moet word, en of die gebruik van die term Allah enige negatiewe uitwerking op die vertalings sal hê aldan nie. Sekere mense vanuit 'n Westerse wêreldbeskouing reken dat dit meer aanvaarbaar sal wees om die term Tanri in Bybelvertalings te gebruik as die term Allah. Die Koran sowel as sekere Bybelvertalings in die groter Turks-sprekende area gebruik die term Allah. Allah is een van die mees algemene terme vir God in verskeie tale in daardie area. Moet die Talysh Bybelvertaling ook die voorbeeld navolg en Allah in hulle vertaling gebruik om dit kultureel meer aanvaarbaar te maak of nie? <![CDATA[<b>Yahweh's 'lord' and Unrestrained Evil: An Exegesis of Psalm 110</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100034&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article consists of an exegetical investigation of Psalm 110 and assumes that the psalms function in one sense as prayers, which can be prayed authentically by modern worshippers. Consequently, the specific images of hostile acts of war present a challenge as prayer. The methodology involves the investigation of the text from a grammatico-historical perspective by using selected sources from the 19th century to the present. The meaning of the violent images of enmity and the defining characteristics of the enemy are determined through understanding the perceived suffering of the psalmist. Special attention is given to the role of the phrase <img src="/img/revistas/ids/v49n1/Untitled.jpg" width="34" height="14">, the identification of <img src="/img/revistas/ids/v49n1/Untitled2.jpg" width="36" height="14"> and defining the enemy. The conclusions of the exegesis support a more traditional interpretation of <img src="/img/revistas/ids/v49n1/Untitled2.jpg" width="36" height="14"> and characterise the recalcitrant enemies in an eschatological framework.<hr/>Hierdie artikel is 'n eksegetiese ondersoek van Psalm 110 en gaan van die veronderstelling uit dat die psalms in 'n sekere sin gebede is wat deur moderne gelowiges gebid kan word. Die spesifieke uitbeeldings van vyandige oorlogsdade stel egter 'n uitdaging aan dié gebed. Die metodologie behels die ondersoek van die teks vanuit 'n grammaties-historiese perspektief deur uitgesoekte bronne vanaf die negentiende eeu tot tans te gebruik. Die betekenis van die geweldadige uitbeelding van vyandigheid en die omskrywende karaktertrekke van die vyand word bepaal deur die verstaan van die waarneembare lyding van die psalmskrywer. Daar word besondere aandag gegee aan die rol van die frase <img src="/img/revistas/ids/v49n1/Untitled.jpg" width="34" height="14">, die eiening van <img src="/img/revistas/ids/v49n1/Untitled2.jpg" width="34" height="14"> en die omskrywing van die vyand. Die slotsom van die eksegesis ondersteun 'n meer tradisionele interpretasie van <img src="/img/revistas/ids/v49n1/Untitled2.jpg" width="34" height="14"> en tipeer die onversetlike vyand in 'n eskatalogiese raamwerk. <![CDATA[<b>A century of Reformed youth movement (1888-1988): A historical-evaluative reconnaissance</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100035&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Vir 'n eeu (1888-1988) het daar 'n groeiende en florerende Gereformeerde jeugbeweging, die Jongeliedeverenigings op Gereformeerde grondslag (afgekort as JV), in Suid-Afrika bestaan. Hierdie min of meer onafhanklike beweging het 'n belangrike rol gespeel om by jongmense 'n Christelike lewensvisie tuis te bring en hulle daardeur te inspireer. Hierdie artikel begin met 'n motivering, waarna dit 'n kort historiese skets oor die ontstaan en ontwikkeling van die beweging bied gevolg deur 'n oorsig oor die bronne wat nog beskikbaar is en hieroor geraadpleeg kan word. Die volgende gedeelte van die artikel bevat twee gevallestudies. Die eerste bied 'n oorsig oor die breë spektrum van aktiwiteite van 'n spesifieke JV (nl. JV Gideon). Die spesifieke aktiwiteite van hierdie JV het dit in staat gestel om sy lede met 'n wye koninkryksperspektief toe te rus. In die tweede geval toon die bedrywighede van die Transvaalse Bond van JV's (bv. deur sy leierskampe en verdere publikasies) dieselfde omvattende formatiewe waarde. In die lig van die voorafgaande gegewens, kan die besluit van die sinode (1988) van die Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika (GKSA) om finaal die jeugwerk van die JV's te termineer en met kerklike jeugsorg te vervang, bevraagteken word. Die skrywer van hierdie artikel is van mening dat sowel kerklike jeugsorg as selfstandige jeugwerk elkeen 'n eie, unieke bydrae tot die vorming van Christelike jongmense kan maak en dus langs mekaar mag bestaan. In die lig van die steeds groeiende sekularisasie in die land word ten slotte die dringende noodsaaklikheid van iets soortgelyks aan die destydse JV's vir vandag beklemtoon.<hr/>For a century (1888-1988) a growing and flourishing Reformed youth movement, called the 'Jongeliedeverenigings op Gereformeerde grondslag' (abbreviated as JV) existed in South Africa. This more or less independent movement played an important role in shaping the Christian worldview of its members. This article starts with a motivation for this reflection; it then provides a brief historical sketch of the origin and development of the movement, followed by a review of the sources consulted. The next section of the article presents two case studies. Firstly, it provides an overview of the broad spectrum of the activities of a specific JV (viz. JV Gideon). Its activities enabled it to equip its members with a wide kingdom perspective. In the second case, activities (e.g. leadership camps and added publications) of the then 'Transvaalse Bond' (Alliance) testifies to the same encompassing formative power. In the light of the preceding information, the decision of the synod of the Reformed Churches of South Africa (1988) to terminate the JV's youth work to be replaced by the youth care of the churches is queried. The writer of this article is of the opinion that ecclesiastical care for its young members, as well as an independent youth movement, have a unique role to fulfil in the moulding and equipping of young Christians. It should therefore not exclude but rather complement each other. In the light of the growing secularisation in our country the conclusion emphasises the urgent need of re-establishing something similar to the erstwhile JV movement. <![CDATA[<b>Focus on the world: The Keswick Convention and mission</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100036&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In a copy of Pierson's (n.d.) work, The acts of the Holy Spirit, presented to the hostess of Salisbury House in Keswick (UK), are the signatures of 11 missionaries from all over the world who attended the Convention in 1904. These are just a few of the many missionaries who visited the yearly Keswick Convention (KC). Many missionaries were a product of the genial spiritual climate which prevailed in England after the 1859 revival. Since 1885 the KC has been the catalyst for a fresh era in missionary work. Keswick and mission became inseparable, and the KC became a factor in the life of the universal church. Throughout the years missionary operations have been given a place in its program. So many missionaries trace back their call for mission work to Keswick and reckon the momentum of their life to be fully devoted to God, lies there. This led Keswick chairman Reverent Aldis just after World War II to say, 'I suppose the KC has done more than any other movement in the Churches to call men and women to the mission field.' In 2014 the Convention website reads: The KC is passionate about mission and has been supporting, encouraging and hosting missionaries and their families from over hundred years! We see this as a key area of Keswick's ministry and one in which many have been keen to support in their giving (KM 2014). The vision of those in the last decades of the 19th century is the issue of this article as well as the question in what way the KC is still true and faithful to that vision in the first decades of the 21st century.<hr/>In een copy van Piersons, The Acts of the Holy Spirit, aangeboden aan de gastvrouw van Salesbury House in Keswick (UK), staan de handtekeningen van elf zendelingen van over heel de wereld, die de Conventie van 1904 hebben bijgewoond. Dit zijn maar enkele van de vele zendelingen die de jaarlijkse Conventie in Keswick bijwonen. Sinds 1885, heeft de Conventie, door de introductie van de christelijke zending, een nieuwe tijd ingeslagen. Keswick en zending zijn sinds die tijd ongescheiden en de KC is een factor van betekenis geworden in het leven van de universele kerk. De jaren door heeft het onderdeel zending een grote plek in het programma. Dit bracht de voorzitter van de KC, Aldis, vlak na WO II er toe om te zeggen: 'Ik denk dat de KC meer gedaan heeft dan enig andere beweging in de kerken om mannen en vrouwen te roepen naar het zendingsveld.' Op de website van de Conventie staat nu: De KC is gepassioneerd over zending en heeft support, bemoediging en onderdak verleend aan zendelingen en hun families voor meer dan honderd jaar. We zien dit als de sleutelrol van Keswick en een grote factor voor velen om concreet met de zending mee te leven. Op welke wijze is de zendingsvisie van het begin leidend in de KC nu in de een en twintigste eeuw? <![CDATA[<b>The central principle of Calvinism? Some criteria, proposals and questions</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100037&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Is there a 'central principle' of Calvinism? This article explores this question mainly from the viewpoint of reformational philosophy. It does so firstly by introducing criteria that should be used to identify, if possible, such a central 'organon' of Calvinism. Then a few proposals are evaluated, and their strong and weak points are discussed. The most credible candidate for the role of central principle is argued to be an 'idea of law' rooted in the biblical groundmotif and traditionally defined as 'sphere-sovereignty'. More recent characterisations of this cosmonomic idea are considered. A few objections and alternative proposals are also discussed. The article is concluded with a few questions, calling for further research on the topic.<hr/>Is daar 'n 'sentrale beginsel' by Calvinisme te bespeur? Hierdie artikel ondersoek genoemde vraag hoofsaaklik vanuit die perspektief van die reformatoriese filosofie. Dit word eerstens gedoen deur die kriteria bekend te stel wat gebruik moet word om, indien moontlik, sodanige 'organologie' van Calvinisme te identifiseer. 'n Paar voorstelle word dan geëvalueer en hulle sterk en swak punte bespreek. Die geloofwaardigste kandidaat vir die rol van 'n sentrale beginsel is moontlik 'n 'wetsidee' wat in die bybelse grondmotief gewortel is en tradisioneel as 'sfeersoewereiniteit' gedefinieer word. Meer resente karakteriserings van hierdie kosmonomiese idee word ook oorweeg. 'n Aantal besware en alternatiewe voorstelle word daarna bespreek. Die artikel sluit af met enkele vrae waarmee 'n oproep tot verdere navorsing oor die onderwerp gedoen word. <![CDATA[<b>God, violence, and land in Deuteronomy</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100038&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Deuteronomium getuig van God se besondere liefde soos Hy dit in verband met die Beloofde Land aan Israel betoon het. Sy bevoorregting van Israel asook sy betrokkenheid by geweld roep egter baie vrae en bespreking op. Twee aspekte wat nie in die besprekings daarvan werklik aandag kry nie, word in hierdie artikel ondersoek: enersyds die verantwoordelikheid en/of skuld van die menslike partye en andersyds dié van God. Die bevindinge is: (1) Nie die nasies of Israel kan God verwyt nie, want die nasies tree self gewelddadig en eksploiterend teenoor mekaar op. Mense bewoon die aarde ten koste van ander mense en ook ten koste van die aarde self. Hulle tree hardnekkig en opstandig op teen die Wet en die wil van God wat die beste vir hulle bedoel. Tog is God in beheer van alles wat gebeur, Hy is onbegryplik en sonder blaam, selfs wanneer Hy in en deur die sondige werklikheid optree. (2) Deuteronomium praat van God se krasse geweld én oorweldigende liefde en verkondig dat Hy die verantwoordelikheid en skuld van die sondige, opstandige mensdom op Hom neem. Hierop gee die Dienaarliedere van Jesaja nog duideliker lig. God moet veral teen hierdie positiewe getuienis waardeer word. Dit is Hy wat aan die werk is en daarom moet die situasie vanuit die oogpunt soos Hy Homself bekend maak, beoordeel word.