Scielo RSS <![CDATA[In die Skriflig ]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2305-085320140002&lang=es vol. 48 num. 2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>The power of praise psalms to encourage awareness of ecological issues amongst worshippers</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000200001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The liturgy ought to sensitise believers anew to glorifying God as the Creator and the Recreator of the universe. The Book of Psalms may be used to great effect to sharpen the ecological awareness of believers. The topic is investigated on the basis of three creation psalms, namely Psalm 19, 104 and 148. In particular, it asks how the praise of the so-called creation psalms serves to alert believers not only to conserve nature in their own context, but also, together with nature, to praise God in word and deed? The fact that the ecological crisis directly concerns our earth, air and water, that is, our basic sustenance ought to lead worshippers in the worship service to serious reflection. The destruction of ecological systems has a direct effect on every other problem faced by plant, human and animal. The focus of Psalm 19 on the heavens puts air pollution, global warming and damage to the ozone layer on the agenda of every worship-service participant. In the songs of praise in Psalm 104 and 148, humans are seen as part of the artistic creation web which ought to be conserved.<hr/>Die liturgie behoort opnuut 'n sensitiwiteit by gelowiges te skep om God as die Skepper én Herskepper van die heelal te verheerlik. Die psalms kan met groot vrug gebruik word om gelowiges se ekologiese bewussyn op te skerp. Die saak word aan die hand van drie skeppingspsalms ondersoek, naamlik Psalm 19, 104 en 148. Dit vra veral hoe die lof in hierdie sogenaamde skeppingspsalms daartoe bydra om gelowiges in hulle eie konteks op te skerp om nie net die natuur te bewaar nie, maar om deur die natuur God met woord en daad te verheerlik. Omdat die ekologiese krisis ons aarde, lug en water, met ander woorde ons basiese lewensmiddele regstreeks raak, behoort aanbidders in die erediens ernstig oor hulle betrokkenheid by die ekologie te laat besin. Die verwoesting van ekologiese sisteme het 'n regstreekse uitwerking op alle ander probleme en nood wat deur plant, mens en dier ervaar word. Die klem van Psalm 19 op die hemelruim plaas lugbesoedeling, aardverwarming en die skade aan die osoonlaag op die agenda van elke deelnemer aan die erediens. In die lofliedere in Psalm 104 en 148 is die mens deel van die kunstige skeppingsweb wat bewaar behoort te word. <![CDATA[<b>Ethical perspectives on hate speech in view of the third commandment</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000200002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hierdie artikel fokus op die implikasies van die derde gebod met betrekking tot haatspraak in Suid-Afrika (SA) vandag. Die artikel gaan uit van die standpunt dat die name van God op sy wese dui. Die name van God soos dit in die bybelse openbaringsgeskiedenis ontwikkel word, druk die gemeenskapskarakter van God se verhouding met mense en die skepping uit. Die betekenis van die name kulmineer in die Nuwe-Testamentiese uitdrukkings Vader en God is liefde. Alle verbale gedrag wat hierdie gemeenskaps- en liefdesverhouding inhibeer, oortree die derde gebod. Die misbruik van die Naam van God vind onder andere plaas wanneer mense, wat na die beeld van God geskep is, gedegradeer word deur haatspraak, omdat sodanige degradering die gemeenskap en liefde tussen God en die mens skend. Ten slotte word sekere gevalle van haatspraak soos dit vandag in Suid-Afrika voorkom, teologies-eties belig teen die agtergrond van die betekenis van die derde gebod. Hierdie vorms sluit religieuse, rassistiese, xenofobiese, seksistiese en homofobiese haatspraak in.<hr/>This article focuses on the implications of the third commandment for hate speech in modern-day South Africa. The article contends that the names of God are expressions of his Being. The names of God as they are developed in the biblical history of revelation express his creation of covenantal community and restored relations with humankind and creation. The meaning of the names of God culminates in the New Testament expressions Father and God is love. Verbal actions that inhibit the new community created by God or violate love transgress the third commandment. Misuse of the name of God occurs among others when people, created in the image of God, are verbally degraded by hate speech because such degradation violates the community of love between God and humankind. In conclusion, the article indicates forms of hate speech in South Africa that should be dealt with in the light of the third commandment. These are acts of racist, xenophobic, sexist, religious and homophobic hate speech. <![CDATA[<b>Is God (in)consistent? Sovereignty, deliberation and accountability in the Davidic history in the books of Samuel</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000200003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es As 'n eenheid openbaar die Samuelboeke die aanspreeklikheid van mense in hulle verhouding tot mekaar en tot God. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die vraag na God se konsekwentheid wat ook die vraag impliseer of alles onder sy heerskappy plaasvind. Die bevinding is dat alles onder God se allesoorkoepelende, vrymagtige en persoonlike heerskappy gebeur. Vir die beperkte menslike oorweging is dit geheel en al onpeilbaar anders. Dit is nie 'n nuutskepping oor sy Woord wat die lig bring nie, maar die nuutontdekking in sy Woord. Hy laat reg en geregtigheid geld, maar in 'n nog sterker mate ook sy genade. Uiteindelik is sy konsekwentheid - 'die dwaasheid van die kruis' - ten volle geopenbaar in die verwagte Messias, Jesus Christus. In die huidige stukkende werklikheid oefen God ook sy heerskappy uit deur persone wat hulle eie agendas het, selfs bose agendas. So laat Hy gelowiges tot selfontdekking, berou en bekering oor hulle sonde kom. Hulle leef met kinderlike vertroue op God en volgens die groot gebod van die liefde.