Scielo RSS <![CDATA[In die Skriflig ]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2305-085320140001&lang=en vol. 48 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Christ as Davidic figure in Revelation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die geweldsoptrede in Openbaring herinner baie aan die tyd van Dawid en dit laat die vraag ontstaan of die 'regering in liefde' soos dit in die res van die Nuwe Testament verkondig word, nou plek maak vir 'geweldsregering'. In hierdie artikel word die antwoord gesoek in die apokaliptiese taal en styl (oortreffende vergelykingstrappe en skerp teenstellings) en in die omraming deur God as die Alfa en die Omega, op wie die hele fokus gerig is en wat alles integreer. Daar word ondersoek hoe dit God se regverdigheid en genade raak en watter rol Dawid in God se koningsheerskappy speel, in die lig van sy verbinding met Christus as die Leeu en die Lam. Aandag word geskenk aan Dawid as koning, as voorbeeldige gelowige en tog sondige mens en aan die betekenis van berou en bekering en 'n persoonlike verhouding met God. Die bevinding is dat die verbandlegging met Dawid 'n verlange vertolk na 'n integrasie van geregtigheid en liefde wat in Dawid skaduagtig was en ten volle tot vervulling kom in die wonder van God in Jesus Christus se lewe, sterwe, opstanding en wederkoms. Openbaring is 'n teken van God se genade deur die ernstige en onophoudelike waarskuwing en oproep tot geloofsvolharding en bekering. Tegelykertyd is dit 'n uitnodiging om na Hom te kom omdat daar net deur en by Hom, die lewende en persoonlike God, lewe is. Buite Hom is daar net disintegrasie.<hr/>The violence in Revelation resembles much of the violence in the time of David, and this raises the question whether the 'loving rule' as proclaimed in the rest of the New Testament gives way to 'violent rule'. In this article the answer is sought in the apocalyptic language and style of the book (superlatives, sharp contrasts), and in the framing of God as the Alpha and the Omega on Whom everything is focused and Who integrates all. The research investigates how this affects God's justice and his mercy, and what role David plays in God's kingly rule, in view of him being linked to Christ as the Lion and the Lamb. The investigation pays attention to David as king, as exemplary believer and yet sinful human, and to the significance of repentance and conversion and a personal relationship with God. It is found that the link to David gives expression to a longing for an integration of righteousness and love, which was shadowy in David and comes to fulfilment in the wonder of God in Jesus Christ's life, death, resurrection and second coming. The book Revelation is a token of God's grace, by being a serious and ceaseless warning and call to perseverance in faith and to conversion. Simultaniously it is an invitation to come to Him, because only through and with Him, the living One and personal God, there is life. Outside Him there is only disintegration. <![CDATA[<b>Virtuous suffering and the predicament of being handicapped. Towards a theology of the 'disabled God puffing in a wheelchair'</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The reality of disablement, being handicapped and physical disfigurement, opens up anew the theological debate regarding God-images in human suffering. It is argued that the Hellenistic understanding of the power of God, God as a pantokrator [Almighty], presupposes the immutability of an apathetic God. In terms of the logic of a cause-effect paradigm, God becomes the deterministic principle behind human suffering. With reference to a theologia crucis [theology of the Cross], the paradigm of theopaschitic theology proposes a pathetic understanding of God. Weakness and vulnerability (astheneia) describes an authentic identification of God with human suffering. Forsakenness (derelictio) reframes power as compassionate weakness or vulnerability and divine disability. The disabled God is, in terms of the New Testament a connection between divine compassion and human predicament (ta splanchna), the passionate God. Bowel categories make it possible to speak of the 'puffing God in the wheelchair'. A theology of the cross should be supplemented by a theology of ability (theologia resurrectionis). The resurrection introduces the spiritual ability parrhesia - the transformation of the weakness of suffering into the fortigenitics of hope.<hr/>Die gegewendheid en realiteit van verskillende vorme van gestremdheid onderstreep menslike weerloosheid en magteloosheid. Vir gelowiges wat worstel met die vraag na sin in lyding, roep dit onder andere die vraag op na die verband tussen lyding en die almag en krag van God. Die basiese argument is dat die Hellenistiese konsep en paradigma van die mag van God, God as pantokrator, die starre onbeweeglikheid van 'n apatiese God voorveronderstel. Met behulp van die oorsaak-gevolg skema van denke, word God, in terme van die menslike logika, 'n deterministiese kousaliteitsbeginsel en verklaringsmeganisme. Met behulp van 'n teopasgitiese hermeneutiek binne die raamwerk van 'n kruisteologie, word aandag gegee aan die opsie van 'n lydende en meelydende God (die passie van God). Die swakheid en weerloosheid van God (astheneia) beskryf die egtheid en integriteit van God in terme van 'n wesenlike identifikasie met die lyding van mense. Verlatenheid (derelictio) transformeer die populêre, dogmatiese siening van almags-determinisme in die sensitiewe paradigma van weerlose medelye. 'n Teologie van die 'gestremde God' word ontwikkel in die lig van die teologiese implikasies van ta splanchna op 'n eksistensiële Godsverstaan. 'n Tipe erbarmingsteologie ('binnegoed' of dermteologie) word ontwikkel wat help om die metafoor van 'n 'gestremde God, hygend in 'n rolstoel' pastoraal te verstaan. Met die oog op die omvattende verstaan van hoop, moet 'n kruisteologie aangevul word met 'n opstandingsteologie. Die uitwerking van troos op mense met gestremdheid is parrhësia: die moed om te lewe. <![CDATA[<b>Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel's religious antecedents as legitimising a Christian faith expression</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel's depth theology model is a theology of the act of believing. It emerges from the Chasidic expression of Judaism founded during the Enlightenment period. A modern approach is to profile God according to circumstances as a prerequisite to believing. The uniqueness of this Jewish concept of faith is come to in an indirect way. Heschel argues from antecedents to believing in order to establish faith's credibility. This is done, not by emphasising content of belief in the first instance, but on awareness of reality at its fullest expression. This approach could be seriously considered as establishing grounds towards credible Christian faith expressing a living testimony. It could also serve as an ecumenical bridge between Jewish and Christian religions in their sharing of commonalities of the basics of what constitutes legitimate faith.<hr/>Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel se diepte-teologie model is 'n teologie van die daadwerklikheid van geloof. Dit blyk uit die Chasidiese uitdrukking van Judaïsme en is tydens die Verligtingstydperk gegrondves. 'n Moderne teïstiese benadering is om 'n profiel van God volgens omstandighede as voorvereiste van geloof te skep. Die uniekheid van dié Joodse konsep van geloof kom op indirekte wyse. Heschel redeneer vanuit sy religieuse (voor)geskiedenis ter vasstelling van die geloofwaardigheid van die Christelike geloof. Dit word gedoen deur in die eerste plek nie die inhoud van geloof te beklemtoon nie, maar wel 'n bewustheid van die werklikheid as die volste uitdrukking daarvan. Hierdie benadering kan ernstig oorweeg word as die vestiging van 'n geloofwaardige Christelike geloofsuitdrukking as lewende getuienis. Dit kan ook as ekumeniese brug tussen die Joodse en Christelike godsdienste dien in die gedeelde raakpunte wat geloof regverdig. <![CDATA[<b>Suffering in the perspective of God's governance, eschatology and God's council</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en From the beginning of Christian theology, theologians have struggled with the question of how suffering in the world is related to God's providence. A classic response to this question is that, ultimately, God's governance is beyond human understanding. More recently an eschatological solution has been preferred: God is involved in a historical process and he will finally overcome evil. This article argued that both responses have their own problems. In the first God is a hidden mystery, and in the latter either the outcome of history is uncertain or God is waiting unnecessarily long. On the other hand, both provide consolation to human beings in times of suffering. Which one of the two answers is more helpful, depends on culture and context. Therefore, they are both acceptable responses to the question. At a deeper level, one can argue that both refer to eternity - one in a spatial model (above) and the other in a temporal model (hereafter). Both space and time are metaphors in this context. That is also the case when we speak of 'before' with regard to God's eternal council. Ultimately, from a perspective of eternity, God's council, God's governance and God's final judgment coincide. In Christian theology these concepts can only be understood in the paradigm of God's revelation in Christ, who is the expression of the mystery of creation - as is especially indicated in the letters to the Ephesians and Colossians.