Scielo RSS <![CDATA[In die Skriflig ]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2305-085320130001&lang=en vol. 47 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>The loss of influence of the faith community on Christian adolescents regarding decisions of sexual activities</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Baie Suid-Afrikaanse adolessente is seksueel aktief, ten spyte van wat hulle geloofsgemeenskap se lering oor seksuele aktiwiteite is. Daar kan nie 'n onderskeid gemaak word tussen die seksuele aktiwiteite van adolessente wat aan 'n geloofsgemeenskap behoort en adolessente wat nie aan 'n geloofsgemeenskap behoort nie. Hierdie studie argumenteer dat die rede vir hierdie tendens die verlies aan invloed is wat die geloofsgemeenskap op die besluitnemingsraamwerk van adolessente het met betrekking tot seksuele aktiwiteite. Deur die gebruik van deelnemerobservasie-navorsing as metodologie het adolessente deelnemers aan hierdie studie die inligtingsbronne wat adolessente oor seksuele aktiwiteite gebruik, geïdentifiseer asook die boodskappe wat hierdie bronne deurgee. Na aanleiding van hierdie data, binne die konteks van reeds bestaande literatuur, word die afleiding gemaak dat die kerk, as 'n geloofsgemeenskap, nie meer 'n invloed het op adolessente se seksuele aktiwiteite en hulle besluite daarrondom nie. Hierdie bevindings word binne die konteks van adolessensie as ontwikkelingsfase asook die ontwikkeling van moraliteit geplaas.<hr/>Many South African adolescents are sexually active, regardless of what their faith communities teach on sexual activity. No distinction can be made between the sexual activities of adolescents who belong to a faith community and adolescents without one. This study argues that this trend prevails because the faith community no longer has an influence on the decision-making framework of adolescents. By using participant observation research as methodology the adolescent participants in this study identified the sources of information about sexual activities that are used by adolescents and also the messages from these sources. Following this argument, within the context of existing literature, the argument is that the church, as community of faith, has no longer an influence on adolescents' sexual activities and their decisions regarding sex. These findings are placed within the context of adolescence as a developmental phase and the development of morality during this phase. <![CDATA[<b>Ministering effectively in the context of Pentecostalism in Africa: A reformed missional reflection</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Pentecostalism is a global phenomenon with a large following in North America, Latin America, Asia, Africa and other parts of the world. The rise, growth and influence of Pentecostalism in Africa are enormous and have, without fear of contradiction, become one of the dominant expressions of Christianity on the continent. A contextual analysis of Christianity in Africa showed that the African soil is more fertile for this movement. Its manifestation ranges from classical Pentecostalism (first wave), to the charismatic movement (second wave) and the charismatic renewal movements (third wave). Its growth in Africa came with a fair number of missiological challenges to evangelical reformed churches, and therefore this article sought to sketch this movement by providing a historical perspective on Pentecostalism, a contextual analysis of Pentecostalism in Africa, issues and challenges in Pentecostalism, and concludes by looking closely at a reformed missional reflection, thereby providing some nuances as to how best one can minister effectively in the context of Pentecostalism. This article called for evangelical reformed churches to exercise the spirit of discernment whilst dealing with the influence of Pentecostalism, but at the same time to learn from this movement the zeal for mission and the role of the Holy Spirit in mission.<hr/>Pentekostalisme is 'n globale fenomeen met 'n groot aanhang in Noord-Amerika, Latyns Amerika, Asië, Afrika en ander wêrelddele. Die opkoms, groei en invloed van Pentekostalisme in Afrika was geweldig en het een van die dominante gedaantes van Christenskap op die kontinent geword. 