<hr/>The books of Samuel as a unity reveal the accountability of people in their relations to each other and to God. This article explores the issue of God's consistency, including the question whether everything happens under his reign. The finding is that everything happens under his all-embracing, all-powerful and personal sovereignty, which is unfathomable by the limited human deliberation. It is not a new creation about his Word which brings the light, but the new discovery in his Word. He asserts justice, and to an even greater extent, his grace. His consistency - 'the foolishness of the cross' - is ultimately fully revealed in the expected Messiah, Jesus Christ. In the present broken reality God also asserts his sovereignty through people who have their own agendas, even evil agendas. Thus, He brings believers to self-discovery, remorse and repentance from their sins. They live with childlike trust in God and according to the great commandment of love. <![CDATA[<b>Jesus healing the leper and the Purity Law in the Gospel of Matthew</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000200004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Though, in the Sermon on the Mount, Jesus explicitly states that he did not come to abolish the Law (Mt 5:17-19), in the narrative that follows directly after this Sermon, he apparently neglects purity laws by healing a leper (Mt 8:1-3). As an impure person, the leper was not supposed to come close to Jesus, but Jesus sympathetically reaches out and touches him. Furthermore, no mention is made of Jesus undergoing any purification rites after coming into contact with this man. Once the leper is healed, Jesus instructs him to perform only the third phase of the prescribed purification rite for lepers. Jesus is thus described as having the power and authority to heal the person and to declare him healed. What remains for the leper is to show himself to the priest and to bring the appropriate sacrifice, so that he could be accepted into the society again. In this article it is argued that Jesus, as the Holy One and miracle Healer, is not defiled by coming into contact with the leper. Purity flows from Jesus to heal the leper. As a teacher of the Law, Jesus enacts the true intention of the Law, which is to establish a holy community of believers within the Kingdom of heaven. This healing action forms a step towards the coming of the Kingdom of heaven. Thus, the purity laws find their fulfilment in Jesus. As result of this action, cultic purity transforms into a moral activity for the followers of Jesus.<hr/>OPSOMMING Hoewel Jesus in die Bergrede eksplisiet noem dat Hy nie gekom het om die Wet ongeldig te maak nie (Matt 5:15-19), lyk dit asof Hy, in die vertelling wat direk op die Rede volg, die reinheidswette oortree het deur die manier waarop Hy 'n melaatse genees (Matt 8:1-3). As 'n onrein persoon was die melaatste nie veronderstel om naby Jesus te kom nie, maar Jesus het simpatiek na hom toe uitgereik en hom aangeraak. Hierbenewens word geen melding daarvan gemaak dat Jesus enige reinigingsrituele ondergaan het nadat hy in kontak met hierdie man was nie. Nadat die melaatse genees is, beveel Jesus hom om slegs die derde fase van die voorgeskrewe reinigingsrituele vir melaatses uit te voer. Jesus word sodoende beskryf as iemand wat die mag en gesag het om 'n persoon te genees en gesond te verklaar. Wat oorbly, is dat die melaatse homself aan die priester moet gaan wys en die gepaste offer bring, sodat hy weer in die gemeenskap opgeneem kan word. Hierdie artikel argumenteer dat Jesus, as heilige persoon en wondergeneser, nie onrein word wanneer Hy in kontak met die melaatse kom nie. Reinheid vloei vanaf Jesus oor na die melaatse. As leraar van die Wet beoefen Jesus die ware bedoeling van die Wet, wat ten doel het om die heilige gemeenskap van gelowiges in die Koninkryk van die hemel te vestig. Hierdie genesingsaksie is nog 'n tree in die koms van die Koninkryk van die hemel. Sodoende vind die reinheidswette hulle vervulling in Jesus. As gevolg hiervan verander kultiese reinheid na morele optrede vir die navolgers van Jesus. <![CDATA[<b>Calvinism, atheism and freedom of religion: A South African perspective</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000200005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In this article the author investigates the approaches of Calvinism and atheism regarding the freedom of religion. The different views on God, man and science according to these worldviews function as a background for the explanation of freedom of religion. Special attention is been paid to the South African Constitution of 1996 and the stipulations of this constitution regarding freedom of religion for churches and schools. The article ends with a few concluding remarks and suggestions for further investigation.<hr/>OPSOMMING Hierdie artikel ondersoek die benaderings van Calvinisme en ateïsme ten opsigte van godsdiensvryheid. Die verskillende sienings oor God, mens en wetenskap funksioneer as agtergrond vir 'n uiteensetting van godsdiensvryheid. Besondere aandag word aan die Suid-Afrikaanse Grondwet van 1996 geskenk, asook die bepalings van hierdie grondwet vir kerke en skole. Die artikel sluit af met 'n paar slotopmerkings en voorstelle vir verdere ondersoek. <![CDATA[<b>A literary-aesthetic approach of homiletic in a changing culture</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000200006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die artikel belig homiletiek vanuit 'n literêr-estetiese benadering in 'n veranderende kultuur. In hierdie benadering word sekere sleutelkonsepte toegelig. Hermeneutiek sowel as intertekstualiteit is met die literêre konsep verweef. Die estetiese benadering is soos 'n net waarin vorme van kuns ingetrek word. Visuele kuns, poësie, teater en film word bespreek. Die uniekheid van hierdie benadering is dat 'n homiletiese model uit 'n literêr-estiese perspektief in 'n veranderende kultuur ontwikkel word. Die verband tussen homiletiek, 'n literêr-estetiese homiletiek en die veranderende kultuur word deur die begrip inkulturasie gelê. Dit lei daartoe dat die belangrike wederkerige interaksie tussen die preek en die wisselende kultuur steeds in ag geneem moet word.