<hr/>Vanaf het begin van het Christendom hebben theologen geworsteld met de vraag hoe het lijden in de wereld zich verhoudt tot Gods voorzienigheid. Een klassiek antwoord daarop is dat ten laatste Gods bestuur het menselijk begrip te boven gaat. Tegenwoordig wordt eerder de voorkeur gegeven aan een eschatologische oplossing: God is betrokken in een proces door de geschiedenis waarin Hij uiteindelijk het kwaad zal overwinnen. De auteur betoogt dat beide benaderingen hun eigen problemen hebben. In het eerste geval is God een onkenbaar mysterie en in het tweede geval is de afloop onzeker of wacht God onnodig lang met zijn overwinning. Aan de andere kant bieden beide antwoorden mensen troost in lijdenssituaties. Welke van de twee antwoorden het beste is, hangt af van cultuur en context. Daarom zijn beide aanvaardbaar als antwoord op het probleem van Gods voorzienigheid. Op een dieper niveau kan men betogen dat beide verwijzen naar de eeuwigheid, het eerste antwoord in een ruimtelijk model ('te boven') en het tweede in een tijdsmodel ('hierna'). Zowel ruimte als tijd zijn hier metaforisch gebruikt. Dat is ook het geval als we spreken over 'vóór' met betrekking tot Gods eeuwige raad. Uiteindelijk zijn, vanuit het perspectief van de eeuwigheid, Gods raad, Gods beleid en Gods laatste oordeel identiek. In de christelijke theologie kunnen deze concepten alleen worden verstaan in het paradigma van Gods openbaring in Christus, die de expressie van het geheimenis van de schepping is, zoals met name de brieven aan de Efeziërs en aan de Kolossenzen aangeven <![CDATA[<b>Welcoming outsiders: The nascent Jesus community as a locus of hospitality and equality (Mk 9:33-42; 10:2-16)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The recent global economic crisis left millions of people destitute without formal work and further alienated the poor from the rich. As a remedy, modern Neoliberalism proposes that the poor must hope and steadily work their way up the economic ladder. What is the solution to such unbridgeable social and economic chasm? This article used the contemporary situation of economic inequality to imagine events during the first century, during Jesus' time, whereby the rich increasingly amassed wealth to the disadvantage of the poor majority. In this article, Mark 9:33-42 and 10:10-16 was used to explore how Jesus developed an alternative economic system - one that contrasted itself in every respect from that of the hierarchical and patriarchal Roman Empire. This article argued that Jesus formed communities that directly responded to the economic challenges faced by the landless and the homeless majority by creating an alternative economy based on love and hospitality. This was done by proposing that Mark 9:33-42 and 10:2-16 are amongst the passages where the two rival economies were contrasted by way of two different household economies. Firstly, the economic system outside the house that typified the hierarchical Roman economy, and secondly, the economic system inside the house that referred to Jesus' alternative system whereby he taught his disciples to welcome the homeless, the landless and the poor. Before developing this further, the plausible social context of the stories was attended to.<hr/>Die onlangse globale krisis het miljoene mense sonder formele werk gelaat en so die vervreemding tussen arm en ryk verder vergroot. Die moderne ideologie van neo-liberalisme stel voor dat die armes steeds hoopvol moet bly en hulleself geleidelik op ekonomiese gebied opwerk. Wat is die oplossing vir die byna onoorbrugbare sosiale en ekonomiese kloof tussen arm en ryk? Hierdie artikel gebruik die huidige situasie van sosiale polariteit om aan te dui dat 'n soortgelyke situasie reeds in Jesus se tyd bestaan het - toe rykes ryker geword het ten koste van die armes. Markus 9:33-42 en 10:2-16 word gebruik om aan te toon hoe Jesus 'n 'alternatiewe ekonomiese sisteem' geskep het wat lynreg teenoor die onderdrukkende hiërargiese en patriargale Romeinse Ryk gestaan het. Jesus het geloofsgemeenskappe gevorm wat direk op die ekonomiese uitdagings van die haweloses gereageer het deur 'alternatiewe ekonomiese sisteem' te skep, gebaseer op liefde en gasvryheid. Tekste soos Markus 9:33-42 en 10:2-16 kontrasteer op strategiese wyse die twee opponerende ekonomiese sisteme deur twee verskillende 'ekonomiese huise' uit te beeld: die ideologie van die 'die ekonomie van die breë samelewing' wat die hiërargiese Romeinse ekonomie vergestalt, en die ideologie van die 'die ekonomie van die huishouding' waar Jesus sy dissipels oproep om radikaal om te gee vir en uit te reik na armes, haweloses, weduwees en weeskinders. Voordat hierdie verder ondersoek is, is die moontlike sosiale konteks van die Skrifgedeeltes ondersoek. <![CDATA[<b>The discursive cultural representations of Gentiles: A contextual approach using migration theory</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en How are social boundaries created and how are they maintained? To an extent, the way people look, dress and talk demarcates cultural markers that distinguish them from others - hence, giving them a sense of self-categorisation and self-identity. However, with time such collective identity might need readjustment when people from another culture become insiders and neighbours within the perceived social boundaries. Regarding this, James Dunn noted that a challenge of social cohesion between the Jews and the Gentiles existed during the 1st century, necessitated by the conversion of Gentiles to Christianity. In response, to keep their exclusive collective identity, the Jews demanded that the Gentiles observe Jewish law. This article develops Dunn's view that the observance of Jewish law provided implicit social exclusion strategies towards the Gentiles. However, Dunn did not elaborate further concerning the strategies upon which Gentiles were excluded. As contribution to fill that void, this article drew on strategies of inclusion and exclusion from the analogy of migration in South Africa and elsewhere.<hr/>Hoe word sosiale en kulturele grense geskep en onderhou? Tot 'n mate bewerkstellig die manier waarop mense uiterlik voorkom, aantrek en praat kulturele kenmerke wat sekere groepe van ander onderskei, en verleen so aan hulle 'n bepaalde identiteit en klassifisering. So 'n gemeenskaplike identiteit moet mettertyd aangepas word as mense van ander kulture met ander gebruike deel word van die binnekring. In hierdie verband merk James Dunn op dat, in die eerste eeu na Christus, die Jode en heidene aangespoor is tot 'n samehorigheidsgevoel wat deurdie bekering van heidene tot die Christendom genoodsaak is. In reaksie hierop het die Jode aanvanklik verwag dat die heidene die Joodse wet moes nakom. Hierdie artikel bou op Dunn se siening, naamlik dat die onderhouding van die Joodse wet sosiale strategieë ontwikkel het wat die heidene onvoorwaardelik uitgesluit het. Dunn brei egter nie verder oor die sogenaamde strategieë uit nie. In hierdie artikel word gepoog om hierdie leemte aan te vul deur middel van 'n vergelyking met kontemporêre migrasie in Suid-Afrika en die strategieë van insluiting en uitsluiting wat bespeur word in sulke kontekste, te verdiskonteer. <![CDATA[<b>Fulfilment of righteousness: Historical and ontological perspective of Matthew 3:15</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT This article maintained that the historicity of Jesus' baptism was intended to flesh out the righteousness of God that was well-documented in the Hebrew Scriptures. Furthermore, the historical event initiated the ontological emphasis on the relationship of baptism to righteousness. To support this proposal, this article focused on Matthew's fulfilment statement in Matthew 3:15. Looking specifically at this verse within its context, the article examines what Matthew may have intended for his community to grasp regarding the Christian tradition of righteousness. The article is divided into four sections that are intended to examine Matthew's intentions. Firstly, the immediate context is examined, showing the influences and setting for the fulfilment statement. The following section explores the fulfilment statement within this context. The third section uncovers some of the theological traditions in Paul and the church fathers. Finally, the baptismal statement of Matthew 3:15 will be tied directly to the relationship of the law and righteousness in Matthew's f)M5ov statement of Matthew 5:17.