'n Kontekstuele analise van Christenskap in Afrika wys dat Afrika meer vatbaar was vir hierdie tendens. Die manifestasie daarvan ryk van klassieke Pentekostalisme (eerste golf), tot die charismatiese beweging (tweede golf) en die charismatiese herlewingsbewegings (derde golf). Die groei hiervan het 'n goeie aantal missiologiese uitdagings meegebring vir evangeliese gereformeerde kerke. Gevolglik het hierdie artikel gepoog om die tendens uit te wys deur 'n historiese perspektief op Pentekostalisme te bied, gevolg deur 'n kontekstuele analise van Pentekostalisme in Afrika, 'n bespreking van vraagstukke en uitdagings binne Pentekostalisme, en ter afsluiting 'n gereformeerde missiologiese oorweging hiervan, met klem op hoe bediening die beste kan plaasvind binne die konteks van Pentekostalisme. Die artikel het evangeliese gereformeerdes opgeroep om 'n gees van onderskeiding te openbaar wanneer hulle te doen kry met Pentekostalisme terwyl hulle terselfdertyd uit hierdie groep se ywer met sending en die rol van die Heilige Gees daarin geleer het. <![CDATA[<b>Cohabitation and Christian faith</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The habit of cohabitation is an increasing phenomenon in our society. It is usually seen as a trial marriage to test the compatibility of the partners involved. Although it has become socially acceptable, it contradicts the most fundamental doctrines of the Christian faith. The question is therefore whether cohabitation could indeed be accepted as a trial marriage or even a marriage that differs in name only. Unfortunately most Christians find it difficult to give an answer to this question because they are not properly informed of the biblical view in this regard. Biblical direction is therefore important. This is done from a dogmatic-ethical perspective. The emphasis is not on counselling or the exegesis of certain scriptures as such, but on relevant biblical principles concerning this topic. This does not mean that scriptural passages could be ignored. It stands to reason that biblical principles should be derived from specific Scriptures, and the aim is to deal with these Scriptures in a responsible way. This means, inter alia, that context and historical background are important. In doing so, these principles will not only be identified as guidelines in dealing with the habit of cohabitation, but also as principles that make sense in applying them. This was done by identifying some of the problems involved in cohabitation, followed by a biblical perspective of that which constitutes marriage over against cohabitation.<hr/>Die gebruik van ongetroudes om saam te bly, is 'n verskynsel wat in die samelewing toeneem. Dit word gewoonlik as 'n toetshuwelik beskou om te bepaal of die paartjie regtig by mekaar pas met die oog op 'n huwelik. Alhoewel dit 'n sosiaal-aanvaarde praktyk geword het, staan dit lynreg teenoor die mees fundamentele leerstellings van die Christelike geloof. Die vraag is daarom of saambly inderdaad as 'n toetshuwelik aanvaar kan word of enigsins as 'n huwelik beskou kan word - een wat net anders genoem word. Ongelukkig is dit vir die meeste Christene moeilik om hierdie vraag te beantwoord omdat hulle nie behoorlik ingelig is oor wat die bybelse siening in hierdie verband nie. Bybelse riglyne oor hierdie onderwerp is dus baie noodsaaklik. In hierdie artikel word sodanige riglyne verskaf vanuit 'n dogmaties-etiese perspektief. Die klem val nie op berading of die eksegese van bepaalde Skrifgedeeltes nie, maar op relevante bybelse beginsels rakende hierdie onderwerp. Dit beteken egter nie dat Skrifverwysings geïgnoreer kan word nie. Dit spreek vanself dat bybelse beginsels afgelei moet word van bepaalde skrifgedeeltes, waarmee dan op 'n verantwoordelike wyse omgegaan moet word. Dit beteken onder andere dat konteks en historiese agtergrond belangrik is. Bybelse beginsels sal egter nie net as riglyne geïdentifiseer word in die evaluering van saambly nie, maar ook as logiese beginsels in die toepassing daarvan. Om dit te bereik is probleme ten opsigte van saambly geïdentifiseer en opgevolg met 'n bybelse perspektief oor wat 'n ware huwelik eintlik werklik behels en inhou. <![CDATA[<b>Zechariah 2:8(12)</b>: <b>A possible Afrikaans translation of a difficult text</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Geleerdes stem saam dat die Hebreeuse teks van Sagaria 2:8 (v. 12 in Hebreeus) uiters moeilik is om te vertaal. Hierdie artikel fokus op die volgende vrae: Maak die Masoretiese teks sin? Moet ons die Masoretiese teks wysig? Die vertaling van die volgende ingewikkelde woorde en frases word bespreek: (1)•••• -””•-; (2) ”•- •”•• -“-•-•; (3) the particle ••; (4) ”””-; (5) en -•-•. Die skrywer glo dat dit nie nodig is om die Masoretiese teks te wysig nie en bied die volgende moontlike vertaling aan: 'Want so sê die HERE van alle magte: Ná die heerlikheid (d.i. die visioen) het Hy my gestuur na die nasies deur wie julle uitgebuit is; waarlik, wie aan julle vat, vat aan die appel van sy oog.'