<hr/>This article deals with homiletics from a literary-aesthetic approach in a changing culture. Within this approach several concepts are defined. Hermeneutics as well as intertextuality are connected to the literary aspect. A cluster of notions form part of the aesthetic concept. In this regard different forms of art are explored. Visual arts, poetry, theatre and film are discussed. The unique contribution of this approach is specifically the development of a homiletic model from a literary-aesthetic perspective in a changing culture. With regard to the latter, the concept of inculturation is utilised. In the process of homiletical inculturation, the critical reciprocal interaction between the sermon and the surrounding cultures is taken into account. <![CDATA[<b>A thought provoking new publication on Christology</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000200007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die artikel belig homiletiek vanuit 'n literêr-estetiese benadering in 'n veranderende kultuur. In hierdie benadering word sekere sleutelkonsepte toegelig. Hermeneutiek sowel as intertekstualiteit is met die literêre konsep verweef. Die estetiese benadering is soos 'n net waarin vorme van kuns ingetrek word. Visuele kuns, poësie, teater en film word bespreek. Die uniekheid van hierdie benadering is dat 'n homiletiese model uit 'n literêr-estiese perspektief in 'n veranderende kultuur ontwikkel word. Die verband tussen homiletiek, 'n literêr-estetiese homiletiek en die veranderende kultuur word deur die begrip inkulturasie gelê. Dit lei daartoe dat die belangrike wederkerige interaksie tussen die preek en die wisselende kultuur steeds in ag geneem moet word.<hr/>This article deals with homiletics from a literary-aesthetic approach in a changing culture. Within this approach several concepts are defined. Hermeneutics as well as intertextuality are connected to the literary aspect. A cluster of notions form part of the aesthetic concept. In this regard different forms of art are explored. Visual arts, poetry, theatre and film are discussed. The unique contribution of this approach is specifically the development of a homiletic model from a literary-aesthetic perspective in a changing culture. With regard to the latter, the concept of inculturation is utilised. In the process of homiletical inculturation, the critical reciprocal interaction between the sermon and the surrounding cultures is taken into account. <![CDATA[<b>Did Abraham have to sacrifice his child? An ethical assessment</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000200008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In Genesis 22 gee die God van die Bybel aan Abraham die opdrag om sy kind te offer. Abraham aanvaar die opdrag sonder om vir sy seun in te tree. Sy optrede - so anders as sy vorige optrede in belang van mense - kan net verstaan word teen die agtergrond van God se belofte van 'n groot en geseënde nageslag deur hierdie seun. Abraham moes besef het dat dit 'n toets vir sy vertroue in die belofte en almag van God was. Die feit dat Abraham se aanvaarding van die opdrag nie net as eties korrek beskryf kan word nie, maar volgens die Bybel ook as 'n geloofsdaad gesien moet word, word indringend bespreek. Die etiese beoordeling vind onder andere plaas na aanleiding van die normatiwiteit van lewe, die beginsels van liefde en gehoorsaamheid, ontsag vir God, en 'n deontologiese beoordeling volgens die motief, doel, middel en gevolg.<hr/>In Genesis 22 the God of the Bible commanded Abraham to sacrifice his child. Abraham accepted the command without interceding for his son. His actions - so different from his previous actions on behalf of people - can only be understood against the backdrop of God's promise of many and blessed descendants through this son. Abraham would have realised that it was a test for his faith in the promise and omnipotence of God. The fact that Abraham's acceptance of the assignment can not only be described as ethically just, but also be seen in accordance to the Bible, as an act of faith, are discussed in depth. The ethical assessment takes place, amongst others, according to the normativity of life, the principles of love and obedience, reverence for God, and an assessment of motive, aim, means and effect. <![CDATA[<b>Function of space in Daniel 1</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000200009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Daniel 1 narrates how Daniel and his friends come from Jerusalem and are appointed as officials at the royal court in Babylon. The narrative is governed by the various and significant references to space. The Jews' loyalty towards Jerusalem and its association with the Temple and temple cult is challenged by the loyalty required from them at the Babylonian court as symbolised by the new names they receive - names associated with the Babylonian gods. The strategy they devise to retain their loyalty towards YHWH is decided by their request for a specific specific type of food. Their eating special food in contrast to the royal food set apart for the candidates, creates a space that relates to the determinative contrast between Jerusalem and Shinar. The tale in Daniel 1 is determined by references to space that allowed the Jewish readers to understand its meaning.<hr/>Daniël 1 vertel hoe Daniël en sy vriende uit Jerusalem as hofamptenare in Babilon aangestel word. Die narratief word beheers deur verskeie belangrike verwysings na ruimte. Die Joodse jongmanne se lojaliteit aan Jerusalem en hulle verbintenis met die Tempel en tempelkultus, word deur die lojaliteit wat aan die koninklike hof van hulle verwag word, getoets. Dit word deur die nuwe name wat aan hulle gegee is, gedemonstreer - name wat waarskynlik met Babiloniese gode se name verband hou. Hulle strategie om aan JHWH lojaal te bly, berus op hulle versoek om 'n spesifieke soort voedsel te gebruik. Afsonderlike voedsel in teenstelling met dié van die koning, skep die ruimte waarbinne die bepalende kontras tussen Jerusalem en Sinar gehandhaaf kan word. Die vertelling in Daniël 1 word bepaal deur verwysings na ruimte, wat die Joodse leser in staat stel om die betekenis daarvan te begryp. <![CDATA[<b>The deaf cannot see: An accumulation of blindness and deafness as combined theme in Isaiah 42 and 43</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000200010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In the Bible the words blind and deaf occur nine times in the same sentence. An accumulation of such sentences is found in Isaiah 42 and 43, where it occurs three times (Is 42:18, 19; 43:8). Blindness is also mentioned in two further sentences in these chapters. Not only is it stated that the people of God is blind, but Israel also accuses Yahweh that their way is hidden from him (Is 40:27). It is because of this accusation, pertaining to an alleged blindness on Yahweh's side, that the question of hearing is raised. He answers to this accusation in the heavenly court with the questions 'Do you not know? Have you not heard?' From there on God makes it clear that seeing is dependent on hearing. In a heavenly court of law, the wrong perception that God's people had about the exile was put straight and a new beginning for the exiles was subsequently made. The theme of blind- and deafness is thereby continued from Isaiah 1 and 6 in the verdict in the heavenly court in Isaiah 43, where it became clear that the cure for the spiritual blindness of God's people is not related to their eyes, but to their ears.