<hr/>Deuteronomy attests of God's exceptional love as proven to Israel in connection with the Promised Land. However, his preferential treatment of Israel and his involvement in violence invokes many questions and much debate. This article investigates two aspects, which do not really receive attention in the debate: on the one hand, human responsibility and guilt, and on the other hand that of God. The findings are: (1) Neither the nations nor Israel can reproach God, for they themselves act violently and exploitingly. They inhabit the earth at the expense of others and of the earth itself. They act obstinately toward the Law and the will of God, who has the best in mind for them. Even so, God is without blame, incomprehensibly in control of all that happens, even when he acts in and through the use of the sinful reality. (2) Deuteronomy testifies about God's severe violence ánd overpowering love. It is implicitly stated that God takes the responsibility and blame of sinful and rebellious humanity upon himself. The servant songs of Isaiah shed even more light on this issue. God must especially be appreciated by these positive testimonies and with complete trust in his unfathomable power and grace. <![CDATA[<b>Emerging thinking in the RCSA churchgrowth ministry</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100039&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die GKSA het in 2012 besluit om heelhartig en volkome na God se bevele terug te keer. Herbesinning oor wat God in sy Woord beveel, is deel van die denkveranderingsproses wat in die GKSA plaasvind. Daar is baie oorsake vir die komplekse tendens van krimpende gereformeerde lidmaatgetalle waaraan die mens nie werklik iets kan doen nie. Die enigste optrede van gelowiges onder die leiding van die Heilige Gees wat moontlik 'n verskil kan maak, is om deur diepgaande bekering hulle eie denke volledig en gehoorsaam volgens die Skrif aan te pas. Omdat ingrypende veranderinge met verloop van tyd plaasvind, is dit nodig om die proses diachronies en aan die hand van verskillende metodologieë te volg. Hierdie artikel poog om 'n bydrae tot die proses te lewer.<hr/>In 2012 the RCSA decided towards a wholehearted and total turnaround regarding God's commands. Reassessing of what God commands in his Word is part of the process of thought change taking place in the RCSA. There are many causes for the complex trend of declining numbers in reformed churches towards which man cannot do anything. The only action believers can undertake under the guidance of the Holy Spirit is to obediently adapt their own thinking completely according to the Word by profound repentance. Because of far-reaching change occurring over time, it is necessary to follow the process diachronically as well as by means of different methodologies. This article seeks to contribute toward this process. <![CDATA[<b>In Praise of Folly: A cursory review and appreciation five centuries later</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100040&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Desiderius Erasmus was a humanist reformer concerned with reforming the civil and ecclesiastical structures of his society. In reformed circles, much attention is paid to his role in the Lutheran controversy. Despite this, his powerful influence continues to this day. Erasmus' particular fool's literature, Moriae Encomium (1509), revealed his humanist concerns for civil and ecclesial society as a whole. He employed folly as a rhetorical instrument in satirical manner, evoking readers' amusement from numerous charges against the perceived multi-layered social reality of the day. Five hundred years later the person of Folly may still perform this same task in Christian society. That was Erasmus' point - the church is not to be seen as an island, it shares in the structures of society and is therefore still subject to its share of critical comments.<hr/>Desiderius Erasmus was 'n humanis wat gepoog het om hom te beywer vir die hervorming van die burgerlike en kerklike strukture van sy tyd. In gereformeerde kringe word sy rol in die Lutherse twisgeskil beklemtoon. Sy verreikende invloed word steeds vandag gevoel. Erasmus se gekke-literatuur, Moriae Encomium (1509), het sy besorgdheid rakende die burgerlike en ekklesiastiese samelewing vanuit 'n humanistiese standpunt openbaar. Hy gebruik dwaasheid as retoriek en met behulp van satire vermaak hy die leser terwyl hy die veelvuldige lae van die sosiale realiteit van die dag ontbloot. Die personifikasie van die 'gek' of 'dwaas' is 500 jaar later steeds relevant vir hierdie rol in die Christelike samelewing. Erasmus was van mening dat die kerk nie as 'n eiland beskou moet word nie. Dit maak deel uit van die samelewingstrukture en is daarom steeds aan kritiek onderworpe. <![CDATA[<b>The missional role of the Holy Spirit: Ghanaian Pentecostals' view and practice</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100041&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article discusses the missional role of the Holy Spirit from a Ghanaian Pentecostal's perspective. In doing this, trinitarian mission is used as the point of departure and it was narrowed down to the missional role of the Holy Spirit. The Ghanaian Pentecostals' view about the baptism and the infilling of the Holy Spirit as well as their practices concerning the subject are discussed. The article concludes that there is no way that the church could achieve her call without the role of the Holy Spirit, to convict sinners of their sin and also to empower the church to proclaim the gospel.<hr/>Hierdie artikel bespreek die missionale werk van die Heilige Gees vanuit die teologiese perspektief en praksis van die Pinksterkerke in Ghana. Die artikelvertrekpunt is 'n trinitariese benadering tot sending, en van daaruit word die rol en plek van die Heilige Gees in die sending van God bespreek. Die artikel gee ook aandag aan die siening omtrent die doop en die vervulling met die Heilige Gees onder Pinksterkerke in Ghana, asook aan kerklike praktyke wat uit hierdie teologiese standpunt spruit. Die artikel argumenteer dat die kerk net aan haar missionale roeping getrou kan wees op grond van die Heilige Gees se rol om sondaars van sonde en verlossing te oortuig, en die Gees se bemagtiging van gelowiges om die evangelie te verkondig deur die verskeidenheid gawes wat die Gees gee. <![CDATA[<b>Church and state in South Africa and human rights</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100042&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es After the Second World War, there was a universal rise and greater acknowledgement of human rights, which entered churches and ecumenical organisations' way of thinking. Human rights influenced the church's understanding of justice and human dignity both internally and externally. The concept of human dignity came from the biblical believe that man is created in the image of God. In South Africa human rights were also increasingly recognised and respected. A charter of human rights was included as chapter 2 of the 1996 Constitution and churches regard human dignity as a central tenet of their approach to members and non-members. Differences between church and state on the issue have arisen as the result of differences on the freedom of religion. Church and state in South Africa can complement each other in the promotion of human dignity.<hr/>Na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog is menseregte wêreldwyd erken en aanvaar. Dit was ook die geval in kerke en ekumeniese organisasies. Menseregte het kerke se siening van geregtigheid en menswaardigheid in hulle interne sowel as eksterne optrede beïnvloed. Die begrip menswaardigheid het ontstaan uit die bybelse oortuiging dat die mens na die beeld van God geskape is. In Suid-Afrika is menseregte ook toenemend erken en aanvaar. 'n Verklaring van menseregte is as hoofstuk 2 in die 1996-grondwet ingesluit en kerke beskou menswaardigheid as toonaangewend in hulle benadering van mense binne en buite die kerk. Verskille tussen die kerk en die staat in Suid-Afrika oor menseregte het ontstaan as gevolg van verskille oor die inhoud van die vryheid van godsdiens. Teen hierdie agtergrond kan kerk en staat mekaar egter aanvul in die bevordering van menseregte. <![CDATA[<b>Untying the knots of thinking: Wittgenstein and the role of philosophy in Christian faith</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100043&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article deals with Ludwig Wittgenstein's philosophy and how it can be properly applied in Christian theology. It provides useful tools for methodology in Christian thinking. According to Wittgenstein, philosophy deals primarily with critical examination, clarification and evaluation of the language we use. Wittgenstein's ideas - including the concept of mystery beyond linguistic forms, the idea of language game and its possible evolution, the impossibility of the ultimate truth and the concrete application of language - have the potential to play a very significant methodological role in every form of theological doctrinal expression.<hr/>Hierdie artikel handel oor Ludwig Wittgenstein se filosofie en hoe dit behoorlik toegepas kan word in die Christelike teologie. Dit bied nuttige gereedskap vir metodologie in Christelike denke. Volgens Wittgenstein, handel filosofie hoofsaaklik oor die kritiese ondersoek, verduideliking en evaluering van die taal wat ons gebruik. Wittgenstein se idees - insluitend die konsep van misterie buite taalkundige vorms, die idee van taalspel en die moontlike evolusie, die onmoontlikheid van die uiteindelike waarheid en die konkrete toepassing van taal - het die potensiaal om 'n baie belangrike metodologiese rol te speel in elke vorm teologiese leerstellige uitdrukking. <![CDATA[<b>An inquiry into socio-historical factors contributing to poverty within the Early Church in Palestine</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100044&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article seeks to investigate the root causes of poverty in the early Christian community. The view that is put forward and argued in this article is that poverty was widespread in early Christianity with particular reference to the converted Jews in Palestine. This was the result of socio-historical factors, namely the Israelites' contact with Canaanites during the conquest, and the implementation of the secular leadership paradigm derived from those pagan nations around Israel, which led to their subjugation under the oppressive and exploitative and economic structures of the Roman Empire. For that reason many believers, newly converted Jews, at that time were destitute and impoverished as they belonged to the lower classes in society. In spite of this state of affairs, the early Christians in Jerusalem seemed to have faced the challenges of poverty with a measure of success as can be attested by the statement 'for there was no needy person amongst them ...' (Ac 4:34).<hr/>Die doel van hierdie artikel is om die grondoorsake van armoede in die vroeë Christelike gemeenskap te ondersoek met spesifieke verwysing na die bekeerde Jode in Palestina. Die standpunt wat in hierdie artikel gestel en beredeneer word, is dat armoede algemeen in die vroeë Christendom voorgekom het. Dit was as gevolg van verskeie sosio-historiese faktore, waaronder die Israeliete se kontak met die Kanaàniete ná die inname, asook die instelling van die sekulêre paradigma oor leierskap wat Israel aan die naburige heidennasies ontleen het en wat op hulle verknegting onder die Romeinse Ryk se onderdrukkende en uitbuitende strukture uitgeloop het. 'n Groot aantal gelowiges, bekeerde Jode, was in daardie tyd behoeftig en armoedig omdat hulle deel van die laer klasse in die samelewing was. Tog, ten spyte van hierdie omstandighede, het die vroeë Christene in Jerusalem klaarblyklik die uitdaging van armoede met 'n mate van sukses gehanteer, soos die stelling getuig: 'Nie een van hulle het gebrek gely nie . „' (Hand 4:34). <![CDATA[<b>Mortificatie en vivificatie in de Heidelbergse Catechismus</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100045&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Dit artikel richt zich op kritiek die geleverd is op het gedeelte over de dankbaarheid in de Heidelbergse Catechismus. Enerzijds is er kritiek dat de catechismus te negatief is over de vernieuwing van het leven van christenen. Anderzijds wordt gesteld dat de nadruk op dankbaarheid leidt tot een nieuwe vorm van knechtschap. Daartegenover wordt in dit artikel betoogd dat de negatieve benadering van de geboden in de catechismus haar wortels heeft in de decaloog en in de wijze waarop zowel het Oude als het Nieuwe Testament spreekt over het leven naar Gods wil. Het nieuwe leven is een vrije gave van God en daarom nooit een verplichting maar vrijheid. Deze wordt alleen bedreigd door de menselijke neiging om het eigen leven zeker te stellen. Door deze neiging wordt het vertrouwen in Gods gunst ontkend. Aangezien het Oude en het Nieuwe Testament beide deze menselijke neiging bestrijden is de paraenese dikwijls negatief geformuleerd en de Heidelbergse Catechismus volgt hen daarin.