<hr/>OPSOMMING Hierdie artikel betoog dat die historiese waarheid van Jesus se doop bedoel was om die geregtigheid van God, wat volledig uiteengesit is in die Hebreeuse Bybel, te versterk. Verder het die historiese gebeurtenis die ontologiese klem op die verhouding van die doop tot geregtigheid geïnisieer. Om hierdie voorstel te ondersteun, fokus hierdie artikel op Matteus se verklaring van verwesenliking (Mat 3:15). Deur spesifiek na hierdie vers binne sy konteks te kyk, ondersoek die artikel wat Matteus moontlik beplan het sodat sy gemeenskap die Christelike tradisie van geregtigheid kon begryp. Die artikel is in vier afdelings verdeel om sodoende Matteus se bedoelings te ondersoek. Eerstens word die onmiddellike konteks ondersoek wat die invloede en agtergrond van die verklaring van die verwesenliking uitwys. In die volgende afdeling word die verklaring van die verwesenliking in hierdie konteks verken. In die derde afdeling word 'n paar van die teologiese tradisies van Paulus en die kerkvaders aan die lig gebring. Ten slotte is die doopverklaring van Matteus 3:15 regstreeks aan die verhouding van reg en geregtigheid in Mattheus se fX9ov verklaring van Matteus 5:17 gekoppel. <![CDATA[<b>Jesus Christ's founding of the resurrection (Mt 22) in the Old Testament revelation, and the implications thereof</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Anders as die Sadduseërs en ander mense se mensgesentreerde benadering tot die menslike bestaan en daarom tot 'n moontlike opstanding, is Jesus se benadering Godgesentreerd (óp God gerig en déur God verrig) en Skrifgefundeer. Dit wil sê 'n benadering gefundeer in wat God geopenbaar het en wat menslike bespiegeling, teologie of verwerking van wat met Jesus gebeur het, te bowe gaan. Hierdie Skriffundering is gegrond in God as die lewende, onverganklike, aktiewe en lewewekkende God se persoonlike verhouding met die mens in sy konkrete, historiese bestaan (Matt 22:23-33). So word die ware liggaamlike en geestelike bestaan verseker, naamlik 'n onverbreekbare persoonlike verhouding met God - nou en na die dood, rustend in Jesus Christus se lewe, dood en opstanding. Hierdie begronding veronderstel 'n Skrif- en Geesgefundeerde, Godgesentreerde hermeneutiek, eksegese, erediens, prediking en kerklike inrigting, gedra deur selfondersoek en bekering, diensbaarheid in liefde vir God en die naaste (Matt 22:34-41), en verantwoordelikheid teenoor God se skepping.<hr/>Unlike the Sadducees' and other people's homocentric approach to man's existence, and therefore to a possible resurrection, Jesus' approach is theocentric (focused on God and conducted by God) and founded in Scripture, that is founded in what God reveals, transcending human speculation, theology or processing of what happened to Jesus. This founding in Scripture is grounded in the living, immortal, active and life-giving God's personal relation with man in his concrete, historical existence (Mt 22:23-33). In this way the real physical and spiritual existence is secured, that is an unbreakable personal relationship with God, now and after death, resting in Jesus Christ's life, death and resurrection. This grounding implies a Scripture- and Spirit-founded, God-centered hermeneutics, exegesis, public worship, preaching, and church structuring, conveyed by self-examination and repentance, service in love for God and the neighbour (Mt 22:34-41), and by responsibility towards God's creation. <![CDATA[<b>Who is Theophilus? Discovering the original reader of Luke-Acts</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The aim of this article is to investigate the nature of Theophilus as the original reader of Luke-Acts. A lexical and grammatical analysis of Luke 1:1-4 and of the broader literary context of the Luke-Acts narrative provided the basis for discovering the identity of Theophilus. This article proposes that Theophilus was a man of prominent position: a Gentile who had received some introductory teachings about Christ and who needed factual verification of the events surrounding the emergence of Christianity.<hr/>Die doel van hierdie artikel is om Theophilus, as die oorspronklike leser van Lukas-Handelinge, se identiteit te ondersoek. 'n Leksikale en grammatikale ontleding van Lukas 1:1-4, asook 'n ontleding van die breër literêre konteks van die Lukas-Handelinge-narratief, bied die basis vir die ontdekking van Theophilus se identiteit. Hierdie artikel stel Theophilus voor as 'n man met 'n prominente posisie: 'n nie-Jood wat basiese Christusonderrig ontvang het en wat die bevestiging van die gebeure rondom die opkoms van die Christendom voorop gestel het. <![CDATA[<b>Equipping lay facilitators to support emotionally wounded children in Africa by means of healing communities</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000100010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Many children in Africa are emotionally wounded by circumstances and experiences not supporting their overall well-being and healthy development, and are in need of effective support. It seems that the church's educational ministry and pastoral care based on individualistic pastoral practices do not address this need effectively. Beginning with an orientation to the problem, the article then focused on the development of lay facilitators for healing communities as an alternative way of ministering to children who experience emotional suffering. With reference to an illustrative narrative of a camp with deprived children, some elements contributing to the success of the camp were highlighted and linked to the effective functioning of healing communities. Thereafter the process used to equip lay people to facilitate such healing communities was described. The article concluded with challenges to the church in Africa to develop a new ministry to serve emotionally wounded children.<hr/>In Afrika is daar talle emosioneel gekweste kinders wie se omstandighede en ervarings nie tot hulle welsyn en gesonde ontwikkeling bydra nie. Hierdie kinders het 'n intense behoefte aan genesing. Dit wil egter voorkom of die kerk se opvoedkundig-georiënteerde bediening aan kinders en die individualistiese pastorale praktyk nie daarin slaag om effektief aan hierdie behoefte te voldoen nie. Nadat daar oorsigtelik na die probleem gekyk is, fokus die artikel op die ontwikkeling van ongekwalifiseerde lidmate as fasiliteerders in genesende gemeenskappe as 'n alternatiewe benadering om emosioneel gekweste kinders te bedien. Met verwysing na 'n illustratiewe uitbeelding van 'n kamp vir emosioneel gekweste kinders, word sommige elemente wat tot die sukses van die kamp bygedra het, uitgelig. Hierdie elemente word dan aan die effektiewe funksionering van genesende gemeenskappe verbind. Daarna word die opleidingsproses vir fasiliteerders van sulke groepe bespreek. Die artikel sluit af deur die kerk in Afrika tot 'n nuwe bedieningspraktyk uit te daag. <![CDATA[<b>Aspects regarding a turnaround process</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000100011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In hierdie artikel word gefokus op aspekte wat deel uitmaak van 'n omkeerproses. Sodanige proses behoort oorweeg te word waar krimpende gemeentes in 'n doodloopstraat verkeer. Alhoewel die kompleksiteit van so 'n proses duidelik na vore kom, is 'n omkeerproses tog moontlik. Die Skrifbeginsels wat so 'n proses moontlik maak, behoort binne elke gemeentelike konteks uniek ontdek en toegepas te word. Die diepgrondige selfleerproses en die voordele wat 'n waarderende taalaanpak ('Waarderende Ondersoek') in die proses het, lei tot die besef dat nie net die inhoud nie, maar ook die manier waarop dit gedoen word van 'n omkeer behoort te getuig. Die talle verweefde aspekte waaraan aandag gegee word, kan rigtinggewend wees vir diegene wat erns maak met die moontlikheid om groeiende en gesonde kerkpraktyke daar te stel.<hr/>This article focuses on aspects regarding a turnaround process. Such a process ought to be considered where declining congregations face a dead end. Although the complexity of a turnaround is clear, such a process is still possible. The scriptural principles regarding the possibility of such a process ought to be discovered and contextually applied by each unique congregation. A deep whole-hearted self-learning process, as well as the positives of an appreciative language approach (Appreciative Inquiry), conclude that not only the contents of the turnaround, but also the manner in which it is done, ought to speak of a turnaround. The many intertwined aspects discussed in this article can direct those who are serious about the possibility of establishing growing and healthy church practices. <![CDATA[<b>The Sermon on the Mount as possible reaction against Paul</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000100012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en 'n Verskeidenheid navorsing is al oor die teologiese verband tussen Matteus en Paulus gedoen. Hierdie navorsing het uiteenlopende gevolgtrekkings opgelewer wat in drie groepe verdeel kan word. Sommige navorsers is van oordeel dat die Matteus-evangelie 'n anti-Pauliniese ondertoon bevat wat veral in die Bergrede waargeneem kan word. Hierdie polemiek word betrek by uitsprake oor die siening of interpretasie van die Tora. 'n Vergelyking tussen Matteus 5:17 en Paulus se siening oor die wet soos in die Romeine-brief (3:19; 6:14; 7:6; 8:2; 10:4; ens.), kan tot so 'n gevolgtrekking kom. Daarmee saam word die prominensie van Petrus in die Matteus-evangelie as bewysgrond gebruik dat Matteus teen Paulus reageer. Die oortuiging kan dus bestaan dat Matteus doelbewus met die skryf van hierdie Evangelie teen Paulus reageer, veral wanneer die insident in Antiogië in gedagte gehou word. 'n Tweede groep meen dat Matteus en Paulus teologies naby aan mekaar is, terwyl daar ook 'n derde groep is wat oordeel dat Matteus en Paulus wel van mekaar verskil, maar mekaar ook komplementeer. Met hierdie artikel word daar gepoog om meer duidelikheid oor die teologiese verhouding tussen Matteus en Paulus te verkry.