<hr/>In die Bybel kom die woorde blind en doof nege keer saam in dieselfde sin voor. 'n Opeenhoping van hierdie sinne word in Jesaja 42 en 43 aangetref waar dit drie maal voorkom (Jes 42:18, 19; 43:8). Blindheid word ook in twee verdere sinne in hierdie hoofstukke genoem. Nie alleen word dit gestel dat die volk van God blind is nie, maar die volk beskuldig God dat Hy nie raaksien wat van hulle word nie (Jes 40:27). In die hemelse hof antwoord God op hierdie beskuldiging met die vrae 'Weet julle nie? Het julle nie gehoor nie?' Van daardie punt af maak God dit duidelik dat sien van hoor afhanklik is. Hierdie verkeerde persepsie van die volk oor God se sogenaamde blindheid vir hulle welstand tydens die ballingskap, word reggestel en 'n nuwe begin word gemaak. Die tema van blind- en doofheid word sodoende uit Jesaja 1 en 6 voortgesit in die uitspraak wat in die hemelse hof gemaak word (Jes 43). Daar word dit duidelik dat die oplossing vir die geestelike blindheid van die volk nie verband hou met hulle sig nie, maar met hulle gehoor. <![CDATA[<b>Literary-aesthetic approach of homiletic in a changing culture</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000200011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die artikel belig homiletiek vanuit 'n literêr-estetiese benadering in 'n veranderende kultuur. In hierdie benadering word sekere sleutelkonsepte toegelig. Hermeneutiek sowel as intertekstualiteit is met die literêre konsep verweef. Die estetiese benadering is soos 'n net waarin vorme van kuns ingetrek word. Visuele kuns, poësie, teater en film word bespreek. Die uniekheid van hierdie benadering is dat 'n homiletiese model uit 'n literêr-estiese perspektief in 'n veranderende kultuur ontwikkel word. Die verband tussen homiletiek, 'n literêr-estetiese homiletiek en die veranderende kultuur word deur die begrip inkulturasie gelê. Dit lei daartoe dat die belangrike wederkerige interaksie tussen die preek en die wisselende kultuur steeds in ag geneem moet word.<hr/>This article deals with homiletics from a literary-aesthetic approach in a changing culture. Within this approach several concepts are defined. Hermeneutics as well as intertextuality are connected to the literary aspect. A cluster of notions form part of the aesthetic concept. In this regard different forms of art are explored. Visual arts, poetry, theatre and film are discussed. The unique contribution of this approach is specifically the development of a homiletic model from a literary-aesthetic perspective in a changing culture. With regard to the latter, the concept of inculturation is utilised. In the process of homiletical inculturation, the critical reciprocal interaction between the sermon and the surrounding cultures is taken into account. <![CDATA[<b>Hymns used infrequently: Does the melody play a role?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000200012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Enige kerklike liedboek bevat liedere wat dikwels tydens eredienste gesing word en liedere wat min of nooit gesing word nie. Hierdie toedrag van sake kan aan 'n verskeidenheid faktore toegeskryf word. In sommige gevalle mag die inhoud van 'n lied dalk liturgies nie maklik bruikbaar wees nie. Daar is egter gevalle waar die inhoud liturgies bruikbaar is, maar waar die liedere steeds nie dikwels in die liturgie gebruik word nie. Ook hiervoor kan daar verskillende redes wees. Soms word die melodieë van die liedere as die rede aangevoer waarom dit weinig gesing word. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die aangeleentheid met verwysing na 'n aantal liedere wat min gebruik word volgens die bevindings van 'n empiriese ondersoek na die gebruik van liedere in die Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika (GKSA). Die artikel gee aandag aan die vereistes vir en die funksie van kerkliedere as agtergrond vir die beoordeling van 'n aantal liedere. Die resultate van die empiriese ondersoek is vir die keuse van die melodieë gebruik wat in hierdie artikel bespreek word. Die melodieë van die betrokke vyf liedere word bespreek en geëvalueer om te bepaal of dit moontlik 'n rol kan speel in die lae gebruiksfrekwensie daarvan. Die artikel toon aan dat die melodie wel 'n belangrike aanduider in die lae gebruiksfrekwensie van die liedere is.<hr/>Any hymn book contains hymns that are sung frequently during services and other hymns that are sung very rarely or even never. This fact can be ascribed to a number of reasons. In some instances the contents of the hymn are such that it does not fit easily into the liturgy of a service. There are, however, hymns that could easily be used in the liturgy, but are used infrequently. Different reasons can account for this. The melodies of such hymns are often blamed for this state of affairs. This article explores this issue with respect to a number of hymns that are utilised infrequently according to data from an empirical investigation into the frequency of the use of hymns in the Reformed Churches in South Africa (RCSA). This article discusses the requirements for and the function of ecclesiastical hymns as background for the evaluation of a number of hymns. Results from an empirical investigation were used for the selection of melodies discussed in this article. The article then discusses and evaluates the melodies of five hymns that are used very infrequently in the churches to determine whether these melodies impacted negatively on the use of these hymns. From this discussion it is evident that the melody plays an important role in the low frequency use in the liturgy. <![CDATA[<b>Laughter in the Old Testament: A hotchpotch of humour, mockery and rejoicing?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000200013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Aspects of humour appearing in society, religion, literature and speech have been discussed. The article investigated in particular the current tendency to interpret certain passages in the Bible as evidence of humorous traits. In these cases humour is taken as an interpretative key. A prerequisite to provide a hermeneutical basis for reading the Old Testament in terms of humour has been discussed. A few texts that present Yahweh as laughing have been considered.