<hr/>Scholars agree that the Hebrew text of Zechariah 2:8 (v. 12 in Hebrew) is extremely difficult to translate. The questions posed by this article is: Does the Masoretic text make sense? Do we need to change the Masoretic text? The article discuses the translation of the following difficult words or phrases: (1)•••• -””•-; (2) ”•- •”•• -“-•-•; (3) the particle ••; (4) ”””-I; (5) and -•-•. The author argues that we do not need to change the Masoretic text and the following possible translation is presented: 'For thus says the Lord of all powers: After the glory (i.e. the vision) He sent me to the nations who plundered you; truly, the one who touches you touches the apple of his eye.' <![CDATA[<b>A brief critical approach to Janz's penultimate space model to authenticate experience with the transcendental from a Christian perspective</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Janz proposed a model of authenticity, based on the thesis that the closest proximity possible allows conditions for the Ultimate to become a referential framework within which the transcendental real meets with empirical reality. This is mainly expressed in terms of metaphysical time and space. This model may be usefully employed by religions that claim meeting with the transcendent and wish to do so on a rationally motivated basis. It is the author's belief that this model may be employed by the Christian faith in conjunction with other similar models so that Christianity's unique distinctives of its experience of the penultimate are emphasised.<hr/>Janz se model is gebaseer op die tesis dat die naaste nabyheid voorwaardes nakom sodat die Uiteindelike 'n verwysingsraamwerk daarstel waarbinne die ware transendentale empiriese werklikheid ontmoet. Dit word hoofsaaklik uitgedruk in terme van metafisiese tyd en ruimte. Hierdie model kan nuttig in diens geneem word deur godsdienste wat aanspraak maak op ontmoeting met die transendente en wat dit op 'n rasioneel gemotiveerde grondslag wil fundeer. Dit is die skrywer se oortuiging dat hierdie model deur die kerk in samewerking met ander soortgelyke modelle gebruik moet word sodat die kenmerkende eienskappe van die Christendom geloof sy unieke ervaring van die voorlaaste kan beklemtoon. <![CDATA[<b>The Christian philosophy of D.H.Th. Vollenhoven (1892-1978)</b>: <b>How it originated and was developed</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Hierdie artikel is die eerste in 'n reeks van drie wat handel oor die ontstaan van 'n reformatories-Christelike filosofie by D.H.Th. Vollenhoven (1892-1978), H. Dooyeweerd (1894-1977) van Nederland en H.G. Stoker (1899-1993) van Suid-Afrika. As algemene inleiding tot die trilogie word die vraag bespreek hoe hierdie filosofie vandag - 75 jaar na sy ontstaan - nog lewend en relevant kan wees. In hierdie eerste artikel, wat op die bydrae van Vollenhoven gefokus is, word die volgende behandel: (1) Ter inleiding word kortliks inligting oor sy persoonlikheid vermeld. (2) Aangesien veral kenteoretiese probleme in die brandpunt van belangstelling gestaan het ten tye van die geboorte van die reformatoriese filosofie aan die begin van die vorige eeu, volg 'n kort oorsig van hierdie wysgerige landskap. (3) Daarna word die moontlike invloede op Vollenhoven se denke van sowel buite (die sekulêre filosofiese milieu van sy tyd) as van binne (sy geesgenootlike tradisie) bespreek. (4) Die volgende hoofgedeelte vestig die aandag op Vollenhoven se pionierswerk vir sowel die die sistematiese filosofie as die filosofiese historiografie. (5) Dit word gevolg met 'n gedeelte oor hoedanig die nalatenskap van die driemanskap (Vollenhoven, Dooyeweerd en Stoker) deur daaropvolgende generasies ontvang is en hoe die reformatories-filosofiese tradisie verdeeld geraak het in die navolging van Vollenhoven, Dooyeweerd en Stoker. (6) Die verkenning word afgesluit met 'n aanduiding van die noue verbintenis tussen Vollenhoven (sy persoon asook sy filosofie) en Suid-Afrika en in die besonder Potchefstroom.<hr/>This article is the first in a series of three dealing with the emergence of a reformational-Christian philosophy in the work of D.H.Th. Vollenhoven (1892-1978), H. Dooyeweerd (1894-1977) of the Netherlands and H.G. Stoker (1899-1993) of South Africa. As a general introduction to the trilogy the question is how a tradition, the reformational philosophical tradition in particular, can today - 75 years after its inception - be kept alive and relevant. In this first article, focusing on Vollenhoven's contribution, the following are dealt with: (1) As introduction, something briefly is said about his personality. (2) Since especially epistemological issues were key problems at the cradle of his reformational philosophy during the first part of the previous century, a brief historical