<hr/>This article deals with critiques to the section on 'Gratitude' in the Heidelberg Catechism. On the one hand the catechism is said to be too negative about Christian renewal. On the other hand, its stress on gratitude appears to evoke a new servitude. In contrast to these criticisms, this article argues that the negative approach of the Catechism to the commandments has its roots in the Decalogue and in the calling to live according to God's will as found in both the Old and the New Testament. The new life is God's free gift and therefore never an obligation, but freedom, which is only endangered by the human inclination to secure life. By doing so, trust in God's gift of freedom is negated. Since both the Old and the New Testament oppose this human inclination, the paraenesis is often formulated negatively and the Heidelberg Catechism follows this approach. <![CDATA[<b>Forgiveness: A Christocentric perspective</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100046&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Forgiveness is at the core of Christianity and is a gift of God in conquering sin and its destructive fruits. It is therefore important to understand the biblical principles and norms in this regard. This will be done from a dogmatic-ethical view that will be motivated by a Christocentric perspective. Central to forgiveness is what God has done in Christ to move towards us in brokenness and sin whilst inviting our repentant response. Christ has done a complete work in this regard, and therefore God is faithful and righteous to Christ to forgive us our sins and purify us from all unrighteousness. A Christocentric view accentuates God's initiative in forgiveness and necessitates us to differentiate between God's unconditional offering of forgiveness and his conditional applying of forgiveness. It is shown that this differentiation is crucial in the understanding and application of forgiveness as portrayed in the Bible. Christ is normative in offering forgiveness, and therefore it should be done in his name. Christ is also normative in the realisation of forgiveness and therefore he is the Subject of forgiveness, not a human being. In conclusion the problem of offered forgiveness that does not evoke repentance and confession is dealt with.<hr/>Vergifnis is wesenlik deel van die Christendom en 'n gawe van God in die oorwinning van sonde en sy vernietigende gevolge. Dit is daarom belangrik om die bybelse beginsels en norme in hierdie verband te begryp. Dit sal gedoen word vanuit 'n dogmaties-etiese benadering gemotiveer deur 'n Christosentriese perspektief. Dit wat God in Christus gedoen het deur na ons uit te reik in ons gebrokenheid en sonde in afwagting op ons berouvolle reaksie, staan in die kern van vergifnis. Christus het in hierdie verband 'n volkome werk gedoen, en daarom is God getrou en regverdig teenoor Christus om ons sondes te vergewe en ons van alle ongeregtigheid te reinig. 'n Christosentriese perspektief aksentueer God se inisiatief in vergifnis en noop ons om tussen die onvoorwaardelike aanbieding van vergifnis en die voorwaardelike realisering daarvan te onderskei. Daar word aangetoon dat hierdie onderskeid essensieel is vir die verstaan en toepassing van vergifnis soos dit in die Bybel voorgehou word. Christus is normatief in die aanbieding van vergifnis, en daarom moet dit in sy Naam geskied. Christus is ook normatief in die realisering van vergifnis, en daarom is Hy die Subjek van vergifnis, nie die mens nie. Ten slotte word die problem van aangebode vergifnis behandel, wat nie berou en belydenis tot gevolg het nie. <![CDATA[<b>Matthew's building blocks: Mark and Q - A critical look at a recent monograph</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100047&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article offers a critical analysis of some of the principal arguments put forward in a recent monograph by J.A. Doole in defence of the thesis that Matthew, whilst being familiar with Mark and Q, had a clear preference for the former in structuring his composition. Doole argues that Matthew used Q only in such a way that it never threatened to disrupt the dominance of Mark, used up Q 'as quick as possible', and was more at ease in Mark which he used both de visu and from memory. Against these positions, it is shown that Q played a more prominent roll all throughout Matthew's gospel than Doole assumes it did and that the 'de visu / from memory' dichotomy does not match the evidence.<hr/>Het artikel biedt een kritische analyse van de voornaamste principes van J.A. Doole's recente monografie ter verdediging van de thesis dat Matteüs weliswaar bekend is met Marcus en met Q, maar systematisch de voorkeur geeft aan Marcus. Doole stelt dat Matteüs Q alleen in die zin gebruikte dat het geen bedreiging was voor de dominantie van Marcus, Q zo snel mogelijk 'opgebruikt' heeft, en duidelijk meer vertrouwd was met Marcus die hij de visu en uit zijn herinnering benut. Tegen deze benadering wordt aangebracht dat Q een meer prominente rol speelt in het evangelie dan Doole voorhoudt en dat het onderscheid 'de visu en uit herinnering' niet opgaat. <![CDATA[<b>Postsecular democracy and the reign of God: Reading Habermas and Moltmann in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100048&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Governed by a liberal constitution, the South African democratic project is progressively finding its own identity. Being a democracy in Africa has unique challenges, as this system of governance needs to be contextualised by integrating African culture, history and memory into a political model which will promote sustainable participatory citizenship. This article engages, from a South African perspective, Habermas' model of a postsecular democracy and Moltmann's understanding of 'Reich Gottes' in Ethics of Hope. This article proposes an integrated relationship between responsible citizenship (Habermas' postsecular democracy) and a Christian social conscience (Moltmann's 'Reign of God')1 for the South African context.<hr/>Die Suid-Afrikaanse demokrasie wat gegrond is op 'n liberale grondwet, is geleidelik besig om 'n eie identiteit te vind. Demokrasie in Afrika ervaar unieke uitdagings en moet derhalwe gekontekstualiseer word deur die Afrikakultuur, geskiedenis en geheue in 'n politieke model te inkorporeer wat beoog om houdbare en deelnemende burgerskap te bevorder. Hierdie artikel tree vanuit 'n Suid Afrikaanse perspektief in gesprek met Habermas se model oor postsekulêre demokrasie sowel as met Moltmann se verstaan van 'Reich Gottes' in Ethics of Hope. 'n Geïntegreerde verhouding tussen verantwoordelike burgerskap (Habermas se postsekulêre demokrasie) en 'n Christelike sosiale gewete (Moltmann se 'Koninkryk van God') binne die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks word derhalwe deur hierdie artikel ondersteun. <![CDATA[<b>'And behold a ladder': Descent and ascent in Calvin's soteriology</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100049&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article investigates Calvin's use of the schema of descent and ascent to construct his soteriology. The main argument offered is that Calvin utilises the notion of descent-ascent as a tool to weave together juridical and mystical categories in his soteriology. The descent-ascent scheme enables him to construct a theocentric soteriology that is personal and dynamic in nature, whilst concrete in ethical application. It also endows his soteriology with a strong pneumatological and eschatological orientation.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Calvyn se gebruik van die neerdaling-opvaringskema in sy soteriologie. Die argument is dat Calvyn hierdie skema as 'n instrument gebruik om die juridiese en mistieke kategorieë in sy soteriologie te integreer. Die neerdaling-opvaringskema stel hom in staat om 'n teosentriese soteriologie te ontwikkel wat persoonlik en dinamies van aard is, maar terselfdertyd konkreet in etiese toepassing. Dit verskaf ook 'n deurslaggewende pneumatologiese en eskatologiese oriëntasie aan sy soteriologie. <![CDATA[<b>The use of </b><b>οικονομία</b><b> in a missional reading of the Gospel of Luke-Acts</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100050&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The term οικονομία is important term the Gospel of Luke. The word οικονομία, in particular its meaning in Luke, is a perpetration and prerequisite for a missional reading of Luke-Acts. The dual motifs of creation and redemption are interdependently related from Genesis to Revelations. In the Gospel of Luke these motifs are unified in the sphere of the household as the most basic social structure through the οίκονομος management of the οίκος, the household.<hr/>Οικονομία is 'n belangrike term in die Evangelie van Lukas. Die woord οικονομία en veral die betekenis daarvan in Lukas is 'n handeling en voorvereiste vir 'n missionale lees van Lukas-Handelinge. Die twee motiewe van skepping en verlossing is interafhanklik aan mekaar verbind vanaf Genesis tot Openbaring. In die Evangelie van Lukas word hierdie motiewe saamgebind in die sfeer van die huishouding as die mees basiese sosiale struktuur deur die οίκονομος bestuur van die οίκος, die huishouding. <![CDATA[<b>Introducing some secular and feminist theological insights of <i>body </i>into theological conversation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100051&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Whether the conversation is casual or professional, words such as body, woman, and heart are part and parcel of community conversation. However, the understanding of the meaning of a specific word such as body may prove to be elusive, vague or alternately take on a complexity often removed from ordinary conversation. Although the insights from Christian feminists have enriched the traditional theological understanding of the word body their insights are not always associated with the general use of the term. A richer understanding of the word results in recapturing the meaning of body, not only for women but also for society's theological conversation and 'body-talk' as a whole.<hr/>Ongeag of die gesprek informeel of professioneel is, bly die woorde liggaam, vrou en hart deel van die gemeenskapsgesprek. Die begrip of betekenis van 'n bepaalde woord soos liggaam, kan ontwykend vaag of alternatiewelik 'n kompleksiteit aanneem wat van gewone gesprekvoering verwyderd is. Feministe het onder andere ook van sekere woorde, waaronder besitreg geneem en dit aan kritiese teologiese ondersoek onderwerp. Hulle insig verryk die tradisionele begrip van die woord - nie net vir vroue nie, maar vir teologiese diskoers in die geheel. <![CDATA[<b>Godsspraak als drijfveer, standaard en model voor gebed bij Clemens van Rome aan de Corinthieërs</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100052&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die eerste brief van Clemens Romanus aan die Korintiërs vertoon 'n afhankelijkheid van heilige Skrif en gebed. In die konteks van hierdie vroegchristelike brief is dit die Skrif wat gebed bevorder en vorm gee. Clemens het vir sy kennis van God staatgemaak op God se skriftelike openbaring, aangesien hy die Skrif beskou as Godsspraak in terme van inhoud en gesag. Die kerkvader nader God daarvolgens in sy gebedsantwoord op die Skrif. Die doel van gebed by die kerkvader is onder meer gerig daarop dat menslike gedrag gehoorsaamheid moet vertoon aan God se geopenbaarde Woord. Die vorm van gebed in Clemens se eerste brief aan die Korintiërs is dan ook grootliks aan die Skrif ontleen, beide in die woorde en uitdrukkings wat hy hanteer. Die agenda en die inhoudspunte van gebede in hierdie vroegchristelike brief word ook deur die heilige Skrifte bepaal. Op hierdie wyse is Godsspraak dryfveer, standaard en model vir gebed by dié kerkvader.