<hr/>Much research has been done about the theological relationship between Matthew and Paul. This research has numerous conclusions and can be divided into three groups. Some researchers say that the Gospel of Matthew contains an anti-Pauline text or that an anti-Pauline polemic is recognisable in the Sermon on the Mount. The polemic involves the interpretation of the Torah. A comparison between Matthew 5:17 and Paul's stance on the law in Romans (3:19; 6:14; 7:6; 8:2; 10:4; etc.) may lead to such a conclusion. Together with this, the prominence of Peter in the Matthean Gospel is used to prove that Matthew reacted against Paul. All of this and with the incident at Antioch in mind, the idea may arise that Matthew deliberately wrote the Gospel to react against Paul. A second group concludes that Matthew and Paul were theologically close and lastly there is a group that says Matthew and Paul differ but also complement each other. This article attempts to give more clarity on the theological relationship between Matthew and Paul. <![CDATA[<b>Creative preaching as visualisation of old and new things with particular reference to ecclesiastical discourses as enrichment of the act of listening</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000100013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Uit die kerklike praksis blyk dat goed bedoelde prediking wat op 'n biddende wyse gelewer word, meermale skipbreuk ly as gevolg van 'n vervelige aanbieding waarna die hoorders moet luister. Tussen die blote hoor van en 'n diepgaande en kreatiewe manier van luister na die prediking bestaan 'n groot verskil. Predikers moet dus oefen en hulself toerus om in hulle preekvoorbereiding en preeklewering meer kreatief gerig te wees. Kreatiewe prediking open nuwe en dinamiese perspektiewe vir die hoorders. In die lig hiervan word die volgende navorsingsvraag as die doel van hierdie navorsing geformuleer: In hoe 'n mate rus predikers hulle hoorders op 'n kreatiewe manier toe om kreatief deel te neem en na die prediking te luister sodat dít wat gesê en bedoel word, die hoorders se lewe kan beïnvloed? Ten einde hierdie navorsingsvraag te beantwoord, word die probleemveld uit verskillende prakties-teologiese invalshoeke verken en metateoretiese perspektiewe word uit die velde van die Sosiale Psigologie en die Kunsgeskiedenis ontgin. Hierdeur word insig ten opsigte van die vorming en die funksionering van kreatiwiteit verkry. Perspektiewe uit 2 Samuel 17 en Matteus 13:13-15, 52 word verken. Daar word tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat persepsies oor die prediker en die prediking verlammend kan inwerk en selfs daartoe aanleiding kan gee dat hoorders die kerk verlaat. Die bevinding is dat dialoog voor die preeklewering die dialogiese gerigtheid van die prediking as deel van die liturgie van die gemeente, asook die preekgesprekke na afloop van die prediking, daartoe kan meewerk dat verkeerde persepsies reggestel word en dat 'n gemeente 'n pratende gemeente word wat deur diepgaande kommunikasie gevoed word.<hr/>Ecclesiastical praxis indicates that preaching faces obstacles caused by the dreariness of sermons, regardless of the good intentions of preachers. There is a vast difference between hearing sermons and listening to sermons in a creative manner. Preachers should equip themselves to be more creative in the preparation and delivery of sermons. Creative preaching opens up new perspectives to hearers. In the light of this problematic praxis, the following research question has been formulated: To what extent do preachers equip their listeners in a dialogue situation to listen creatively in a profound manner with the objective to see clearly what the Word of God demands of them? In order to address this research question, the problem is investigated by taking into account the present Practical Theological vantage points concerning this field and by trying to get a grasp on metatheoretical perspectives from the fields of Social Psychology and the History of Art. The author investigates the challenging process of creative preaching as well as the importance of equipping hearers in becoming participants in the preparation of sermons through the process of ecclesiastical and sermon discussions. Perspectives from 2 Samuel 17 and Matthew 13:13-15, 52 will be explored with regard to the role of creativity in preaching. The conclusion is reached that a lack in creative preaching and commitment to the act of preaching are indeed endangering this ecclesiastical praxis. It may even be the cause of listeners leaving the church. Preachers should utilise creativity in preparing their sermons and should also focus on the custom of sermon discussions before and after delivering their sermons. In addition, preachers should endeavour to stimulate feedback of the sermons, for in this way fallacious views of reality could be rectified. Congregations should become discussant communities nurtured through profound communication. <![CDATA[<b>Spirituality in the workplace: An introductory overview</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000100014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The research was conducted from the perspective of public practical theology, which has the general purpose to gain a deeper understanding of the human in all facets of his or her everyday life. More specifically, practical theology wants to facilitate the experience of meaningfulness and sense outside the walls of the church for people to be able to answer existential questions. In this article, the focus was on the individual in the workplace and the meaning of work. Corporate interest in spirituality is not a fleeting tendency, but a basic movement embracing a new perspective on work in which the emphasis has shifted to the idea that work is meaningful. Organisations of the 21st century require that their employees bring their whole selves to the work - not only their physical presence and intellect, but also their spirituality. A growing number of employees are seeking more than mere financial gain in the workplace - the aim is gain in the form of inspirational and meaningful work. Sufficient proof exists that spirituality in the workplace is responsible for creating a new organisational culture in which workers are more content and better achieving. In addition, employee motivation and experience of job satisfaction are enhanced. The result is an upward spiral for the benefit of the working individual and the workplace.<hr/>Hierdie navorsing is vanuit 'n publieke prakties-teologiese perspektief onderneem. Dit beoog om 'n beter begrip van die mens in al sy of haar lewensfasette te verkry. Dit het ten doel om die ervaring van sin en betekenis buite die mure van die kerk te fasiliteer om mense sodoende in staat te stel om eksistensiële vrae te kan beantwoord. In hierdie artikel is die fokus spesifiek op die werkende individu en die betekenis wat aan werk geheg word, gerig. Korporatiewe belangstelling in werkplek-spiritualiteit is nie 'n vlietende tendens nie, maar 'n basiese beweging met 'n verskuifde perspektief, gerig op die betekenis van werk. Organisasies van die een-en- twintigste eeu vereis dat werknemers hulle totale self - fisies, intellektueel en ook spiritueel - na die werkplek bring. 'n Groeiende aantal werknemers is op soek na meer as slegs ekonomiese beloning - hulle verkies eerder beloning in die vorm van inspirerende en betekenisvolle werk. Daar is genoegsame bewys dat spiritualiteit in die werkplek vir die skep van 'n nuwe organisatoriese kultuur met gelukkiger en beter presterende werkers verantwoordelik is. Daarmee saam word werknemer-motivering en -betekenisvolheid van die werkservaring verhoog. Die resultaat is 'n opwaartse spiraal tot voordeel van die werkende individu asook van die werkplek. <![CDATA[<b>Synthetic biology ethically evaluated: The creating God and co-creating human</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000100015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en God did not create once and then put an end to it. Testimony from Scripture shows that God continuously establishes or creates new things. Humans can therefore expect to always see and experience new things in creation. With this pattern of reasoning, one can anticipate that the human being as image of God will continuously establish new things in history. Although nature has value, it does not have absolute value and therefore it can be synthesised responsibly. The thought that humans are stewards of God is no longer adequate to, theologically put into words, the relationship human beings have with nature. New biotechnological developments ask for different answers from Scripture. Several ethicists are of the opinion that the theological construction of humans and created co-creators can help found the relationship of the human being to nature. Humans developed as God's image evolutionary. On the one hand, this means humans themselves are a product of nature. On the other hand, the fact that humans are the image of God is also an ethical call that humans, like God, have to develop and create new things throughout history. Synthetic biology can be evaluated as technology that is possible, because humans are the image of God. However, it should, without a doubt, be executed responsibly.