<hr/>Aspekte van humor wat in die gemeenskap, godsdiens, literatuur en omgangstaal voorkom, word bespreek. Die artikel gee veral aandag aan die huidige neiging om sekere tekste in die Bybel as voorbeelde wat humoristiese trekke vertoon, te verstaan. In sulke gevalle word die humorbegrip as 'n interpretasiesleutel hanteer. Die voorvereiste vir 'n hermeneutiese basis om die humorbegrip in die Ou Testament te verstaan, word bespreek. Enkele tekste waarin verwys word na die Here wat lag, word ook ondersoek. <![CDATA[<b>Hermeneutical challenges encountered by Christ-centered preaching from Old Testament narratives</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000200014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Baie predikers vind dit moeilik om Christus vanuit die Ou Testament te verkondig. Die probleem van Christosentriese prediking uit die Ou Testament is wesenlik 'n hermeneutiese probleem. In hierdie artikel word gepoog om 'n antwoord hierop te bied deur eerstens bepaalde ankers in 'n see van hermeneutiese moontlikhede te identifiseer. Hierdie ankers sluit in die Christelike karakter van die Ou Testament en die eenheid tussen die Ou en Nuwe Testament met 'n universele boodskap. Ten einde Christus op 'n geloofwaardige en verantwoordelike wyse vanuit die Ou Testament te preek, is 'n eksegetiese metode waarin rekening gehou word met die karakter van die Ou Testament, sowel as die verhouding daarvan tot die Nuwe Testament, onontbeerlik. Die holisties histories-kritiese metode dien, na ons mening, Christosentriese prediking uit die Ou Testament die beste, aangesien dit die literêre, historiese en teologiese aspekte van 'n teks verreken. Terwyl 'n verantwoordelike eksegetiese metode die basis lê vir Christosentriese prediking uit die Ou Testament, word daar ook 'n verkenning gedoen van sinvolle (organiese) oorgange vanuit Ou-Testamentiese narratiewe na die Nuwe Testament. Aangesien Christosentriese prediking uit die Ou Testament nie sonder gevare is nie, word enkele slaggate ten opsigte daarvan uit die Ou-Testamentiese narratiewe uitgelig.<hr/>Many ministers find it difficult to preach Christ from the Old Testament. The problem of Christocentric preaching from the Old Testament is essentially a hermeneutical problem. In this article an answer is proposed, firstly by identifying specific anchors in a sea of hermeneutic possibilities. These include the Christian character of the Old Testament, and the unity between the Old and New Testaments with a universal message. In order to preach Christ in a credible and responsible manner from the Old Testament, an exegetical method, which takes into account the character of the Old Testament as well as its relationship to the New Testament, is essential. The holistic historic-critical method, we believe, serves Christocentric preaching from the Old Testament the best as it takes the literary, historical and theological aspects of the text into consideration. As a responsible exegetical method lays the foundations for Christocentric preaching from the Old Testament, an exploration of meaningful (organic) transitions from Old Testament narratives to the New Testament is made. Seeing that Christocentric preaching from the Old Testament is not without dangers, some pitfalls regarding Christocentric preaching from the Old Testament narratives are highlighted. <![CDATA[<b>An exploration of synthetic biology: A preliminary Christian ethical assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of synthetic biology</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000200015&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es On 20 May 2010, the Venter Institute in America announced that they have fully synthesised the genome of the organism Mycoplasma mycoides whilst in vitro by using a computer connected to a machine that synthesises genes. Thereafter, the genome was placed back into the casing of another organism (Mycoplasma capricolum) and it was reported that the synthesised organism and the genome functioned normally. This synthesised organism was reconstructed to function as a minute little factory with the aim of producing and secreting fuel and medicine − something that is not the natural function of this organism. There are certain potential dangers inherent in this kind of technology. Scientists fear that this technology may contaminate or infect humans, animals or the environment, and that it can as such be extremely harmful, or even lead to the destruction of humans. Other scientists are concerned that terrorists can use this technology to kill innocent citizens. Some ethicists are of the opinion that the consequences of synthetic biology is currently unpredictable and that it is therefore risky. In opposition to the potential dangers, one has to mention that synthetic biology indeed can result in far-reaching positive outcomes such as the manufacturing of biofuel and medication. Most scientists and ethicists are of the opinion that the potential dangers involved in synthetic biology should be evaluated in light of the fact that genetic manipulation has not caused any biological devastation over the last 30 years. From a Christian point of departure, the opinion is currently that synthetic biology is not an irresponsible science and technology.<hr/>Op 20 Mei 2010 het die Venter-instituut (in Amerika) aangekondig dat hulle die genoom van die organisme Mycoplasma mycoides ten volle in vitrogesintetiseer het (deur middel van 'n rekenaar, gekoppel aan 'n masjien wat gene sintetiseer). Die berig het verder gelei dat die genoom daarna teruggeplaas is in die omhulsel van 'n ander organisme (Mycoplasma capricolum) − en dat die gesintetiseerde genoom en organisme normaal gefunksioneer het. Hierdie gesintetiseerde organisme word gerekonstrueer om as minuskule fabriek te funksioneer met die doel om brandstof en medisyne te produseer en te sekreer − wat nie die natuurlike funksie van die organisme is nie. Aan hierdie tegnologie is daar ook bepaalde potensiële gevare verbonde. Wetenskaplikes is bang dat hierdie tegnologie mens, dier en omgewing kan kontamineer of infekteer en op dié wyse groot skade kan aanrig − en selfs tot mense se dood kan lei. Ander wetenskaplikes is weer bekommerd dat hierdie tegnologie deur terroriste gebruik kan word om onskuldige burgers dood te maak. Sommige etici is oortuig dat die gevolge van sintetiese biologie tans onvoorspelbaar, en daarom riskant