<hr/>Clement of Rome's letter to the Corinthians shows an interdependence of holy Scripture and prayer. In the context of this early Christian epistle, Divine revelation, primarily through Scripture, takes on an initiatory role for prayer. Clement considers the Scriptures as oracles of God in terms of their contents and authority. In his prayer-response to Scripture, both for contents and words, Clement shows himself inspired by holy Scripture. Consequently, Clement's prayer is aimed at conformity of human behaviour to what he considers God's revealed standards. As to the format of prayer in Clement to the Corinthians, words and expressions are largely borrowed from the sacred Scriptures. The agenda and themes of prayer in this letter are set by holy Writ as well, reinforcing the role of Scripture as initiator, standard and prototype for prayer, as the early church father reaches out to God. <![CDATA[<b>Conveyance of preaching by vulnerable listeners - A case study of farm workers in the Vredefort Dome South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100053&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Farm workers living in and around the Vredefort Dome World Heritage Site are some of the most vulnerable people in South Africa. Research by means of a case study with four participants from this group examined the following question: How do vulnerable people continue preaching the Word in this environment by ministering to other vulnerable people with the sermons that they have heard? The case study considered both the environment and the circumstances in which these participants live. This research aimed to establish what it means to preach to those who are vulnerable and how such preaching can be continued by the hearers. A case study by means of a qualitative empirical investigation called upon a few of the vulnerable hearers to speak. The findings included that the participants to this case study do not spread the sermons further on a regular basis, but they would be able to edify and encourage other vulnerable persons with it if needed. If they do talk to each other about the sermon directly after the worship service (like it was done during the interviews), their confidence to proclaim the message to other vulnerable people who do not participate in the worship services will increase.<hr/>laaswerkers wat in die omgewing van die wêrelderfenisgebied, die Vredefortkoepel, woon, is van die mees weerlose wesens in Suid-Afrika. 'n Gevallestudie, waaraan vier van hierdie persone deelgeneem het, is gedoen. Dit het oor die volgende vraag gehandel: Hoe word preke wat aan weerloses bedien word deur hulle aan ander in hulle omgewing wat in dieselfde omstandighede verkeer, voortgedra? Die omgewing waarin die deelnemers woon en hulle lewensomstandighede is nagegaan. Daar is gepoog om vas te stel wat onder prediking aan weerloses verstaan word en hoe sodanige prediking deur die hoorders verder versprei kan word. Die gevallestudie, wat deur middel van 'n kwalitatiewe empiriese ondersoek plaasgevind het, het enkele van die weerlose hoorders self aan die woord laat kom. Die bevinding was dat die deelnemers hieraan nie die preke op 'n gereelde basis verder laat weerklink nie, maar dat hulle wel in staat sou wees om ander weerlose persone daarmee te versterk en te bemoedig. Indien hulle wel onmiddellik na die diens met mekaar oor die preek van die dag sou gesels (soos dit in die onderhoude gedoen is), kan die vrymoedigheid groei om die boodskap ook aan ander weerlose mense wat nie aan die erediens deelgeneem het nie, oor te dra. <![CDATA[<b>Jesus and the six objectives of Daniel 9:24</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100054&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Although Daniel 9:24-27 addresses the Antiochene crisis of the second century bce, many of Jesus' followers have read this passage with reference to his first and second comings. Following the typological example of the Old Testament and New Testament, this article considers how Jesus is another anointed one that replays the 6th and 2nd century worlds of Daniel 9 and thereby accomplishes the six objectives of Daniel 9:24.<hr/>Alhoewel Daniël 9:24-27 die krisis in die tweede eeu v.C. veroorsaak deur Antiogus aanspreek, lees baie van Jesus se volgelinge hierdie gedeelte met verwysing na sy eerste en tweede koms. Hierdie artikel volg die tipologiese verstaan van die Ou Testament en Nuwe Testament en ondersoek tot hoe 'n mate Jesus nóg 'n gesalfde is wat die tweede- en sesde eeuse wêrelde van Daniël 9 hervertolk. Sodoende, voer hierdie artikel aan, vervul dit dus die ses doelwitte van Daniël 9:24. <![CDATA[<b>Newly wed in Wittenberg 1523 - And committed to the Lutheran Reformation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100055&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Protestant teaching questioned the redemptive value of Roman Catholic spirituality of the 16th century. Consequently many monks and nuns were led to leave their monasteries and convents. Elisabeth von Meseritz was a nun who found her way to Wittenberg. There she married and wrote the first protestant hymn as a woman clearly supportive of the Lutheran Reformation. The simplicity of Elisabeth's story is a projection from one major event of her life to another ignoring the complexity of contexts and influences upon her which continued to shape her life. Instead of only focusing on the obvious highpoints of her story this article allows for the development of a fuller story that enriches understanding of an early protestant of the 16th century, a woman of the Lutheran Reformation.<hr/>Protestantse leerstellings het die heilswaarde van die Rooms-Katolieke spiritualiteit van die sestiende eeu bevraagteken. Baie monnike en nonne het gevolglik hulle kloosters verlaat. Een van hulle was Elisabeth von Meseritz wat haar pad na Wittenberg gevind het. Daar is sy getroud en het die eerste protestantse lied as 'n vrou geskryf wat duidelik ondersteunend van die Lutherse Hervorming was. Die eenvoud van Elisabeth se storie is 'n projeksie van die een belangrike gebeurtenis van haar lewe na die volgende. Dit het die kompleksiteit van die konteks en die invloede wat voortgegaan het om haar lewe te vorm, geïgnoreer. In plaas daarvan om net op die voor die hand liggend hooftrekke van haar storie te fokus, maak hierdie artikel voorsiening vir die ontwikkeling van 'n verrykende storie met begrip vir die vroeë Protestantse sestiende eeuse vrou van die Lutherse Hervorming. <![CDATA[<b>Uncovering key biblical principle in handling disputable music matters in <i>missio Dei </i>perspective - a basic theoretical study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100056&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article investigates key biblical principles in handling disputable music matters from Romans 14:1-15:13 and their implications for a missional church. It becomes clear that the principles uncovered in this biblical passage are synecdochically and analogically applicable to many varied disputable matters, which could confront the church anywhere at any given time. These matters include disputes on worship music and songs. The multicultural context in which the church find herself in cities, continues to pose a challenge to individual Christians and the church as a body. Hence, it exposes both Christians and the church to more and more inevitable need for clear biblical principles in handling disputable matters including liturgical music wars. The goal of this article is not only to reduce time and energy used in arguing over disputable matters, but also to turn the disagreements into redeeming encounters, which will strengthen the missional witness of the church by enriching diversity in unity.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek bybelse sleutelbeginsels vir die hantering van strydvrae oor liturgiese sang en musiek vanuit Romeine 14:1-15:13 en die implikasies daarvan vir 'n missionale kerk. Die beginsels wat vanuit hierdie Skrifgedeelte ontsluit word, kan sinvol toegepas word op 'n verskeidenheid van sake wat nie-essensieel van aard is, maar waaroor daar oral en altyd skerp standpuntverskille in kerke voorkom. Dit sluit debatte oor musiek en sang in die erediens in. Die multikulturele konteks waarin kerke hulle bevind vra na duidelike beginsels wat as uitgangspunte in debatte oor liturgiese musiek kan dien. Die doel van hierdie artikel is nie net om baie tyd en energie wat dikwels aan sulke debatte bestee word, te verminder nie, maar ook om strydvrae om te keer in positiewe opbouende en verrykende ontmoetings, en die kerk se missionale getuienis oor eenheid en verskeidenheid te versterk. <![CDATA[<b>On facing the God-question in a pastoral theology of compassion: From imperialistic omni-categories to theopaschitic pathos-categories</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100057&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Many scholars in the 20th century warned against static, ontological and metaphysical schemata of interpretation, stemming from Hellenistic thinking with its impact on God images in Christian reflection. Against the background of new spiritual and philosophical phenomena like apatheism and anatheism, the question regarding the appropriateness of existing categories for God within the framework of pastoral theology surfaces. A paradigm shift from omni-categories to pathos-categories is proposed in order to deal with issues like human suffering, dignity and justice. In this regard, theopaschitic theology can play a decisive role in the reframing of existing static God-images stemming predominantly from the Roman-Greco world. The notion of a 'sustainable God' is introduced in order to reframe God's compassionate presence (ta splanchna) in terms of a continuum of infinitive interventions (infiniscience and the pneumatology of to-be-with).<hr/>Navorsers het telkemale in die twintigste eeu teen die impak van statiese, ontologiese en metafisiese skemas van interpretasie gewaarsku. Teïstiese denke is grootliks deur Hellenistiese denkkategorieë bepaal. Teen die agtergrond van nuwe filosofiese verskynsels soos apateïsme en anateïsme en die invloed daarvan op die verskillende vorms van spiritualiteitsdenke, duik die vraag op na die toepaslikheid en relevansie van bestaande, geykte denkkategorië vir die Christelike verstaan van God. Die vraagstuk van lyding, menswaardigheid en geregtigheid stel nuwe eise aan 'n pastorale teologie wat met kontekstuele lewensvraagstukke erns maak. In die lig hiervan word 'n paradigmaskuif in teologisering, vanaf omni-kategorieë na patos-kategorieë voorgestel. Dit word beredeneer dat 'n teopasgitiese teologie 'n belangrike bydrae kan lewer om statiese Godskonsepte, wat grootliks vanuit die Romeinse en Griekse denkwereld gekom het, in die rigting van 'n meer dinamiese Godsverstaan te skuif. Die gedagte van die 'volhoubaarheid van God' word aan 'n nuwe verstaan van die medelye van God (ta splanchna) verbind. Vandaar die voorstel vir 'n paradigmaskuif vanaf almag en alwetendheid na 'n patosvolle, infinitiewe omgee-identifikasie (die pneumatologiese volhoubaarheid van daar-wees-vir). <![CDATA[<b>Skrifkritiese opstandingsperspektiewe - beoordeel vanuit die gereformeerde teologie</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100058&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hierdie artikel ondersoek die aard en omvang van skrifkritiese opstandingsperspektiewe binne die Suid-Afrikaanse teologie. Spesifieke klem word op die konsekwensies gelê wat skrifkritiese opstandingsperspektiewe vir die kernleerstukke van die Christelike geloof inhou. Verdere konsekwensies raak die hart van die individu se daaglikse geloofslewe en die praktyk van die kerk. Ten einde hierdie doel te bereik, word enkele skrifkritiese opstandingsperspektiewe kortliks gestel. Standpuntstelling word deur 'n beoordeling van elke standpunt vanuit 'n skrifverantwoorde teologie gevolg. Die standpunt word gestel dat skrifkritiese teoloë dikwels die ryke betekenis van Christus se opstanding ontken of onderbeklemtoon. Die navorsing vir hierdie artikel het verder getoon dat skrifkritiese opstandingsperspektiewe verreikende negatiewe konsekwensies vir 'n skrifverantwoorde teologie inhou. Die gevolgtrekking is dat skrifkritiese opstandingsperspektiewe onversoenbaar met die tradisioneel-reformatoriese leer van die Christologie is.