<hr/>God het nie net eenmaal geskep en daar gestop nie. Uit Skrifgetuienisse kan afgelei word dat God voortdurend nuwe dinge tot stand bring of skep. Daarom kan die mens verwag om gedurig nuwe dinge in die skepping te sien en te beleef. Hiermee saam kan verwag word dat die mens as beeld van God voortdurend nuwe dinge in die geskiedenis tot stand sal bring. Alhoewel die natuur waarde het, het dit nie absolute waarde nie en kan dus verantwoordelik gesintetiseer word. Die gedagte dat die mens rentmeester van God is, is nie meer voldoende om die mens se verhouding tot die natuur teologies te verwoord nie. Nuwe biotegnologiese ontwikkelinge vra na ander antwoorde vanuit die Skrif. Verskeie etici is van mening dat die teologiese konstruksie van die mens as geskepte medeskepper kan help om die mens se verhouding tot die natuur te begrond. Die mens het deur 'n evolusionêre proses tot God se beeld ontwikkel. Aan die een kant beteken dit dat die mens self 'n produk van die natuur is. Aan die ander kant is beeldskap ook 'n etiese oproep dat die mens, soos God, nuwe dinge in die geskiedenis moet ontwikkel en skep. Sintetiese biologie kan gesien word as tegnologie wat moontlik is omdat die mens na die beeld van God geskape is. Sonder twyfel moet sintetiese biologie egter verantwoordelik beoefen word. <![CDATA[<b>The kingdom of heaven and Matthew 10</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000100016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article proposes that the mission discourse in Matthew 10 is a single mission assignment that covers two distinct time periods when the gospel of the kingdom is preached. This assignment commenced during Christ's first advent when the 12 apostles preached the gospel of the kingdom only in Israel. However, as a result of 'this generation' committing the unpardonable sin, this assignment became postponed until it will be resumed in the Tribulation when the coming King will authorise Jewish messengers to preach the gospel of the kingdom again - this time as a witness to all the nations. Based on this view of the mission discourse in Matthew 10, this article proposes a chiastic structure for Matthew 9:36-11:1a. Each section of this text will then be briefly discussed. Although the Church can make applications from this discourse, it is argued that Matthew 10:5b-42 does not refer to the Church age.<hr/>Hierdie artikel bespreek die sendingdiskoers in Matteus 10 en beweer dat dit 'n enkele sendingopdrag is wat twee diskrete tydperiodes dek wanneer die evangelie van die koninkryk verkondig is. Hierdie sendingopdrag is tydens Christus se eerste koms aan die 12 apostels gegee om die evangelie van die koninkryk net in Israel te verkondig. Omdat 'hierdie geslag' die onvergeeflike sonde gedoen het, is hierdie sendingopdrag uitgestel en sal hervat word tydens die Verdrukking wanneer die komende Koning Joodse boodskappers sal magtig om weer die evangelie van die koninkryk te verkondig - hierdie keer tot getuienis vir al die nasies. Hierdie artikel stel 'n chiastiese struktuur vir Matteus 9:36-11:1a voor wat gebaseer is op hierdie siening van die sendingdiskoers in Matteus 10. Daarna word elke afdeling van die teks kortliks bespreek. Alhoewel die Kerk toepassings uit hierdie diskoers kan maak, word geargumenteer dat Matteus 10:5b-42 nie na die Kerk-era verwys nie. <![CDATA[<b>The role of prophetic action in public theology - The implications for addressing corruption in a context of sustainable development</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000100017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en After almost two decades of democratic rule in South Africa, patterns of withdrawal and uncertainty about the complexities involved in defining the contents, rationality and impact of the public role of the church in society seem to be prevalent. As unabated levels of corruption and its sustained threat to sustainable development point out, a long-awaited reckoning should take place - at least in the circles of South African churches from reformed origin - regarding its rich tradition of critical and transformational prophetic involvement in the public space. In this article, the author places different models for the public role of the church in the field of tension that is generated when the private and public spheres meet each other. The author anticipates different configurations that will probably form in this field of tension in the cases of respectively the Two Kingdoms Model, the Neo-Calvinist Approach and the Communicative Rationality Approach.<hr/>Na bykans twee dekades van demokratiese regering in Suid-Afrika blyk dit dat patrone van onttrekking en onsekerheid oor wat die inhoud, rasionaliteit en impak van die publieke rol van die kerk in die samelewing presies behels, steeds voortduur. In 'n situasie waaruit dit blyk dat daar geen werklike teenvoeter is vir die hoë vlakke van korrupsie asook vir die bedreiging wat dit vir volhoubare ontwikkeling inhou nie, is dit hoog tyd dat die kerk, ten minste in die geval van die Suid-Afrikaanse kerke van reformatoriese oorsprong, diep oor sy profetiese rol in die samelewing moet besin. Hierdie kerke kom uit 'n ryke tradisie van kritiese en transformerende betrokkenheid in die publieke sfeer. In hierdie artikel plaas die outeur verskillende modelle vir die publieke rol van die kerk in die spanningsveld wat gegenereer word wanneer die private en publieke sfere mekaar ontmoet. Die outeur antisipeer verskillende konfigurasies wat waarskynlik na vore sal tree in hierdie spanningsveld in die gevalle van onderskeidelik die Twee Koninkryke Model, die Neo-Calvinistiese Benadering en die Kommunikatiewe Rasionaliteit Benadering. <![CDATA[<b>Implications of developments in die doctrine of divine healing in die Pentecostal movement</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000100018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die Pinksterbeweging het met verloop van tyd sy begrip van die leer van goddelike genesing verander. Die veranderings is hoofsaaklik as gevolg van vorderings wat deur die mediese wetenskap gemaak is en die pinksterteologie moes opnuut die verhouding tussen versoening en heling definieer. Die veranderings word in terme van die geskiedenis van die wit afdeling van die Apostoliese Geloof Sending van Suid-Afrika (AGS), die grootste pinksterdenominasie in Suid-Afrika, beskryf. Dit dien tot 'n groot mate as verteenwoordigend van veranderings in die res van die AGS, maar ook van die Pinksterbeweging as sodanig. Die ontleding toon dat die veranderde houding teenoor die gebruik van medisyne en inenting sowel as mediese prosedures soos operasies pinksterkerke uiteindelik dwing om toegewings in sy genesingsbediening te maak wat aan sy Skrifbeskouing verwant is. Dat die kerk veranderings aanbring in 'n belangrike leerstelling soos dié van goddelike genesing, hou belangrike implikasies vir die kerk in. Die implikasies hou verband met die wyse waarop die pinkstermense die Bybel lees en benut en dit noodsaak die Pinksterbeweging om ook oor ander leerstellings na te dink wat uitdagings daaraan stel, byvoorbeeld die eskatologie en ekklesiologie.<hr/>The Pentecostal movement changed over time its understanding of the doctrine of divine healing. These changes are mainly in the attitude towards the advances made by medical science and reflected in the way pentecostal theology defined the relation between atonement and healing. The changes are described in terms of the history of the white division of the Apostolic Faith Mission of South Africa (AFM), the largest pentecostal denomination within South Africa. It serves to a large extent as representative of the changes in the AFM, but also the Pentecostal movement per se. The analysis shows that the changed attitude towards the use of medicine and vaccination as well as medical procedures such as operations eventually forced pentecostal churches to make concessions in its healing ministry, leading to changes in its scriptural view of the doctrine under consideration. That the church changed in aspects related to such an important doctrine poses important challenges that it must take note of. These implications are related to the way pentecostal people read and use the Bible and require that the church reflect on other doctrines that also challenge the Pentecostal movement, like its eschatology and ecclesiology. <![CDATA[<b>Christ alone ... Redeeming Youth Ministry</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000100019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In this article a fresh approach is proposed pertaining the contents and focus of the biblical message being taught in Youth Ministry: a Christocentric message in effective Youth Ministry is proposed as foundation to build on considering the Sola Scriptura approach. This is done to address one of the contributing factors to the current crisis in Youth Ministry, namely the use of behavioural modification techniques to transform the youth instead of spiritual transformation. The crisis in Youth Ministry can be described as not being effective in leading young people into mature Christian adulthood. Only through believing the Christocentric message of grace and allowing the sanctification of Holy Spirit in one's life genuine spiritual transformation will take place. This article took a stance against behavioural modification techniques or preaching the Law, which may produce outward moralisation without the inward genuine transformation by Holy Spirit. Instead, it proposed four facets of a Christocentric message to be focused on in effective Youth Ministry: firstly, the grace of God as gift, secondly, the Christian's status in Christ, thirdly, the message of the Kingdom of God, and lastly, the importance of cultivating a personal relationship with God.<hr/>In hierdie artikel word 'n vars benadering aangaande die inhoud en fokus van die Bybelse boodskap wat in Jeugbediening oorgedra word, voorgestel. 