is. Teenoor die potensiële gevare moet gestel word dat sintetiese biologie inderdaad omvangryke positiewe uitkomste soos die vervaardiging van biobrandstof en medisyne tot gevolg kan hê. Meeste wetenskaplikes en etici is van mening dat die potensiële gevare verbonde aan sintetiese biologie beoordeel moet word in die lig van die feit dat genetiese manipulasie in die afgelope 30 jaar geen biologiese ramp veroorsaak het nie. Uit 'n Christelike oogpunt word voorlopig geoordeel dat sintetiese biologie nie 'n onverantwoordelike wetenskap en tegnologie is nie. <![CDATA[<b>Calvin's fourth office, the doctor ministry, and article 18 of the church order of Dordrecht 1618 and 1619: A critical reflection</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000200016&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die artikel fokus op Calvyn se besondere rol in die formulering van artikels 2 en 18 van die kerkorde van Dordrecht 1618 en 1619. Hierdie kerkorde word steeds deur 'n groot aantal gereformeerde kerke in die wêreld aanvaar en gebruik. Onderwerpe en probleme wat aangeraak word, sluit vrae in soos die volgende: Wie is verantwoordelik vir die onderrig van Teologie? Is die tradisie geldig dat daar naas die drie dienste van Woordbedienaar, ouderling en diaken ook 'n vierde diens bestaan, naamlik dié van doktor in die Teologie? Kan hierdie tradisie, wat hoofsaaklik op die standpunte van Bucer en Calvyn berus, met die gegewens in die Bybel versoen word? Besondere aandag word aan die volgende aspekte gegee: Historiese gegewens oor doktor in die Teologie met besondere verwysing na die standpunte en invloed van Calvyn. 'n Kritiese evaluering van die begronding van die vierde diens op die Bybel. Die verhouding tussen teologiese opleiding in die konteks van die kerk en/of 'n universiteit. Besondere aandag word gegee aan die situasie in die Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika ten opsigte van die funksionering van hierdie vierde diens. Van die belangrikste konklusies wat gemaak word, is die volgende: die kerk het deur die eeue 'n besondere waardering en respek gehad vir die taak en funksie van die doktore in die Teologie. Dit het inderdaad tot groot seën van die kerke gedien. Calvyn se standpunte het dikwels tot verwarring aanleiding gegee, maar andersyds ook bygedra tot die erkenning van die belangrike funksie of taak wat hierdie vierde diens kerklik verrig. Net so vervul die doktore in die Teologie 'n besondere wetenskaplike rol aan teologiese fakulteite van universiteite.<hr/>This article focuses on Calvin's special role in the ecclesiastical formulation of articles 2 and 18 in the church order of Dordrecht 1618 and 1619, which is still retained in a large number of reformed church orders in the reformed fellowship of churches. Topics and issues which are addressed include questions such as: Who is responsible for the teaching of Theology? Is the tradition valid that the doctorial or professorial office in theology exists as a fourth office beside that of ministers, elders and deacons? Is this tradition, which mainly rests on the views of Bucer and Calvin, correct in terms of the Bible? Particular attention to the following aspects is given: Historical data on the doctor ecclesiae focusing on the views and influence of Calvin. A critical evaluation of the foundation of the fourth office on the Bible. The relationship between theological training in the context of a church and/or a university. A special investigation of the situation within the Reformed Churches in South Africa in this regard. Important conclusions are made, for example that the church through the ages had a very high esteem and respect for the office of the doctor in Theology; that this fourth office is still retained in many reformed churches, with great blessing. Calvin's views did cause some confusion on the one hand, but on the other hand it contributed to the acknowledgement of the important function the doctors in Theology have on behalf of the church and in the faculties of Theology at universities. <![CDATA[<b>Kommentaar op Jakobus in Afrikaans</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000200017&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die artikel fokus op Calvyn se besondere rol in die formulering van artikels 2 en 18 van die kerkorde van Dordrecht 1618 en 1619. Hierdie kerkorde word steeds deur 'n groot aantal gereformeerde kerke in die wêreld aanvaar en gebruik. Onderwerpe en probleme wat aangeraak word, sluit vrae in soos die volgende: Wie is verantwoordelik vir die onderrig van Teologie? Is die tradisie geldig dat daar naas die drie dienste van Woordbedienaar, ouderling en diaken ook 'n vierde diens bestaan, naamlik dié van doktor in die Teologie? Kan hierdie tradisie, wat hoofsaaklik op die standpunte van Bucer en Calvyn berus, met die gegewens in die Bybel versoen word? Besondere aandag word aan die volgende aspekte gegee: Historiese gegewens oor doktor in die Teologie met besondere verwysing na die standpunte en invloed van Calvyn. 'n Kritiese evaluering van die begronding van die vierde diens op die Bybel. Die verhouding tussen teologiese opleiding in die konteks van die kerk en/of 'n universiteit. Besondere aandag word gegee aan die situasie in die Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika ten opsigte van die funksionering van hierdie vierde diens. Van die belangrikste konklusies wat gemaak word, is die volgende: die kerk het deur die eeue 'n besondere waardering en respek gehad vir die taak en funksie van die doktore in die Teologie. Dit het inderdaad tot groot seën van die kerke gedien. Calvyn se standpunte het dikwels tot verwarring aanleiding gegee, maar andersyds ook bygedra tot die erkenning van die belangrike funksie of taak wat hierdie vierde diens kerklik verrig. Net so vervul die doktore in die Teologie 'n besondere wetenskaplike rol aan teologiese fakulteite van universiteite.