background (up to the present postmodern situation) is provided. (3) The third main section investigates the possible influences on Vollenhoven's thinking, firstly from outside (the philosophical environment of his times) and, secondly, from inside (preceding congenial thinkers). (4) Next, attention is asked for Vollenhoven's pioneering contribution to both systematic philosophy as well as the historiography of philosophy. (5) The following part deals with how the work of the triumvirate (Vollenhoven, Dooyeweerd and Stoker) was received by next generations and how the reformational philosophical tradition became divided into followers of Vollenhoven, Dooyeweerd and Stoker. (6) The reconnaissance is concluded with an indication of the close contacts between Vollenhoven as person as well as his philosophy and South Africa, especially Potchefstroom. <![CDATA[<b>H.G. Stoker (1899-1993) as Christian philosopher</b>: <b>historical legend and icon, or still a contemporary mentor? </b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en 'n Tradisie, wat 'n filosofiese tradisie insluit, kan alleen lewend bly as die verhaal daarvan aan die jonger geslag oorvertel word. Daarom bied hierdie inleidende en oorsigtelike artikel aan die leser iets oor die unieke filosofie van die Suid-Afrikaanse denker, Henk Stoker. Ter inleiding behandel dit die moontlike redes waarom sy denke in Suid-Afrika en elders vandag relatief onbekend is en minder invloedryk was in vergelyking met dié van die twee ander vaders van 'n reformatoriese filosofie, naamlik Dirk H.Th. Vollenhoven en veral Herman Dooyeweerd. Daarna word aandag geskenk aan die Suid-Afrikaanse milieu waarbinne sy filosofie gebore is. Die moontlike interne en eksterne teologiese en filosofiese invloede van veral Herman Bavinck (1854-1921) en Max Scheler (1874-1928) word behandel. Vervolgens word op enkele van Stoker se oorspronklikste bydraes tot die Christelik-filosofiese tradisie gewys. 'n Vlugtige blik word op die wedersydse kritiek tussen Stoker, Dooyeweerd en sekere leerlinge van Dooyeweerd gewerp. Ten slotte kan daar, in die lig van hierdie onderlinge verskille, sekere wanopvattings reggestel word, byvoorbeeld dat 'n Reformatoriese filosofie 'n statiese en geslote sisteem is.<hr/>Tradition which includes a philosophical tradition, can only been kept alive when its story is told to younger generations. This is the motivation behind this introductory overview of the unique philosophy of the South African philosopher, Henk Stoker. In comparison with the two other founders of a reformational philosophy, Dirk H.Th. Vollenhoven (1892-1978) and especially Herman Dooyeweerd (1994-1977), Stoker's ideas are in South Africa, as well as abroad, less well-known among reformed people. The introductory part of this article, therefore, investigates the possible reasons for the relatively small impact of his thinking. The next section requires attention for the South African context in which his Christian philosophy was born. This is followed by a detailed discussion of the possible internal and external theological and philosophical influences of especially Herman Bavinck (1865-1921) and Max Scheler (1874-1928) on the emergence of Stoker's philosophy of the idea of creation. A few of Stoker's original contributions to a Christian philosophy are then highlighted. Next the debate between Stoker and Dooyeweerd and some of Dooyeweerd's followers is reviewed. Finally, in the light of these differences between two of the fathers of the triumvirate already at the origin of a Reformational philosophy, the misconception that this kind of philosophy is a static and closed system, should be corrected. <![CDATA[<b>The hymn and communication through word and melody</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en 'n Vraag wat min gestel word in die beoordeling van die funksie van gemeentelike sang is die vraag na die wisselwerking tussen die liedteks en die melodie. Hierdie wisselwerking speel 'n groot rol in die kommunikasie deur die lied in die erediens. In hierdie artikel word gelet op Skrifgegewens wat van toepassing is, op enkele perspektiewe uit die kerkgeskiedenis en op teoretiese aspekte van die kerklied en kommunikasie. Sekere sake uit 'n empiriese ondersoek, toegespits op die Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika (GKSA), lig die saak verder toe. Predikante het 'n besondere verantwoordelijkheid om die kommunikasiemoontlikhede deur die kerklied te bevorder deur 'n verantwoorde keuse van liedere wat gesing word, die uitbreiding van 'n gemeenterepertorium, sinvolle samewerking met die orrelis en toeligting van die liedkeuses.