'n Christosentriese boodskap, gebou op 'n Sola Scriptura- benadering, moet as fondament in effektiewe Jeugbediening dien. Dit word gedoen om die aandag op een van die bydraende faktore tot die huidige krisis in Jeugbediening te vestig, naamlik dat gedragsveranderingstegnieke gebruik word om te poog om geestelike groei by die jeug te bevorder. Só word jongmense egter nie tot geestelike volwassenheid gelei nie. Geestelike transformasie kan slegs plaasvind deur geloof in die Christosentriese boodskap van genade en die werking van Heilige Gees in 'n mens se lewe. Hierdie artikel neem standpunt in teen die moralisasie van jongmense deur gedragsveranderingstegnieke of die verkondiging van die Wet sonder die transformerende werk van die Gees van God. Vier fasette van 'n Christosentriese boodskap om in effektiewe Jeugbediening op te fokus, word voorgestel: eerstens, die genade van God as geskenk, tweedens, die Christen se status in Christus, derdens, die boodskap van die Koninkryk van God, en laastens, die belangrikheid daarvan om aan 'n persoonlike verhouding met God te bou. <![CDATA[<b>Effective Youth Ministry: Embracing a family-orientated approach</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000100020&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article embraces the Sola Scriptura approach of the reformed theology. Firstly, the article focuses on the crisis in Youth Ministry, namely its inefficiency in leading young people to Christian maturity. It addressed one of the contributing factors to the crisis: the isolation of youth from the adult world, and particularly from their own parents and the larger church community. From the Sola Scriptura principle, a family-orientated approach to effective Youth Ministry is proposed where parents are expected to take responsibility for their children's spiritual growth. The church should then support parents and families in this process. Different role players in a family-orientated Youth Ministry are identified and some new perceptions regarding their different tasks are proposed.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersteun die Sola Scriptura-benadering van die reformatoriese teologie. Aanvanklik fokus die artikel op die huidige krisis in Jeugbediening, naamlik dat Jeugbediening nie effektief toegepas word om jongmense tot volwasse Christenskap te lei nie. Dit bespreek een van die bydraende faktore tot hierdie krisis: die jeug se isolasie van die volwasse wêreld - spesifiek van hulle eie ouers en die groter kerkgemeenskap. Vanuit 'n Sola Scriptura-benadering word 'n familie-geörienteerde benadering tot effektiewe Jeugbediening waar dit van ouers verwag word om verantwoordelikheid vir hulle kinders se geestelike groei te neem, as uitkoms voorgestel. Die kerk behoort dan ouers en families in hierdie proses te ondersteun. Verskillende rolspelers in familie-georiënteerde Jeugbediening word geïdentifiseer en 'n paar nuwe insigte aangaande hulle verskillende take word voorgestel. <![CDATA[<b>Article 2 of the Belgic Confession as faith presupposition in the science-faith debate</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000100021&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Artikel 2 van die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis bely dat God deur twee middele geken word, te wete deur middel van die skepping, onderhouding en regering van die wêreld (waaronder die wetenskap) en deur die heilige en goddelike Woord (die Bybel). Hierdie belydenis is van groot belang vir die gesprek tussen Wetenskap en Teologie. In hierdie artikel word gepoog om die verskille, maar ook die ooreenkomste tussen hierdie twee middele van openbaring uit te lig, elkeen tot sy reg te laat kom, maar hulle ook in balans met mekaar te stel. Die wyse waarop te werk gegaan word, is die volgende: eers word gestel wat vooronderstellings is, asook die plek wat vooronderstellings in die beoefening van wetenskap sowel as geloof inneem. Daarna word nagevors watter perspektiewe artikel 2 van die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis as geloofsvooronderstelling vir die wetenskaps- en teologiebeoefening respektiewelik bied. Hieruit word 'n aantal gevolgtrekkings gemaak wat kan help om die problematiek in die wetenskap-geloofsgesprek op te los. Die kernbevinding van hierdie artikel is die volgende: Vanweë die verskil in die aard en die doel tussen Bybelfeite en wetenskaplike navorsingsresultate kan en sal klaarblyklike harmonieprobleme tussen die Skrif en die wetenskap ontstaan. Hierdie is egter slegs klaarblyklike probleme, omdat 'n verrekening van die verskil in die aard en die bedoeling van die wetenskapresultate en die Bybelfeite hierdie probleem sal oplos.<hr/>Article 2 of the Belgic Confession confesses that God can be known by two means: firstly by studying the creation, preservation and government of the universe (i.e. science) and secondly by studying the Word of God (the Bible). This confession is very important for the discussion between science and faith. In this article the similarities, but also the differences between these two means of revelation are researched. The aim is to set them in balance and in order to let each one come to its own right. The way the research is done is as follows: In the first place the role of presuppositions in both science and faith are determined. Secondly research is done on the perspectives obtained for both science and faith when Article 2 of the Belgic Confession is taken as a faith presupposition. Finally conclusions are made in helping to resolve the differences in the science-faith debate. The main finding is that harmony problems between facts from the Bible and scientific results will occur because of the difference in nature and meaning between these two entities. However, when the set difference in nature and meaning are taken into account, these problems can be resolved. <![CDATA[<b>Romans 8:3-4 and God's resolution of the threefold problems of sin, the incapability of the law and the weakness of the flesh</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000100022&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Ensuing from the argument of Romans 7:7-25, 8:3-1 presents 'the incapability of the law' as a significant part of the greater problem of sin that needed resolution. This is brought to the fore best when the opening clause of Romans 8:3 (τό ... αδύνατον) is seen as an accusative of respect with dependant clauses and not as an anacoluthon as is often supposed. This opening clause points out sin's two concomitant problems as (within this context) the primary points of reference in regard to which the claims of Romans 8:3-4 are made. Consequently, in Romans 8:3-4 Paul addresses the resolution of this threefold problem. In Romans 8:3 in particular, he argues that, through the mission of God's Son, the problems of sin and the weakness of the flesh are resolved by the condemnation of sin in the flesh (of Christ). This has the purpose-result of also resolving the problem of the incapability of the law through Christ's fulfilment of the requirement of the law (Rm 8:4).<hr/>In die lig van Romeine 7:7-25 impliseer 8:3-4 dat die 'onvermoë van die wet' 'n noemenswaardige deel van die groter probleem van die sonde was wat opgelos moes word. Hierdie insig tree veral duidelik na vore wanneer die sinsnede waarmee Romeine 8:3 begin (τό ... αδύνατον) geïdentifiseer word as 'n akkusatief van opsig (met bysinne) en nie, soos dikwels veronderstel word, 'n anakoluthon nie. Die twee probleme wat met sonde gepaard gaan (die onvermoë van die wet en die swakheid van die vlees), word dus deur Paulus uitgelig as die primêre verwysingspunte ten opsigte waarvan die stellings in Romeine 8:3-4 gemaak word. In Romeine 8:3 wys Paulus dat God, deur sy Seun te stuur, die probleme van die sonde en die vlees aangespreek het deurdat die sonde in die vlees (van Christus) veroordeel is. Dit het die doel-gevolg gehad dat die meegaande probleem van die onvermoë van die wet ook opgelos is, aangesien Christus die vereiste van die wet vervul het (Rom 8:4). <![CDATA[<b>The requirement of the law fulfilled in Romans 8:4</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000100023&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en God effects the fulfilment of the requirement of the law through the agency (mission) of Christ. Those 'in him' are the point of reference in whose favour the law's requirement is fulfilled, with the effect that they are no longer obligated to Torah. Being 'in Christ' they, nonetheless, are also envisioned as living in a way that corresponds to what Torah would have required of them, had they still been subject to it, but they are now being governed and empowered by the Spirit. Consequently their lives give expression to the ultimate (singular) requirement and intention (δικαίωµα) of Torah. The fulfilment of the requirement of the law refers to the purpose of the law as a whole, and not only of the 'moral' aspect, often anachronistically separated from the 'cultic' aspect. Ultimately, God who originally gave Torah now effected the fulfilment of its intention - something that had been unrealised before the mission of Christ and the gift of the Spirit due to the incapability of the law.