<hr/>This article focuses on Calvin's special role in the ecclesiastical formulation of articles 2 and 18 in the church order of Dordrecht 1618 and 1619, which is still retained in a large number of reformed church orders in the reformed fellowship of churches. Topics and issues which are addressed include questions such as: Who is responsible for the teaching of Theology? Is the tradition valid that the doctorial or professorial office in theology exists as a fourth office beside that of ministers, elders and deacons? Is this tradition, which mainly rests on the views of Bucer and Calvin, correct in terms of the Bible? Particular attention to the following aspects is given: Historical data on the doctor ecclesiae focusing on the views and influence of Calvin. A critical evaluation of the foundation of the fourth office on the Bible. The relationship between theological training in the context of a church and/or a university. A special investigation of the situation within the Reformed Churches in South Africa in this regard. Important conclusions are made, for example that the church through the ages had a very high esteem and respect for the office of the doctor in Theology; that this fourth office is still retained in many reformed churches, with great blessing. Calvin's views did cause some confusion on the one hand, but on the other hand it contributed to the acknowledgement of the important function the doctors in Theology have on behalf of the church and in the faculties of Theology at universities. <![CDATA[<b>Vreemdelinge en bywoners</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000200018&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die artikel fokus op Calvyn se besondere rol in die formulering van artikels 2 en 18 van die kerkorde van Dordrecht 1618 en 1619. Hierdie kerkorde word steeds deur 'n groot aantal gereformeerde kerke in die wêreld aanvaar en gebruik. Onderwerpe en probleme wat aangeraak word, sluit vrae in soos die volgende: Wie is verantwoordelik vir die onderrig van Teologie? Is die tradisie geldig dat daar naas die drie dienste van Woordbedienaar, ouderling en diaken ook 'n vierde diens bestaan, naamlik dié van doktor in die Teologie? Kan hierdie tradisie, wat hoofsaaklik op die standpunte van Bucer en Calvyn berus, met die gegewens in die Bybel versoen word? Besondere aandag word aan die volgende aspekte gegee: Historiese gegewens oor doktor in die Teologie met besondere verwysing na die standpunte en invloed van Calvyn. 'n Kritiese evaluering van die begronding van die vierde diens op die Bybel. Die verhouding tussen teologiese opleiding in die konteks van die kerk en/of 'n universiteit. Besondere aandag word gegee aan die situasie in die Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika ten opsigte van die funksionering van hierdie vierde diens. Van die belangrikste konklusies wat gemaak word, is die volgende: die kerk het deur die eeue 'n besondere waardering en respek gehad vir die taak en funksie van die doktore in die Teologie. Dit het inderdaad tot groot seën van die kerke gedien. Calvyn se standpunte het dikwels tot verwarring aanleiding gegee, maar andersyds ook bygedra tot die erkenning van die belangrike funksie of taak wat hierdie vierde diens kerklik verrig. Net so vervul die doktore in die Teologie 'n besondere wetenskaplike rol aan teologiese fakulteite van universiteite.<hr/>This article focuses on Calvin's special role in the ecclesiastical formulation of articles 2 and 18 in the church order of Dordrecht 1618 and 1619, which is still retained in a large number of reformed church orders in the reformed fellowship of churches. Topics and issues which are addressed include questions such as: Who is responsible for the teaching of Theology? Is the tradition valid that the doctorial or professorial office in theology exists as a fourth office beside that of ministers, elders and deacons? Is this tradition, which mainly rests on the views of Bucer and Calvin, correct in terms of the Bible? Particular attention to the following aspects is given: Historical data on the doctor ecclesiae focusing on the views and influence of Calvin. A critical evaluation of the foundation of the fourth office on the Bible. The relationship between theological training in the context of a church and/or a university. A special investigation of the situation within the Reformed Churches in South Africa in this regard. Important conclusions are made, for example that the church through the ages had a very high esteem and respect for the office of the doctor in Theology; that this fourth office is still retained in many reformed churches, with great blessing. Calvin's views did cause some confusion on the one hand, but on the other hand it contributed to the acknowledgement of the important function the doctors in Theology have on behalf of the church and in the faculties of Theology at universities. <![CDATA[<b>A critical view of <i>missio Dei</i> in the light of Ephesians</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000200019&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Missio Dei is 'n belangrike tegniese term in die gesprek oor die missionale taak van die kerk. Die term word egter nie konsekwent met dieselfde betekenis in die gesprek gebruik nie. Daar word selfs teenstrydige betekenisinhoude aan hierdie term geheg. Sommige gespreksgenote gebruik hierdie term sonder om duidelik te maak wat hulle spesifiek daaronder verstaan. Hierdie situasie lei tot misverstande en kan aanleiding gee tot 'n onbybelse benadering tot sending. Hierdie artikel ondersoek twee belangrike aspekte van die missio Dei-gesprek, naamlik die standpunt dat sending (missio) tot die wese van God behoort en dat Hy daarom 'n sendende God is, asook die standpunt dat sending (missio) uit die Drie-eenheid se onderlinge verhouding voortvloei. Verskillende benaderings in die missionale debat rondom die begrip missio Dei word krities ondersoek en op grond van Paulus se brief aan die Efesiërs geëvalueer. Vanuit die Efesiërbrief word 'n voorstel gemaak ten opsigte van die betekenis wat die begrip missio Dei behoort te dra asook hoe sending op die selfopenbaring van die Drie-eenheid volgens die Efesiërbrief gegrond kan word.<hr/>Missio Dei is an important technical term in the discussion of the missional task of the church. In this discussion, however, the term is not used in a consistent sense. Even contrary semantic contents are associated with it. Some participants in the discussion use the term without clarifying what they understand by it. This situation causes misunderstandings and may give rise to an unbiblical approach to mission. This article investigates two important aspects of the missio Dei discourse, namely the viewpoint that mission (missio) is inherent to the nature of God, which means he is a missional God, as well as the viewpoint that mission (missio) flows from the mutual relationship in the Trinity. Different approaches in the missional debate regarding the concept of mission Dei are critically investigated and evaluated on the grounds of Paul's letter to the Ephesians. Based on the Ephesian letter a suggestion is made with regard to what the meaning of the concept of missio Dei ought to be, as well as how mission can be based on the self-revelation of the Trinity according to the Ephesian letter. <![CDATA[<b>Genesis 3:15 in South African context</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000200020&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Genesis 3:15 is 'n crux interpretum met uiteenlopende verklarings. Hierdie artikel fokus op verklarings wat Suid-Afrikaanse Skrifverklaarders van die teks gee en plaas sodanige verklarings binne verskillende rasionaliteitsmodelle. Verklarings van die teks berus dikwels eerder op keuses vir 'n bepaalde verstaansmodel as op die noukeurige lees van die teks. Genesis 3:15 dui op sigself nie op Jesus Christus nie, maar binne 'n bepaalde rasionaliteitsmodel is dit geldig om die teks as moederbelofte (protevangelium) te beskou.