<hr/>This article investigates the nature and extent of scripture-critical views of the resurrection in the context of South African theology. Special attention is given to the consequences that a scripture-critical view of the resurrection has on the core doctrines of reformed theology. Further consequences also affect the day-to-day faith of believers and the mission and effectiveness of the church. In order to conclude this investigation a number of scripture-critical views of the resurrection are critically investigated and evaluated from the perspective of the paradigm of reformed Dogmatics. Research has proven that scripture-critical scholars of theology displace or undervalue the impactful meaning of Christ's resurrection. Scripture-critical views of the resurrection have numerous negative consequences for the traditional doctrines of reformed theology. This article has determined that a scripture-critical view of the resurrection is not reconcilable with the traditional reformed doctrine of Christology. <![CDATA[<b>The Syriac versions of Old Testament quotations in Matthew</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100059&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In the Gospel of Matthew 10 quotations from the Old Testament are introduced by a formula containing the verb πληροῦν. This article explores the rendering of 9 of these 10 quotations in 3 Syriac versions of the New Testament, namely the Peshitta and the 2 versions of the Old Syriac Gospels (Sinaiticus and Curetonianus). The question addressed is the relationship of the Syriac versions to one another, to the Peshitta of the Old Testament and to the Greek Gospel. For the quotations in Matthew, their relationship to the Hebrew and Greek Old Testament is very important. In the quotations discussed, the Greek New Testament did not make much use of the Septuagint as it is known today. The Old Testament Peshitta influenced the Old Syriac, but not to the same extent in all instances. This influence could have been through Tatian's Diatessaron. Tatian probably used the text of the Old Testament Peshitta for the quotations of the Old Testament in the gospels. In instances where the Curetonianus and the Sinaiticus differ, it could demonstrate attempts to bring the text closer to the Greek New Testament. The New Testament Peshitta normally started with a text close to the Old Syriac, but frequently adapted it to bring it closer to New Testament Greek.<hr/>Die Evangelie van Matteus het 10 aanhalings uit die Ou Testament wat deur 'n formule met die werkwoord, ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ, ingelei word. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die weergawe van 9 van die 10 aanhalings in drie Siriese weergawes van die Nuwe Testament, naamlik die Peshitta en die twee weergawes van die Ou Siriese Evangelies (Sinaiticus enCuretonianus). Die vraagstuk handel oor die verhouding van die drie Siriese weergawes tot mekaar, tot die Peshitta van die Ou Testament en die Griekse Evangelie. Vir die aanhalings in Matteus is hulle verhouding tot die Hebreeuse en Griekse Ou Testament baie belangrik. In die aanhalings wat bespreek word, maak die Griekse Nuwe Testament nie veel van die Septuagint gebruik soos dit vandag bekend is nie. Die Ou Testament Peshitta het die Oud Siriese Evangelies beïnvloed, maar nie tot dieselfde mate in al die voorbeelde nie. Hierdie invloed kon geskied het via Tatianus se Diatessaron. Tatianus het waarskynlik die teks van die Peshitta van die Ou Testament vir die Ou-Testamentiese aanhalings in die Evangelies gebruik. In die gevalle waar die Curetonianus en die Sinaiticus verskil, is die verskille waarskynlik te wyte aan pogings om die teks nader aan die Griekse Nuwe Testament te bring. Die Nuwe Testament Peshitta het waarskynlik met 'n teks naby aan die Oud Siriese begin, maar het dit dikwels aangepas om dit nader aan die Griekse Nuwe Testament te bring. <![CDATA[<b>'n Tydige en omvattende boek oor die emosies van Jesus Christus</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100060&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In the Gospel of Matthew 10 quotations from the Old Testament are introduced by a formula containing the verb πληροῦν. This article explores the rendering of 9 of these 10 quotations in 3 Syriac versions of the New Testament, namely the Peshitta and the 2 versions of the Old Syriac Gospels (Sinaiticus and Curetonianus). The question addressed is the relationship of the Syriac versions to one another, to the Peshitta of the Old Testament and to the Greek Gospel. For the quotations in Matthew, their relationship to the Hebrew and Greek Old Testament is very important. In the quotations discussed, the Greek New Testament did not make much use of the Septuagint as it is known today. The Old Testament Peshitta influenced the Old Syriac, but not to the same extent in all instances. This influence could have been through Tatian's Diatessaron. Tatian probably used the text of the Old Testament Peshitta for the quotations of the Old Testament in the gospels. In instances where the Curetonianus and the Sinaiticus differ, it could demonstrate attempts to bring the text closer to the Greek New Testament. The New Testament Peshitta normally started with a text close to the Old Syriac, but frequently adapted it to bring it closer to New Testament Greek.<hr/>Die Evangelie van Matteus het 10 aanhalings uit die Ou Testament wat deur 'n formule met die werkwoord, ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ, ingelei word. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die weergawe van 9 van die 10 aanhalings in drie Siriese weergawes van die Nuwe Testament, naamlik die Peshitta en die twee weergawes van die Ou Siriese Evangelies (Sinaiticus enCuretonianus). Die vraagstuk handel oor die verhouding van die drie Siriese weergawes tot mekaar, tot die Peshitta van die Ou Testament en die Griekse Evangelie. Vir die aanhalings in Matteus is hulle verhouding tot die Hebreeuse en Griekse Ou Testament baie belangrik. In die aanhalings wat bespreek word, maak die Griekse Nuwe Testament nie veel van die Septuagint gebruik soos dit vandag bekend is nie. Die Ou Testament Peshitta het die Oud Siriese Evangelies beïnvloed, maar nie tot dieselfde mate in al die voorbeelde nie. Hierdie invloed kon geskied het via Tatianus se Diatessaron. Tatianus het waarskynlik die teks van die Peshitta van die Ou Testament vir die Ou-Testamentiese aanhalings in die Evangelies gebruik. In die gevalle waar die Curetonianus en die Sinaiticus verskil, is die verskille waarskynlik te wyte aan pogings om die teks nader aan die Griekse Nuwe Testament te bring. Die Nuwe Testament Peshitta het waarskynlik met 'n teks naby aan die Oud Siriese begin, maar het dit dikwels aangepas om dit nader aan die Griekse Nuwe Testament te bring. <![CDATA[<b>Christian philosophy</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100061&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In the Gospel of Matthew 10 quotations from the Old Testament are introduced by a formula containing the verb πληροῦν. This article explores the rendering of 9 of these 10 quotations in 3 Syriac versions of the New Testament, namely the Peshitta and the 2 versions of the Old Syriac Gospels (Sinaiticus and Curetonianus). The question addressed is the relationship of the Syriac versions to one another, to the Peshitta of the Old Testament and to the Greek Gospel. For the quotations in Matthew, their relationship to the Hebrew and Greek Old Testament is very important. In the quotations discussed, the Greek New Testament did not make much use of the Septuagint as it is known today. The Old Testament Peshitta influenced the Old Syriac, but not to the same extent in all instances. This influence could have been through Tatian's Diatessaron. Tatian probably used the text of the Old Testament Peshitta for the quotations of the Old Testament in the gospels. In instances where the Curetonianus and the Sinaiticus differ, it could demonstrate attempts to bring the text closer to the Greek New Testament. The New Testament Peshitta normally started with a text close to the Old Syriac, but frequently adapted it to bring it closer to New Testament Greek.<hr/>Die Evangelie van Matteus het 10 aanhalings uit die Ou Testament wat deur 'n formule met die werkwoord, ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ, ingelei word. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die weergawe van 9 van die 10 aanhalings in drie Siriese weergawes van die Nuwe Testament, naamlik die Peshitta en die twee weergawes van die Ou Siriese Evangelies (Sinaiticus enCuretonianus). Die vraagstuk handel oor die verhouding van die drie Siriese weergawes tot mekaar, tot die Peshitta van die Ou Testament en die Griekse Evangelie. Vir die aanhalings in Matteus is hulle verhouding tot die Hebreeuse en Griekse Ou Testament baie belangrik. In die aanhalings wat bespreek word, maak die Griekse Nuwe Testament nie veel van die Septuagint gebruik soos dit vandag bekend is nie. Die Ou Testament Peshitta het die Oud Siriese Evangelies beïnvloed, maar nie tot dieselfde mate in al die voorbeelde nie. Hierdie invloed kon geskied het via Tatianus se Diatessaron. Tatianus het waarskynlik die teks van die Peshitta van die Ou Testament vir die Ou-Testamentiese aanhalings in die Evangelies gebruik. In die gevalle waar die Curetonianus en die Sinaiticus verskil, is die verskille waarskynlik te wyte aan pogings om die teks nader aan die Griekse Nuwe Testament te bring. Die Nuwe Testament Peshitta het waarskynlik met 'n teks naby aan die Oud Siriese begin, maar het dit dikwels aangepas om dit nader aan die Griekse Nuwe Testament te bring. <![CDATA[<b>’n </b><b>Transformerende</b><b> Bybelreis om die waarheid van die Skrif vir vandag te ontsluit</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100062&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In the Gospel of Matthew 10 quotations from the Old Testament are introduced by a formula containing the verb πληροῦν. This article explores the rendering of 9 of these 10 quotations in 3 Syriac versions of the New Testament, namely the Peshitta and the 2 versions of the Old Syriac Gospels (Sinaiticus and Curetonianus). The question addressed is the relationship of the Syriac versions to one another, to the Peshitta of the Old Testament and to the Greek Gospel. For the quotations in Matthew, their relationship to the Hebrew and Greek Old Testament is very important. In the quotations discussed, the Greek New Testament did not make much use of the Septuagint as it is known today. The Old Testament Peshitta influenced the Old Syriac, but not to the same extent in all instances. This influence could have been through Tatian's Diatessaron. Tatian probably used the text of the Old Testament Peshitta for the quotations of the Old Testament in the gospels. In instances where the Curetonianus and the Sinaiticus differ, it could demonstrate attempts to bring the text closer to the Greek New Testament. The New Testament Peshitta normally started with a text close to the Old Syriac, but frequently adapted it to bring it closer to New Testament Greek.<hr/>Die Evangelie van Matteus het 10 aanhalings uit die Ou Testament wat deur 'n formule met die werkwoord, ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ, ingelei word. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die weergawe van 9 van die 10 aanhalings in drie Siriese weergawes van die Nuwe Testament, naamlik die Peshitta en die twee weergawes van die Ou Siriese Evangelies (Sinaiticus enCuretonianus). Die vraagstuk handel oor die verhouding van die drie Siriese weergawes tot mekaar, tot die Peshitta van die Ou Testament en die Griekse Evangelie. Vir die aanhalings in Matteus is hulle verhouding tot die Hebreeuse en Griekse Ou Testament baie belangrik. In die aanhalings wat bespreek word, maak die Griekse Nuwe Testament nie veel van die Septuagint gebruik soos dit vandag bekend is nie. Die Ou Testament Peshitta het die Oud Siriese Evangelies beïnvloed, maar nie tot dieselfde mate in al die voorbeelde nie. Hierdie invloed kon geskied het via Tatianus se Diatessaron. Tatianus het waarskynlik die teks van die Peshitta van die Ou Testament vir die Ou-Testamentiese aanhalings in die Evangelies gebruik. In die gevalle waar die Curetonianus en die Sinaiticus verskil, is die verskille waarskynlik te wyte aan pogings om die teks nader aan die Griekse Nuwe Testament te bring. Die Nuwe Testament Peshitta het waarskynlik met 'n teks naby aan die Oud Siriese begin, maar het dit dikwels aangepas om dit nader aan die Griekse Nuwe Testament te bring. <![CDATA[<b>'n Ontdekkingsreis deur die wêreld van Bybelvertaling</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100063&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In the Gospel of Matthew 10 quotations from the Old Testament are introduced by a formula containing the verb πληροῦν. This article explores the rendering of 9 of these 10 quotations in 3 Syriac versions of the New Testament, namely the Peshitta and the 2 versions of the Old Syriac Gospels (Sinaiticus and Curetonianus). The question addressed is the relationship of the Syriac versions to one another, to the Peshitta of the Old Testament and to the Greek Gospel. For the quotations in Matthew, their relationship to the Hebrew and Greek Old Testament is very important. In the quotations discussed, the Greek New Testament did not make much use of the Septuagint as it is known today. The Old Testament Peshitta influenced the Old Syriac, but not to the same extent in all instances. This influence could have been through Tatian's Diatessaron. Tatian probably used the text of the Old Testament Peshitta for the quotations of the Old Testament in the gospels. In instances where the Curetonianus and the Sinaiticus differ, it could demonstrate attempts to bring the text closer to the Greek New Testament. The New Testament Peshitta normally started with a text close to the Old Syriac, but frequently adapted it to bring it closer to New Testament Greek.<hr/>Die Evangelie van Matteus het 10 aanhalings uit die Ou Testament wat deur 'n formule met die werkwoord, ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ, ingelei word. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die weergawe van 9 van die 10 aanhalings in drie Siriese weergawes van die Nuwe Testament, naamlik die Peshitta en die twee weergawes van die Ou Siriese Evangelies (Sinaiticus enCuretonianus). Die vraagstuk handel oor die verhouding van die drie Siriese weergawes tot mekaar, tot die Peshitta van die Ou Testament en die Griekse Evangelie. Vir die aanhalings in Matteus is hulle verhouding tot die Hebreeuse en Griekse Ou Testament baie belangrik. In die aanhalings wat bespreek word, maak die Griekse Nuwe Testament nie veel van die Septuagint gebruik soos dit vandag bekend is nie. Die Ou Testament Peshitta het die Oud Siriese Evangelies beïnvloed, maar nie tot dieselfde mate in al die voorbeelde nie. Hierdie invloed kon geskied het via Tatianus se Diatessaron. Tatianus het waarskynlik die teks van die Peshitta van die Ou Testament vir die Ou-Testamentiese aanhalings in die Evangelies gebruik. In die gevalle waar die Curetonianus en die Sinaiticus verskil, is die verskille waarskynlik te wyte aan pogings om die teks nader aan die Griekse Nuwe Testament te bring. Die Nuwe Testament Peshitta het waarskynlik met 'n teks naby aan die Oud Siriese begin, maar het dit dikwels aangepas om dit nader aan die Griekse Nuwe Testament te bring. <![CDATA[<b>König se grootste werk ooit</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100064&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In the Gospel of Matthew 10 quotations from the Old Testament are introduced by a formula containing the verb πληροῦν. This article explores the rendering of 9 of these 10 quotations in 3 Syriac versions of the New Testament, namely the Peshitta and the 2 versions of the Old Syriac Gospels (Sinaiticus and Curetonianus). The question addressed is the relationship of the Syriac versions to one another, to the Peshitta of the Old Testament and to the Greek Gospel. For the quotations in Matthew, their relationship to the Hebrew and Greek Old Testament is very important. In the quotations discussed, the Greek New Testament did not make much use of the Septuagint as it is known today. The Old Testament Peshitta influenced the Old Syriac, but not to the same extent in all instances. This influence could have been through Tatian's Diatessaron. Tatian probably used the text of the Old Testament Peshitta for the quotations of the Old Testament in the gospels. In instances where the Curetonianus and the Sinaiticus differ, it could demonstrate attempts to bring the text closer to the Greek New Testament. The New Testament Peshitta normally started with a text close to the Old Syriac, but frequently adapted it to bring it closer to New Testament Greek.<hr/>Die Evangelie van Matteus het 10 aanhalings uit die Ou Testament wat deur 'n formule met die werkwoord, ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ, ingelei word. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die weergawe van 9 van die 10 aanhalings in drie Siriese weergawes van die Nuwe Testament, naamlik die Peshitta en die twee weergawes van die Ou Siriese Evangelies (Sinaiticus enCuretonianus). Die vraagstuk handel oor die verhouding van die drie Siriese weergawes tot mekaar, tot die Peshitta van die Ou Testament en die Griekse Evangelie. Vir die aanhalings in Matteus is hulle verhouding tot die Hebreeuse en Griekse Ou Testament baie belangrik. In die aanhalings wat bespreek word, maak die Griekse Nuwe Testament nie veel van die Septuagint gebruik soos dit vandag bekend is nie. Die Ou Testament Peshitta het die Oud Siriese Evangelies beïnvloed, maar nie tot dieselfde mate in al die voorbeelde nie. Hierdie invloed kon geskied het via Tatianus se Diatessaron. Tatianus het waarskynlik die teks van die Peshitta van die Ou Testament vir die Ou-Testamentiese aanhalings in die Evangelies gebruik. In die gevalle waar die Curetonianus en die Sinaiticus verskil, is die verskille waarskynlik te wyte aan pogings om die teks nader aan die Griekse Nuwe Testament te bring. Die Nuwe Testament Peshitta het waarskynlik met 'n teks naby aan die Oud Siriese begin, maar het dit dikwels aangepas om dit nader aan die Griekse Nuwe Testament te bring. <![CDATA[<b>'n Studie van die Bybel as God se mosaïekwerk</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100065&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In the Gospel of Matthew 10 quotations from the Old Testament are introduced by a formula containing the verb πληροῦν. This article explores the rendering of 9 of these 10 quotations in 3 Syriac versions of the New Testament, namely the Peshitta and the 2 versions of the Old Syriac Gospels (Sinaiticus and Curetonianus). The question addressed is the relationship of the Syriac versions to one another, to the Peshitta of the Old Testament and to the Greek Gospel. For the quotations in Matthew, their relationship to the Hebrew and Greek Old Testament is very important. In the quotations discussed, the Greek New Testament did not make much use of the Septuagint as it is known today. The Old Testament Peshitta influenced the Old Syriac, but not to the same extent in all instances. This influence could have been through Tatian's Diatessaron. Tatian probably used the text of the Old Testament Peshitta for the quotations of the Old Testament in the gospels. In instances where the Curetonianus and the Sinaiticus differ, it could demonstrate attempts to bring the text closer to the Greek New Testament. The New Testament Peshitta normally started with a text close to the Old Syriac, but frequently adapted it to bring it closer to New Testament Greek.<hr/>Die Evangelie van Matteus het 10 aanhalings uit die Ou Testament wat deur 'n formule met die werkwoord, ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ, ingelei word. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die weergawe van 9 van die 10 aanhalings in drie Siriese weergawes van die Nuwe Testament, naamlik die Peshitta en die twee weergawes van die Ou Siriese Evangelies (Sinaiticus enCuretonianus). Die vraagstuk handel oor die verhouding van die drie Siriese weergawes tot mekaar, tot die Peshitta van die Ou Testament en die Griekse Evangelie. Vir die aanhalings in Matteus is hulle verhouding tot die Hebreeuse en Griekse Ou Testament baie belangrik. In die aanhalings wat bespreek word, maak die Griekse Nuwe Testament nie veel van die Septuagint gebruik soos dit vandag bekend is nie. Die Ou Testament Peshitta het die Oud Siriese Evangelies beïnvloed, maar nie tot dieselfde mate in al die voorbeelde nie. Hierdie invloed kon geskied het via Tatianus se Diatessaron. Tatianus het waarskynlik die teks van die Peshitta van die Ou Testament vir die Ou-Testamentiese aanhalings in die Evangelies gebruik. In die gevalle waar die Curetonianus en die Sinaiticus verskil, is die verskille waarskynlik te wyte aan pogings om die teks nader aan die Griekse Nuwe Testament te bring. Die Nuwe Testament Peshitta het waarskynlik met 'n teks naby aan die Oud Siriese begin, maar het dit dikwels aangepas om dit nader aan die Griekse Nuwe Testament te bring. <![CDATA[<b>'n Nuwe parallelle Nuwe Testament in Afrikaans</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100066&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In the Gospel of Matthew 10 quotations from the Old Testament are introduced by a formula containing the verb πληροῦν. This article explores the rendering of 9 of these 10 quotations in 3 Syriac versions of the New Testament, namely the Peshitta and the 2 versions of the Old Syriac Gospels (Sinaiticus and Curetonianus). The question addressed is the relationship of the Syriac versions to one another, to the Peshitta of the Old Testament and to the Greek Gospel. For the quotations in Matthew, their relationship to the Hebrew and Greek Old Testament is very important. In the quotations discussed, the Greek New Testament did not make much use of the Septuagint as it is known today. The Old Testament Peshitta influenced the Old Syriac, but not to the same extent in all instances. This influence could have been through Tatian's Diatessaron. Tatian probably used the text of the Old Testament Peshitta for the quotations of the Old Testament in the gospels. In instances where the Curetonianus and the Sinaiticus differ, it could demonstrate attempts to bring the text closer to the Greek New Testament. The New Testament Peshitta normally started with a text close to the Old Syriac, but frequently adapted it to bring it closer to New Testament Greek.<hr/>Die Evangelie van Matteus het 10 aanhalings uit die Ou Testament wat deur 'n formule met die werkwoord, ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ, ingelei word. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die weergawe van 9 van die 10 aanhalings in drie Siriese weergawes van die Nuwe Testament, naamlik die Peshitta en die twee weergawes van die Ou Siriese Evangelies (Sinaiticus enCuretonianus). Die vraagstuk handel oor die verhouding van die drie Siriese weergawes tot mekaar, tot die Peshitta van die Ou Testament en die Griekse Evangelie. Vir die aanhalings in Matteus is hulle verhouding tot die Hebreeuse en Griekse Ou Testament baie belangrik. In die aanhalings wat bespreek word, maak die Griekse Nuwe Testament nie veel van die Septuagint gebruik soos dit vandag bekend is nie. Die Ou Testament Peshitta het die Oud Siriese Evangelies beïnvloed, maar nie tot dieselfde mate in al die voorbeelde nie. Hierdie invloed kon geskied het via Tatianus se Diatessaron. Tatianus het waarskynlik die teks van die Peshitta van die Ou Testament vir die Ou-Testamentiese aanhalings in die Evangelies gebruik. In die gevalle waar die Curetonianus en die Sinaiticus verskil, is die verskille waarskynlik te wyte aan pogings om die teks nader aan die Griekse Nuwe Testament te bring. Die Nuwe Testament Peshitta het waarskynlik met 'n teks naby aan die Oud Siriese begin, maar het dit dikwels aangepas om dit nader aan die Griekse Nuwe Testament te bring. <![CDATA[<b>Een uitdagende studie</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100067&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In the Gospel of Matthew 10 quotations from the Old Testament are introduced by a formula containing the verb πληροῦν. This article explores the rendering of 9 of these 10 quotations in 3 Syriac versions of the New Testament, namely the Peshitta and the 2 versions of the Old Syriac Gospels (Sinaiticus and Curetonianus). The question addressed is the relationship of the Syriac versions to one another, to the Peshitta of the Old Testament and to the Greek Gospel. For the quotations in Matthew, their relationship to the Hebrew and Greek Old Testament is very important. In the quotations discussed, the Greek New Testament did not make much use of the Septuagint as it is known today. The Old Testament Peshitta influenced the Old Syriac, but not to the same extent in all instances. This influence could have been through Tatian's Diatessaron. Tatian probably used the text of the Old Testament Peshitta for the quotations of the Old Testament in the gospels. In instances where the Curetonianus and the Sinaiticus differ, it could demonstrate attempts to bring the text closer to the Greek New Testament. The New Testament Peshitta normally started with a text close to the Old Syriac, but frequently adapted it to bring it closer to New Testament Greek.