<hr/>God bewerk die vervulling van die wet se vereiste (δικαίωµα) deur die bemiddeling van (die sending van) Christus. Dié wat 'in Christus' is, is die begunstigdes van die feit dat die vereiste van die wet vervul is, met die gevolg dat hulle nie meer aan die bepalinge van Tora as sodanig onderhewig is nie. Aangesien hulle 'in Christus' is, word dit egter voorsien dat hulle steeds sodanig sal leef dat dit ooreenstem met wat Tora in beginsel van hulle sou vereis indien hulle steeds daaraan onderhewig was, maar dat hulle dit nou vanweë die heerskappy en bekragtiging van die Gees uitleef. Gevolglik gee hulle lewens gestalte aan die uiteindelike (enkelvoudige) doel en vereiste (δικαίωµα) van Tora. Die vervulling van die wet se vereiste verwys nie na die vervulling van slegs die 'morele' vereistes nie, maar ook na dít wat dikwels op anachronistiese wyse as die 'seremoniële' wet afgesonder word. Uiteindelik het God, wat Tora oorspronklik daargestel het, die vervulling van die wet se bedoeling gerealiseer - iets wat vanweë die onvermoë van die wet ongerealiseerd gebly het in die epog voor die koms van Christus en die gawe van die Gees. <![CDATA[<b>Beoefen Praktiese Teologie altyd met die oog op God</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000100024&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en God effects the fulfilment of the requirement of the law through the agency (mission) of Christ. Those 'in him' are the point of reference in whose favour the law's requirement is fulfilled, with the effect that they are no longer obligated to Torah. Being 'in Christ' they, nonetheless, are also envisioned as living in a way that corresponds to what Torah would have required of them, had they still been subject to it, but they are now being governed and empowered by the Spirit. Consequently their lives give expression to the ultimate (singular) requirement and intention (δικαίωµα) of Torah. The fulfilment of the requirement of the law refers to the purpose of the law as a whole, and not only of the 'moral' aspect, often anachronistically separated from the 'cultic' aspect. Ultimately, God who originally gave Torah now effected the fulfilment of its intention - something that had been unrealised before the mission of Christ and the gift of the Spirit due to the incapability of the law.<hr/>God bewerk die vervulling van die wet se vereiste (δικαίωµα) deur die bemiddeling van (die sending van) Christus. Dié wat 'in Christus' is, is die begunstigdes van die feit dat die vereiste van die wet vervul is, met die gevolg dat hulle nie meer aan die bepalinge van Tora as sodanig onderhewig is nie. Aangesien hulle 'in Christus' is, word dit egter voorsien dat hulle steeds sodanig sal leef dat dit ooreenstem met wat Tora in beginsel van hulle sou vereis indien hulle steeds daaraan onderhewig was, maar dat hulle dit nou vanweë die heerskappy en bekragtiging van die Gees uitleef. Gevolglik gee hulle lewens gestalte aan die uiteindelike (enkelvoudige) doel en vereiste (δικαίωµα) van Tora. Die vervulling van die wet se vereiste verwys nie na die vervulling van slegs die 'morele' vereistes nie, maar ook na dít wat dikwels op anachronistiese wyse as die 'seremoniële' wet afgesonder word. Uiteindelik het God, wat Tora oorspronklik daargestel het, die vervulling van die wet se bedoeling gerealiseer - iets wat vanweë die onvermoë van die wet ongerealiseerd gebly het in die epog voor die koms van Christus en die gawe van die Gees. <![CDATA[<b>'n Beoordeling van Willem Nicol se boek getiteld: <i>Gegryp deur Christus</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000100025&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en God effects the fulfilment of the requirement of the law through the agency (mission) of Christ. Those 'in him' are the point of reference in whose favour the law's requirement is fulfilled, with the effect that they are no longer obligated to Torah. Being 'in Christ' they, nonetheless, are also envisioned as living in a way that corresponds to what Torah would have required of them, had they still been subject to it, but they are now being governed and empowered by the Spirit. Consequently their lives give expression to the ultimate (singular) requirement and intention (δικαίωµα) of Torah. The fulfilment of the requirement of the law refers to the purpose of the law as a whole, and not only of the 'moral' aspect, often anachronistically separated from the 'cultic' aspect. Ultimately, God who originally gave Torah now effected the fulfilment of its intention - something that had been unrealised before the mission of Christ and the gift of the Spirit due to the incapability of the law.<hr/>God bewerk die vervulling van die wet se vereiste (δικαίωµα) deur die bemiddeling van (die sending van) Christus. Dié wat 'in Christus' is, is die begunstigdes van die feit dat die vereiste van die wet vervul is, met die gevolg dat hulle nie meer aan die bepalinge van Tora as sodanig onderhewig is nie. Aangesien hulle 'in Christus' is, word dit egter voorsien dat hulle steeds sodanig sal leef dat dit ooreenstem met wat Tora in beginsel van hulle sou vereis indien hulle steeds daaraan onderhewig was, maar dat hulle dit nou vanweë die heerskappy en bekragtiging van die Gees uitleef. Gevolglik gee hulle lewens gestalte aan die uiteindelike (enkelvoudige) doel en vereiste (δικαίωµα) van Tora. Die vervulling van die wet se vereiste verwys nie na die vervulling van slegs die 'morele' vereistes nie, maar ook na dít wat dikwels op anachronistiese wyse as die 'seremoniële' wet afgesonder word. Uiteindelik het God, wat Tora oorspronklik daargestel het, die vervulling van die wet se bedoeling gerealiseer - iets wat vanweë die onvermoë van die wet ongerealiseerd gebly het in die epog voor die koms van Christus en die gawe van die Gees. <![CDATA[<b>A missional reformed refocus</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000100026&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en God effects the fulfilment of the requirement of the law through the agency (mission) of Christ. Those 'in him' are the point of reference in whose favour the law's requirement is fulfilled, with the effect that they are no longer obligated to Torah. Being 'in Christ' they, nonetheless, are also envisioned as living in a way that corresponds to what Torah would have required of them, had they still been subject to it, but they are now being governed and empowered by the Spirit. Consequently their lives give expression to the ultimate (singular) requirement and intention (δικαίωµα) of Torah. The fulfilment of the requirement of the law refers to the purpose of the law as a whole, and not only of the 'moral' aspect, often anachronistically separated from the 'cultic' aspect. Ultimately, God who originally gave Torah now effected the fulfilment of its intention - something that had been unrealised before the mission of Christ and the gift of the Spirit due to the incapability of the law.<hr/>God bewerk die vervulling van die wet se vereiste (δικαίωµα) deur die bemiddeling van (die sending van) Christus. Dié wat 'in Christus' is, is die begunstigdes van die feit dat die vereiste van die wet vervul is, met die gevolg dat hulle nie meer aan die bepalinge van Tora as sodanig onderhewig is nie. Aangesien hulle 'in Christus' is, word dit egter voorsien dat hulle steeds sodanig sal leef dat dit ooreenstem met wat Tora in beginsel van hulle sou vereis indien hulle steeds daaraan onderhewig was, maar dat hulle dit nou vanweë die heerskappy en bekragtiging van die Gees uitleef. Gevolglik gee hulle lewens gestalte aan die uiteindelike (enkelvoudige) doel en vereiste (δικαίωµα) van Tora. Die vervulling van die wet se vereiste verwys nie na die vervulling van slegs die 'morele' vereistes nie, maar ook na dít wat dikwels op anachronistiese wyse as die 'seremoniële' wet afgesonder word. Uiteindelik het God, wat Tora oorspronklik daargestel het, die vervulling van die wet se bedoeling gerealiseer - iets wat vanweë die onvermoë van die wet ongerealiseerd gebly het in die epog voor die koms van Christus en die gawe van die Gees. <![CDATA[<b>Geloofsmomente wat van God se genade getuig</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000100027&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en God effects the fulfilment of the requirement of the law through the agency (mission) of Christ. Those 'in him' are the point of reference in whose favour the law's requirement is fulfilled, with the effect that they are no longer obligated to Torah. Being 'in Christ' they, nonetheless, are also envisioned as living in a way that corresponds to what Torah would have required of them, had they still been subject to it, but they are now being governed and empowered by the Spirit. Consequently their lives give expression to the ultimate (singular) requirement and intention (δικαίωµα) of Torah. The fulfilment of the requirement of the law refers to the purpose of the law as a whole, and not only of the 'moral' aspect, often anachronistically separated from the 'cultic' aspect. Ultimately, God who originally gave Torah now effected the fulfilment of its intention - something that had been unrealised before the mission of Christ and the gift of the Spirit due to the incapability of the law.