<hr/>Genesis 3:15 is a crux interpretum that lends itself to diverse interpretations. The focus of this article is the interpretations of this text offered by South African scholars. The article views these interpretations against the background of various models of rationality. Interpretations of this text are more likely to be determined by the interpreter's preferred model of understanding, than to be determined by a mere close reading of the text. Genesis 3:15 in itself does not point to Jesus Christ, but within a specific model of rationality it is valid to regard the text as a foundational promise of salvation (protevangelium). <![CDATA[<b>The kingdom of God as a contextual paradigmatic key for using Scripture in ethics</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000200021&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In die lig van die Christelike etiek is 'n beroep op die Skrif 'n sine qua non waar standpunte oor etiese vraagstukke ingeneem word. Deur 'n beroep op die Skrif te doen, is die probleem ongelukkig nie sonder meer opgelos nie. Hierdie artikel toon aan dat die begrip koninkryk van God as tema as 'n hermeneutiese vertrekpunt kan dien in die soeke na antwoorde op etiese vraagstukke. Daar word aangedui dat die koninkryk van God 'n noodsaaklike tema is omdat sekere wetsbepalings en kontekstueel bepaalde beginsels en norme in die voortsetting van die gedagte van die koninkryk van God in die Ou en Nuwe Testament ingebed is. Daar is egter ook sekere voorskrifte binne die teokratiese bestel wat vir die volk Israel in hulle spesifieke konteks gegee is wat nie noodwendig direk in die hedendaagse samelewingskonteks kan en mag toegepas word nie. Die boodskap van die Skrif moet dus op 'n verantwoordelike en geldige wyse gekonstateer word en effektief aan die moderne samelewing oorgedra word.<hr/>The use of Scripture is, in light of Christian ethics, a sine qua non when positions with regard to ethical problems are assumed. A simple interpretation of Scripture does not necessarily settle the problem. This article shows that the concept kingdom of God as a theme can serve as a hermeneutical point of departure in the search for answers to ethical questions. It is shown that the kingdom of God is a necessary theme due to the fact that certain legal stipulations and contextual based principles and norms are embedded in the idea of the kingdom of God in the Old and New Testament. There are also certain prescriptions within the theocratic system of Israel in its specific context that may not and cannot be directly applied to the modern day societal context. The message of the Bible must thus be established in a responsible and valid way, and communicated effectively to modern day society. <![CDATA[<b>Five brave pagan women in the work of Tertullian</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000200022&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Historical exempla have been employed as a rhetorical stratagem since the 8th century BCE. The Christian apologist Tertullian, who received thorough training in rhetoric, was familiar with this device. Lucretia, Cleopatra, Dido, 'the wife of Hasdrubal' and Leaena also appear in the works of Roman authors as typical examples of bravery. In his Ad Martyres (4), Tertullian groups together all five as fine examples of bravery when facing death. Four of the examples appear in his Ad Nationes (1.18) and two in the Liber Apologeticus (50). Both the Ad Nationes and the Liber Apologeticus were written in defence of the Christians. In Tertullian's De exhortatione castitatis (13.3) and the De Monogamia (17), Lucretia and Dido are referred to as exempla of chastity and monogamy. The first four paragraphs preceding the analysis of these texts provide the context and contain background information on the Christian apologists, a short biography of Tertullian, a few remarks on the use of history as a rhetorical tool and a discussion on the place of these women in ancient pagan literature. The investigation of Tertullian's use of the exempla to bolster his argument reveals how he adapted these stock examples of pagan women to fit the Christian context, and illustrates how and why ancient rhetoric became part of Christian literary tradition.<hr/>Historiese exempla word al sedert die agtste eeu v.C. as 'n retoriese strategie benut. Die Christen apologeet, Tertullianus, wat 'n grondige opleiding in retoriek ontvang het, was vertroud met hierdie tegniek. Lucretia, Cleopatra, Dido, 'Hasdrubal se vrou' en Leaena kom ook in die werke van Romeinse outeurs voor as tipiese voorbeelde van dapperheid. In sy Ad Martyres (4) groepeer Tertullianus al vyf saam as goeie voorbeelde van dapperheid in die aangesig van die dood. Vier van die voorbeelde kom in die Ad Nationes (1.18) voor en twee in sy Liber Apologeticus (50). Albei hierdie werke is geskryf om die Christene te verdedig. In Tertullianus se De exhortatione castitatis (13.3) en die De Monogamia (17) word na Lucretia en Dido as voorbeelde van kuisheid en monogamie verwys. Die eerste vier paragrawe wat die analise voorafgaan, gee die konteks en bevat agtergrondinligting oor die Christen apologete, 'n kort biografie van Tertullianus, 'n paar opmerkings oor die gebruik van geskiedenis as retoriese instrument en 'n bespreking van die plek van die vyf vroue in antieke heidense letterkunde. Die ondersoek na Tertullianus se gebruik van hierdie exempla om sy argument te versterk, dui aan dat hy die standaardvoorbeelde van heidense vroue aangepas het om by die Christelike konteks te pas, en illustreer hoe en waarom antieke retoriek deel van die Christelike literêre tradisie geword het.