<hr/>Die Evangelie van Matteus het 10 aanhalings uit die Ou Testament wat deur 'n formule met die werkwoord, ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ, ingelei word. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die weergawe van 9 van die 10 aanhalings in drie Siriese weergawes van die Nuwe Testament, naamlik die Peshitta en die twee weergawes van die Ou Siriese Evangelies (Sinaiticus enCuretonianus). Die vraagstuk handel oor die verhouding van die drie Siriese weergawes tot mekaar, tot die Peshitta van die Ou Testament en die Griekse Evangelie. Vir die aanhalings in Matteus is hulle verhouding tot die Hebreeuse en Griekse Ou Testament baie belangrik. In die aanhalings wat bespreek word, maak die Griekse Nuwe Testament nie veel van die Septuagint gebruik soos dit vandag bekend is nie. Die Ou Testament Peshitta het die Oud Siriese Evangelies beïnvloed, maar nie tot dieselfde mate in al die voorbeelde nie. Hierdie invloed kon geskied het via Tatianus se Diatessaron. Tatianus het waarskynlik die teks van die Peshitta van die Ou Testament vir die Ou-Testamentiese aanhalings in die Evangelies gebruik. In die gevalle waar die Curetonianus en die Sinaiticus verskil, is die verskille waarskynlik te wyte aan pogings om die teks nader aan die Griekse Nuwe Testament te bring. Die Nuwe Testament Peshitta het waarskynlik met 'n teks naby aan die Oud Siriese begin, maar het dit dikwels aangepas om dit nader aan die Griekse Nuwe Testament te bring. <![CDATA[<b>Wees Jesus se hande en voete deur anders te dink en te leef as die wêreld</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100068&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In the Gospel of Matthew 10 quotations from the Old Testament are introduced by a formula containing the verb πληροῦν. This article explores the rendering of 9 of these 10 quotations in 3 Syriac versions of the New Testament, namely the Peshitta and the 2 versions of the Old Syriac Gospels (Sinaiticus and Curetonianus). The question addressed is the relationship of the Syriac versions to one another, to the Peshitta of the Old Testament and to the Greek Gospel. For the quotations in Matthew, their relationship to the Hebrew and Greek Old Testament is very important. In the quotations discussed, the Greek New Testament did not make much use of the Septuagint as it is known today. The Old Testament Peshitta influenced the Old Syriac, but not to the same extent in all instances. This influence could have been through Tatian's Diatessaron. Tatian probably used the text of the Old Testament Peshitta for the quotations of the Old Testament in the gospels. In instances where the Curetonianus and the Sinaiticus differ, it could demonstrate attempts to bring the text closer to the Greek New Testament. The New Testament Peshitta normally started with a text close to the Old Syriac, but frequently adapted it to bring it closer to New Testament Greek.<hr/>Die Evangelie van Matteus het 10 aanhalings uit die Ou Testament wat deur 'n formule met die werkwoord, ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ, ingelei word. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die weergawe van 9 van die 10 aanhalings in drie Siriese weergawes van die Nuwe Testament, naamlik die Peshitta en die twee weergawes van die Ou Siriese Evangelies (Sinaiticus enCuretonianus). Die vraagstuk handel oor die verhouding van die drie Siriese weergawes tot mekaar, tot die Peshitta van die Ou Testament en die Griekse Evangelie. Vir die aanhalings in Matteus is hulle verhouding tot die Hebreeuse en Griekse Ou Testament baie belangrik. In die aanhalings wat bespreek word, maak die Griekse Nuwe Testament nie veel van die Septuagint gebruik soos dit vandag bekend is nie. Die Ou Testament Peshitta het die Oud Siriese Evangelies beïnvloed, maar nie tot dieselfde mate in al die voorbeelde nie. Hierdie invloed kon geskied het via Tatianus se Diatessaron. Tatianus het waarskynlik die teks van die Peshitta van die Ou Testament vir die Ou-Testamentiese aanhalings in die Evangelies gebruik. In die gevalle waar die Curetonianus en die Sinaiticus verskil, is die verskille waarskynlik te wyte aan pogings om die teks nader aan die Griekse Nuwe Testament te bring. Die Nuwe Testament Peshitta het waarskynlik met 'n teks naby aan die Oud Siriese begin, maar het dit dikwels aangepas om dit nader aan die Griekse Nuwe Testament te bring. <![CDATA[<b>Kerk</b><b> en teologiese opleiding in 'n post-Christelike wêreld</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100069&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In the Gospel of Matthew 10 quotations from the Old Testament are introduced by a formula containing the verb πληροῦν. This article explores the rendering of 9 of these 10 quotations in 3 Syriac versions of the New Testament, namely the Peshitta and the 2 versions of the Old Syriac Gospels (Sinaiticus and Curetonianus). The question addressed is the relationship of the Syriac versions to one another, to the Peshitta of the Old Testament and to the Greek Gospel. For the quotations in Matthew, their relationship to the Hebrew and Greek Old Testament is very important. In the quotations discussed, the Greek New Testament did not make much use of the Septuagint as it is known today. The Old Testament Peshitta influenced the Old Syriac, but not to the same extent in all instances. This influence could have been through Tatian's Diatessaron. Tatian probably used the text of the Old Testament Peshitta for the quotations of the Old Testament in the gospels. In instances where the Curetonianus and the Sinaiticus differ, it could demonstrate attempts to bring the text closer to the Greek New Testament. The New Testament Peshitta normally started with a text close to the Old Syriac, but frequently adapted it to bring it closer to New Testament Greek.<hr/>Die Evangelie van Matteus het 10 aanhalings uit die Ou Testament wat deur 'n formule met die werkwoord, ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ, ingelei word. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die weergawe van 9 van die 10 aanhalings in drie Siriese weergawes van die Nuwe Testament, naamlik die Peshitta en die twee weergawes van die Ou Siriese Evangelies (Sinaiticus enCuretonianus). Die vraagstuk handel oor die verhouding van die drie Siriese weergawes tot mekaar, tot die Peshitta van die Ou Testament en die Griekse Evangelie. Vir die aanhalings in Matteus is hulle verhouding tot die Hebreeuse en Griekse Ou Testament baie belangrik. In die aanhalings wat bespreek word, maak die Griekse Nuwe Testament nie veel van die Septuagint gebruik soos dit vandag bekend is nie. Die Ou Testament Peshitta het die Oud Siriese Evangelies beïnvloed, maar nie tot dieselfde mate in al die voorbeelde nie. Hierdie invloed kon geskied het via Tatianus se Diatessaron. Tatianus het waarskynlik die teks van die Peshitta van die Ou Testament vir die Ou-Testamentiese aanhalings in die Evangelies gebruik. In die gevalle waar die Curetonianus en die Sinaiticus verskil, is die verskille waarskynlik te wyte aan pogings om die teks nader aan die Griekse Nuwe Testament te bring. Die Nuwe Testament Peshitta het waarskynlik met 'n teks naby aan die Oud Siriese begin, maar het dit dikwels aangepas om dit nader aan die Griekse Nuwe Testament te bring. <![CDATA[<b>Israelisme</b><b> - Is Christus steeds uniek?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100070&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In the Gospel of Matthew 10 quotations from the Old Testament are introduced by a formula containing the verb πληροῦν. This article explores the rendering of 9 of these 10 quotations in 3 Syriac versions of the New Testament, namely the Peshitta and the 2 versions of the Old Syriac Gospels (Sinaiticus and Curetonianus). The question addressed is the relationship of the Syriac versions to one another, to the Peshitta of the Old Testament and to the Greek Gospel. For the quotations in Matthew, their relationship to the Hebrew and Greek Old Testament is very important. In the quotations discussed, the Greek New Testament did not make much use of the Septuagint as it is known today. The Old Testament Peshitta influenced the Old Syriac, but not to the same extent in all instances. This influence could have been through Tatian's Diatessaron. Tatian probably used the text of the Old Testament Peshitta for the quotations of the Old Testament in the gospels. In instances where the Curetonianus and the Sinaiticus differ, it could demonstrate attempts to bring the text closer to the Greek New Testament. The New Testament Peshitta normally started with a text close to the Old Syriac, but frequently adapted it to bring it closer to New Testament Greek.<hr/>Die Evangelie van Matteus het 10 aanhalings uit die Ou Testament wat deur 'n formule met die werkwoord, ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ, ingelei word. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die weergawe van 9 van die 10 aanhalings in drie Siriese weergawes van die Nuwe Testament, naamlik die Peshitta en die twee weergawes van die Ou Siriese Evangelies (Sinaiticus enCuretonianus). Die vraagstuk handel oor die verhouding van die drie Siriese weergawes tot mekaar, tot die Peshitta van die Ou Testament en die Griekse Evangelie. Vir die aanhalings in Matteus is hulle verhouding tot die Hebreeuse en Griekse Ou Testament baie belangrik. In die aanhalings wat bespreek word, maak die Griekse Nuwe Testament nie veel van die Septuagint gebruik soos dit vandag bekend is nie. Die Ou Testament Peshitta het die Oud Siriese Evangelies beïnvloed, maar nie tot dieselfde mate in al die voorbeelde nie. Hierdie invloed kon geskied het via Tatianus se Diatessaron. Tatianus het waarskynlik die teks van die Peshitta van die Ou Testament vir die Ou-Testamentiese aanhalings in die Evangelies gebruik. In die gevalle waar die Curetonianus en die Sinaiticus verskil, is die verskille waarskynlik te wyte aan pogings om die teks nader aan die Griekse Nuwe Testament te bring. Die Nuwe Testament Peshitta het waarskynlik met 'n teks naby aan die Oud Siriese begin, maar het dit dikwels aangepas om dit nader aan die Griekse Nuwe Testament te bring. <![CDATA[<b>Bybelstudie</b><b> vir studente en jongmense om tot 'n lewende verhouding met God te groei</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100071&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In the Gospel of Matthew 10 quotations from the Old Testament are introduced by a formula containing the verb πληροῦν. This article explores the rendering of 9 of these 10 quotations in 3 Syriac versions of the New Testament, namely the Peshitta and the 2 versions of the Old Syriac Gospels (Sinaiticus and Curetonianus). The question addressed is the relationship of the Syriac versions to one another, to the Peshitta of the Old Testament and to the Greek Gospel. For the quotations in Matthew, their relationship to the Hebrew and Greek Old Testament is very important. In the quotations discussed, the Greek New Testament did not make much use of the Septuagint as it is known today. The Old Testament Peshitta influenced the Old Syriac, but not to the same extent in all instances. This influence could have been through Tatian's Diatessaron. Tatian probably used the text of the Old Testament Peshitta for the quotations of the Old Testament in the gospels. In instances where the Curetonianus and the Sinaiticus differ, it could demonstrate attempts to bring the text closer to the Greek New Testament. The New Testament Peshitta normally started with a text close to the Old Syriac, but frequently adapted it to bring it closer to New Testament Greek.<hr/>Die Evangelie van Matteus het 10 aanhalings uit die Ou Testament wat deur 'n formule met die werkwoord, ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ, ingelei word. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die weergawe van 9 van die 10 aanhalings in drie Siriese weergawes van die Nuwe Testament, naamlik die Peshitta en die twee weergawes van die Ou Siriese Evangelies (Sinaiticus enCuretonianus). Die vraagstuk handel oor die verhouding van die drie Siriese weergawes tot mekaar, tot die Peshitta van die Ou Testament en die Griekse Evangelie. Vir die aanhalings in Matteus is hulle verhouding tot die Hebreeuse en Griekse Ou Testament baie belangrik. In die aanhalings wat bespreek word, maak die Griekse Nuwe Testament nie veel van die Septuagint gebruik soos dit vandag bekend is nie. Die Ou Testament Peshitta het die Oud Siriese Evangelies beïnvloed, maar nie tot dieselfde mate in al die voorbeelde nie. Hierdie invloed kon geskied het via Tatianus se Diatessaron. Tatianus het waarskynlik die teks van die Peshitta van die Ou Testament vir die Ou-Testamentiese aanhalings in die Evangelies gebruik. In die gevalle waar die Curetonianus en die Sinaiticus verskil, is die verskille waarskynlik te wyte aan pogings om die teks nader aan die Griekse Nuwe Testament te bring. Die Nuwe Testament Peshitta het waarskynlik met 'n teks naby aan die Oud Siriese begin, maar het dit dikwels aangepas om dit nader aan die Griekse Nuwe Testament te bring. <![CDATA[<b>Onverwerkte</b><b> pyn word onnodige bagasie vir die volgende generasie</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100072&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In the Gospel of Matthew 10 quotations from the Old Testament are introduced by a formula containing the verb πληροῦν. This article explores the rendering of 9 of these 10 quotations in 3 Syriac versions of the New Testament, namely the Peshitta and the 2 versions of the Old Syriac Gospels (Sinaiticus and Curetonianus). The question addressed is the relationship of the Syriac versions to one another, to the Peshitta of the Old Testament and to the Greek Gospel. For the quotations in Matthew, their relationship to the Hebrew and Greek Old Testament is very important. In the quotations discussed, the Greek New Testament did not make much use of the Septuagint as it is known today. The Old Testament Peshitta influenced the Old Syriac, but not to the same extent in all instances. This influence could have been through Tatian's Diatessaron. Tatian probably used the text of the Old Testament Peshitta for the quotations of the Old Testament in the gospels. In instances where the Curetonianus and the Sinaiticus differ, it could demonstrate attempts to bring the text closer to the Greek New Testament. The New Testament Peshitta normally started with a text close to the Old Syriac, but frequently adapted it to bring it closer to New Testament Greek.<hr/>Die Evangelie van Matteus het 10 aanhalings uit die Ou Testament wat deur 'n formule met die werkwoord, ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ, ingelei word. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die weergawe van 9 van die 10 aanhalings in drie Siriese weergawes van die Nuwe Testament, naamlik die Peshitta en die twee weergawes van die Ou Siriese Evangelies (Sinaiticus enCuretonianus). Die vraagstuk handel oor die verhouding van die drie Siriese weergawes tot mekaar, tot die Peshitta van die Ou Testament en die Griekse Evangelie. Vir die aanhalings in Matteus is hulle verhouding tot die Hebreeuse en Griekse Ou Testament baie belangrik. In die aanhalings wat bespreek word, maak die Griekse Nuwe Testament nie veel van die Septuagint gebruik soos dit vandag bekend is nie. Die Ou Testament Peshitta het die Oud Siriese Evangelies beïnvloed, maar nie tot dieselfde mate in al die voorbeelde nie. Hierdie invloed kon geskied het via Tatianus se Diatessaron. Tatianus het waarskynlik die teks van die Peshitta van die Ou Testament vir die Ou-Testamentiese aanhalings in die Evangelies gebruik. In die gevalle waar die Curetonianus en die Sinaiticus verskil, is die verskille waarskynlik te wyte aan pogings om die teks nader aan die Griekse Nuwe Testament te bring. Die Nuwe Testament Peshitta het waarskynlik met 'n teks naby aan die Oud Siriese begin, maar het dit dikwels aangepas om dit nader aan die Griekse Nuwe Testament te bring. <![CDATA[<b>Conflicting personalities and driving ambition</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100073&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In the Gospel of Matthew 10 quotations from the Old Testament are introduced by a formula containing the verb πληροῦν. This article explores the rendering of 9 of these 10 quotations in 3 Syriac versions of the New Testament, namely the Peshitta and the 2 versions of the Old Syriac Gospels (Sinaiticus and Curetonianus). The question addressed is the relationship of the Syriac versions to one another, to the Peshitta of the Old Testament and to the Greek Gospel. For the quotations in Matthew, their relationship to the Hebrew and Greek Old Testament is very important. In the quotations discussed, the Greek New Testament did not make much use of the Septuagint as it is known today. The Old Testament Peshitta influenced the Old Syriac, but not to the same extent in all instances. This influence could have been through Tatian's Diatessaron. Tatian probably used the text of the Old Testament Peshitta for the quotations of the Old Testament in the gospels. In instances where the Curetonianus and the Sinaiticus differ, it could demonstrate attempts to bring the text closer to the Greek New Testament. The New Testament Peshitta normally started with a text close to the Old Syriac, but frequently adapted it to bring it closer to New Testament Greek.<hr/>Die Evangelie van Matteus het 10 aanhalings uit die Ou Testament wat deur 'n formule met die werkwoord, ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ, ingelei word. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die weergawe van 9 van die 10 aanhalings in drie Siriese weergawes van die Nuwe Testament, naamlik die Peshitta en die twee weergawes van die Ou Siriese Evangelies (Sinaiticus enCuretonianus). Die vraagstuk handel oor die verhouding van die drie Siriese weergawes tot mekaar, tot die Peshitta van die Ou Testament en die Griekse Evangelie. Vir die aanhalings in Matteus is hulle verhouding tot die Hebreeuse en Griekse Ou Testament baie belangrik. In die aanhalings wat bespreek word, maak die Griekse Nuwe Testament nie veel van die Septuagint gebruik soos dit vandag bekend is nie. Die Ou Testament Peshitta het die Oud Siriese Evangelies beïnvloed, maar nie tot dieselfde mate in al die voorbeelde nie. Hierdie invloed kon geskied het via Tatianus se Diatessaron. Tatianus het waarskynlik die teks van die Peshitta van die Ou Testament vir die Ou-Testamentiese aanhalings in die Evangelies gebruik. In die gevalle waar die Curetonianus en die Sinaiticus verskil, is die verskille waarskynlik te wyte aan pogings om die teks nader aan die Griekse Nuwe Testament te bring. Die Nuwe Testament Peshitta het waarskynlik met 'n teks naby aan die Oud Siriese begin, maar het dit dikwels aangepas om dit nader aan die Griekse Nuwe Testament te bring. <![CDATA[<b>Die hart van die Bybel</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100074&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In the Gospel of Matthew 10 quotations from the Old Testament are introduced by a formula containing the verb πληροῦν. This article explores the rendering of 9 of these 10 quotations in 3 Syriac versions of the New Testament, namely the Peshitta and the 2 versions of the Old Syriac Gospels (Sinaiticus and Curetonianus). The question addressed is the relationship of the Syriac versions to one another, to the Peshitta of the Old Testament and to the Greek Gospel. For the quotations in Matthew, their relationship to the Hebrew and Greek Old Testament is very important. In the quotations discussed, the Greek New Testament did not make much use of the Septuagint as it is known today. The Old Testament Peshitta influenced the Old Syriac, but not to the same extent in all instances. This influence could have been through Tatian's Diatessaron. Tatian probably used the text of the Old Testament Peshitta for the quotations of the Old Testament in the gospels. In instances where the Curetonianus and the Sinaiticus differ, it could demonstrate attempts to bring the text closer to the Greek New Testament. The New Testament Peshitta normally started with a text close to the Old Syriac, but frequently adapted it to bring it closer to New Testament Greek.<hr/>Die Evangelie van Matteus het 10 aanhalings uit die Ou Testament wat deur 'n formule met die werkwoord, ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ, ingelei word. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die weergawe van 9 van die 10 aanhalings in drie Siriese weergawes van die Nuwe Testament, naamlik die Peshitta en die twee weergawes van die Ou Siriese Evangelies (Sinaiticus enCuretonianus). Die vraagstuk handel oor die verhouding van die drie Siriese weergawes tot mekaar, tot die Peshitta van die Ou Testament en die Griekse Evangelie. Vir die aanhalings in Matteus is hulle verhouding tot die Hebreeuse en Griekse Ou Testament baie belangrik. In die aanhalings wat bespreek word, maak die Griekse Nuwe Testament nie veel van die Septuagint gebruik soos dit vandag bekend is nie. Die Ou Testament Peshitta het die Oud Siriese Evangelies beïnvloed, maar nie tot dieselfde mate in al die voorbeelde nie. Hierdie invloed kon geskied het via Tatianus se Diatessaron. Tatianus het waarskynlik die teks van die Peshitta van die Ou Testament vir die Ou-Testamentiese aanhalings in die Evangelies gebruik. In die gevalle waar die Curetonianus en die Sinaiticus verskil, is die verskille waarskynlik te wyte aan pogings om die teks nader aan die Griekse Nuwe Testament te bring. Die Nuwe Testament Peshitta het waarskynlik met 'n teks naby aan die Oud Siriese begin, maar het dit dikwels aangepas om dit nader aan die Griekse Nuwe Testament te bring. <![CDATA[ <b>Dagstukkies</b><b> vir mans</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532015000100075&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In the Gospel of Matthew 10 quotations from the Old Testament are introduced by a formula containing the verb πληροῦν. This article explores the rendering of 9 of these 10 quotations in 3 Syriac versions of the New Testament, namely the Peshitta and the 2 versions of the Old Syriac Gospels (Sinaiticus and Curetonianus). The question addressed is the relationship of the Syriac versions to one another, to the Peshitta of the Old Testament and to the Greek Gospel. For the quotations in Matthew, their relationship to the Hebrew and Greek Old Testament is very important. In the quotations discussed, the Greek New Testament did not make much use of the Septuagint as it is known today. The Old Testament Peshitta influenced the Old Syriac, but not to the same extent in all instances. This influence could have been through Tatian's Diatessaron. Tatian probably used the text of the Old Testament Peshitta for the quotations of the Old Testament in the gospels. In instances where the Curetonianus and the Sinaiticus differ, it could demonstrate attempts to bring the text closer to the Greek New Testament. The New Testament Peshitta normally started with a text close to the Old Syriac, but frequently adapted it to bring it closer to New Testament Greek.<hr/>Die Evangelie van Matteus het 10 aanhalings uit die Ou Testament wat deur 'n formule met die werkwoord, ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ, ingelei word. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die weergawe van 9 van die 10 aanhalings in drie Siriese weergawes van die Nuwe Testament, naamlik die Peshitta en die twee weergawes van die Ou Siriese Evangelies (Sinaiticus enCuretonianus). Die vraagstuk handel oor die verhouding van die drie Siriese weergawes tot mekaar, tot die Peshitta van die Ou Testament en die Griekse Evangelie. Vir die aanhalings in Matteus is hulle verhouding tot die Hebreeuse en Griekse Ou Testament baie belangrik. In die aanhalings wat bespreek word, maak die Griekse Nuwe Testament nie veel van die Septuagint gebruik soos dit vandag bekend is nie. Die Ou Testament Peshitta het die Oud Siriese Evangelies beïnvloed, maar nie tot dieselfde mate in al die voorbeelde nie. Hierdie invloed kon geskied het via Tatianus se Diatessaron. Tatianus het waarskynlik die teks van die Peshitta van die Ou Testament vir die Ou-Testamentiese aanhalings in die Evangelies gebruik. In die gevalle waar die Curetonianus en die Sinaiticus verskil, is die verskille waarskynlik te wyte aan pogings om die teks nader aan die Griekse Nuwe Testament te bring. Die Nuwe Testament Peshitta het waarskynlik met 'n teks naby aan die Oud Siriese begin, maar het dit dikwels aangepas om dit nader aan die Griekse Nuwe Testament te bring.