<hr/>God bewerk die vervulling van die wet se vereiste (δικαίωµα) deur die bemiddeling van (die sending van) Christus. Dié wat 'in Christus' is, is die begunstigdes van die feit dat die vereiste van die wet vervul is, met die gevolg dat hulle nie meer aan die bepalinge van Tora as sodanig onderhewig is nie. Aangesien hulle 'in Christus' is, word dit egter voorsien dat hulle steeds sodanig sal leef dat dit ooreenstem met wat Tora in beginsel van hulle sou vereis indien hulle steeds daaraan onderhewig was, maar dat hulle dit nou vanweë die heerskappy en bekragtiging van die Gees uitleef. Gevolglik gee hulle lewens gestalte aan die uiteindelike (enkelvoudige) doel en vereiste (δικαίωµα) van Tora. Die vervulling van die wet se vereiste verwys nie na die vervulling van slegs die 'morele' vereistes nie, maar ook na dít wat dikwels op anachronistiese wyse as die 'seremoniële' wet afgesonder word. Uiteindelik het God, wat Tora oorspronklik daargestel het, die vervulling van die wet se bedoeling gerealiseer - iets wat vanweë die onvermoë van die wet ongerealiseerd gebly het in die epog voor die koms van Christus en die gawe van die Gees. <![CDATA[<b>'n Bybelstudieboek vir vroue oor heelwording</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000100028&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en God effects the fulfilment of the requirement of the law through the agency (mission) of Christ. Those 'in him' are the point of reference in whose favour the law's requirement is fulfilled, with the effect that they are no longer obligated to Torah. Being 'in Christ' they, nonetheless, are also envisioned as living in a way that corresponds to what Torah would have required of them, had they still been subject to it, but they are now being governed and empowered by the Spirit. Consequently their lives give expression to the ultimate (singular) requirement and intention (δικαίωµα) of Torah. The fulfilment of the requirement of the law refers to the purpose of the law as a whole, and not only of the 'moral' aspect, often anachronistically separated from the 'cultic' aspect. Ultimately, God who originally gave Torah now effected the fulfilment of its intention - something that had been unrealised before the mission of Christ and the gift of the Spirit due to the incapability of the law.<hr/>God bewerk die vervulling van die wet se vereiste (δικαίωµα) deur die bemiddeling van (die sending van) Christus. Dié wat 'in Christus' is, is die begunstigdes van die feit dat die vereiste van die wet vervul is, met die gevolg dat hulle nie meer aan die bepalinge van Tora as sodanig onderhewig is nie. Aangesien hulle 'in Christus' is, word dit egter voorsien dat hulle steeds sodanig sal leef dat dit ooreenstem met wat Tora in beginsel van hulle sou vereis indien hulle steeds daaraan onderhewig was, maar dat hulle dit nou vanweë die heerskappy en bekragtiging van die Gees uitleef. Gevolglik gee hulle lewens gestalte aan die uiteindelike (enkelvoudige) doel en vereiste (δικαίωµα) van Tora. Die vervulling van die wet se vereiste verwys nie na die vervulling van slegs die 'morele' vereistes nie, maar ook na dít wat dikwels op anachronistiese wyse as die 'seremoniële' wet afgesonder word. Uiteindelik het God, wat Tora oorspronklik daargestel het, die vervulling van die wet se bedoeling gerealiseer - iets wat vanweë die onvermoë van die wet ongerealiseerd gebly het in die epog voor die koms van Christus en die gawe van die Gees. <![CDATA[<b>'n Verfynde siening van die inspirasie en die gesag van die Bybel</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000100029&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en God effects the fulfilment of the requirement of the law through the agency (mission) of Christ. Those 'in him' are the point of reference in whose favour the law's requirement is fulfilled, with the effect that they are no longer obligated to Torah. Being 'in Christ' they, nonetheless, are also envisioned as living in a way that corresponds to what Torah would have required of them, had they still been subject to it, but they are now being governed and empowered by the Spirit. Consequently their lives give expression to the ultimate (singular) requirement and intention (δικαίωµα) of Torah. The fulfilment of the requirement of the law refers to the purpose of the law as a whole, and not only of the 'moral' aspect, often anachronistically separated from the 'cultic' aspect. Ultimately, God who originally gave Torah now effected the fulfilment of its intention - something that had been unrealised before the mission of Christ and the gift of the Spirit due to the incapability of the law.<hr/>God bewerk die vervulling van die wet se vereiste (δικαίωµα) deur die bemiddeling van (die sending van) Christus. Dié wat 'in Christus' is, is die begunstigdes van die feit dat die vereiste van die wet vervul is, met die gevolg dat hulle nie meer aan die bepalinge van Tora as sodanig onderhewig is nie. Aangesien hulle 'in Christus' is, word dit egter voorsien dat hulle steeds sodanig sal leef dat dit ooreenstem met wat Tora in beginsel van hulle sou vereis indien hulle steeds daaraan onderhewig was, maar dat hulle dit nou vanweë die heerskappy en bekragtiging van die Gees uitleef. Gevolglik gee hulle lewens gestalte aan die uiteindelike (enkelvoudige) doel en vereiste (δικαίωµα) van Tora. Die vervulling van die wet se vereiste verwys nie na die vervulling van slegs die 'morele' vereistes nie, maar ook na dít wat dikwels op anachronistiese wyse as die 'seremoniële' wet afgesonder word. Uiteindelik het God, wat Tora oorspronklik daargestel het, die vervulling van die wet se bedoeling gerealiseer - iets wat vanweë die onvermoë van die wet ongerealiseerd gebly het in die epog voor die koms van Christus en die gawe van die Gees. <![CDATA[<b>A community perspective of spirit and healing in Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000100030&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en God effects the fulfilment of the requirement of the law through the agency (mission) of Christ. Those 'in him' are the point of reference in whose favour the law's requirement is fulfilled, with the effect that they are no longer obligated to Torah. Being 'in Christ' they, nonetheless, are also envisioned as living in a way that corresponds to what Torah would have required of them, had they still been subject to it, but they are now being governed and empowered by the Spirit. Consequently their lives give expression to the ultimate (singular) requirement and intention (δικαίωµα) of Torah. The fulfilment of the requirement of the law refers to the purpose of the law as a whole, and not only of the 'moral' aspect, often anachronistically separated from the 'cultic' aspect. Ultimately, God who originally gave Torah now effected the fulfilment of its intention - something that had been unrealised before the mission of Christ and the gift of the Spirit due to the incapability of the law.<hr/>God bewerk die vervulling van die wet se vereiste (δικαίωµα) deur die bemiddeling van (die sending van) Christus. Dié wat 'in Christus' is, is die begunstigdes van die feit dat die vereiste van die wet vervul is, met die gevolg dat hulle nie meer aan die bepalinge van Tora as sodanig onderhewig is nie. Aangesien hulle 'in Christus' is, word dit egter voorsien dat hulle steeds sodanig sal leef dat dit ooreenstem met wat Tora in beginsel van hulle sou vereis indien hulle steeds daaraan onderhewig was, maar dat hulle dit nou vanweë die heerskappy en bekragtiging van die Gees uitleef. Gevolglik gee hulle lewens gestalte aan die uiteindelike (enkelvoudige) doel en vereiste (δικαίωµα) van Tora. Die vervulling van die wet se vereiste verwys nie na die vervulling van slegs die 'morele' vereistes nie, maar ook na dít wat dikwels op anachronistiese wyse as die 'seremoniële' wet afgesonder word. Uiteindelik het God, wat Tora oorspronklik daargestel het, die vervulling van die wet se bedoeling gerealiseer - iets wat vanweë die onvermoë van die wet ongerealiseerd gebly het in die epog voor die koms van Christus en die gawe van die Gees. <![CDATA[<b>Natural Law in Reformed Thinking</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532014000100031&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en God effects the fulfilment of the requirement of the law through the agency (mission) of Christ. Those 'in him' are the point of reference in whose favour the law's requirement is fulfilled, with the effect that they are no longer obligated to Torah. Being 'in Christ' they, nonetheless, are also envisioned as living in a way that corresponds to what Torah would have required of them, had they still been subject to it, but they are now being governed and empowered by the Spirit. Consequently their lives give expression to the ultimate (singular) requirement and intention (δικαίωµα) of Torah. The fulfilment of the requirement of the law refers to the purpose of the law as a whole, and not only of the 'moral' aspect, often anachronistically separated from the 'cultic' aspect. Ultimately, God who originally gave Torah now effected the fulfilment of its intention - something that had been unrealised before the mission of Christ and the gift of the Spirit due to the incapability of the law.<hr/>God bewerk die vervulling van die wet se vereiste (δικαίωµα) deur die bemiddeling van (die sending van) Christus. Dié wat 'in Christus' is, is die begunstigdes van die feit dat die vereiste van die wet vervul is, met die gevolg dat hulle nie meer aan die bepalinge van Tora as sodanig onderhewig is nie. Aangesien hulle 'in Christus' is, word dit egter voorsien dat hulle steeds sodanig sal leef dat dit ooreenstem met wat Tora in beginsel van hulle sou vereis indien hulle steeds daaraan onderhewig was, maar dat hulle dit nou vanweë die heerskappy en bekragtiging van die Gees uitleef. Gevolglik gee hulle lewens gestalte aan die uiteindelike (enkelvoudige) doel en vereiste (δικαίωµα) van Tora. Die vervulling van die wet se vereiste verwys nie na die vervulling van slegs die 'morele' vereistes nie, maar ook na dít wat dikwels op anachronistiese wyse as die 'seremoniële' wet afgesonder word. Uiteindelik het God, wat Tora oorspronklik daargestel het, die vervulling van die wet se bedoeling gerealiseer - iets wat vanweë die onvermoë van die wet ongerealiseerd gebly het in die epog voor die koms van Christus en die gawe van die Gees.