<hr/>The interaction between the melody and the words of a hymn is not regularly taken into account in evaluating the function of congregational singing. This interaction is, however, very important for the communication effected by a hymn during a service. This article discusses Scriptural data important for this topic, some perspectives from church history and theoretical aspects of communication through hymns. Data from an empirical investigation directed at the Reformed Churches in South Africa (RCSA) sheds light on this topic. Ministers of religion have a special responsibility to enhance the possibilities of communication through hymns by their selection of hymns, the broadening of the repertoire of a congregation, meaningful cooperation with the organist and explaining the choice of hymns. <![CDATA[<b>A proposed matrix regarding the pastoral counselling of the wounded faith-estranged</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Hierdie artikel fokus op die rol van pastorale berading aan die emosioneel-verwonde en geloofsvervreemde persoon deur middel van die redding in Christus. Die rol van God Drie-enig en die sentrale posisie van die Skrif word ondersoek. Verder word aspekte wat 'n Skrifgefundeerde mensbeeld onderlê, gekonstrueer. Die verband tussen emosionele trauma en geloofsvervreemding, asook die aspek van reg en geregtigheid, word hierna ondersoek. Die belangrikheid van die heil in Christus in die geestelike genesingsproses word ook bespreek. Ter afsluiting word 'n pastoraal-terapeutiese matriks voorgestel vir ingrype in die huidige lewenskrisis en die bestaande geloofsvervreemding met inagneming van die traumageskiedenis. Praktiese riglyne word verder verskaf as hulpmiddel vir begeleiding in die ondersteuningsproses.<hr/>This article focuses on the role of the pastoral counselling of the emotionally wounded and faith-estranged person through the mediation of the salvation in Christ. The role of the Triune God and the central position of Scripture in mediating the salvation in Christ are also examined and the Scriptural view of man is constructed. The role of emotional trauma in the estrangement from God as well as the importance of justice and retribution are examined as it relates to the spiritual and emotional healing of the wounded faith-estranged. The article also discusses the prominence of the salvation in Christ in the spiritual healing process. In conclusion, a pastoral-therapeutic matrix of intervention is proposed to help in addressing the present life crisis and current faith-estrangement within the context of the trauma history, with a view to find healing from the woundedness and the faith-estrangement through salvation in Christ. Practical guidelines are offered to guide this supporting process. <![CDATA[<b>Institutionalism</b> <b>- alive and well in the declining Afrikaans reformed church practice</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In hierdie artikel word die institusionalistiese denkwyse (I-denke) as dominante denkwyse in die krimpende tradisioneel-Afrikaanssprekende Gereformeerde kerke bespreek. I-denke toon 'n denkwanbalans wat weerspieël word in die huidige ongebalanseerde en ongesonde kerkpraktyk. Die onwaarskynlikheid van organiese groei binne die huidige ekklesiologiese wanbalans, word belig deur te fokus op navorsing binne die Gereformeerde Kerk van Suid Afrika (GKSA)-kerkpraktyk, as een van die drie gereformeerde susterskerke. Die bevindings dui op die noodeisende toestand binne die tradisionele ekklesiologie. Die Christosentriese denkparadigma word as gebalanseerde korrektief aan die hand van die groot opdrag uiteengesit (maak dissipels van alle nasies) uiteengesit, as sleutel vir die daarstel van gesonde omstandighede ter wille van kerkgroei. Denke as die belangrikste ekklesiologiese oorsaak van kerkkrimping, kan deur denkverandering teëgewerk word ten einde verdere krimping van die susterskerke teë te werk.<hr/>This article discusses institutionalism as the dominant paradigm (I-paradigm) among the declining traditional Afrikaans speaking Reformed churches in South Africa. The I-paradigm portrays imbalanced thinking prevailing in the current unhealthy church practice. The improbability of natural growth within the recent ecclesiastic imbalance, is highlighted by focusing on a study within the church practice of the Reformed Curch of South Africa (RCSA) - one of the three reformed sister churches. Conclusions drawn from the study emphasise the serious conditions of this traditional ecclesiology. The Christ centered paradigm, as balanced corrective, is discussed in line with the great commission (disciple the nations) as key to creating healthy circumstances in order to realise church growth in the long run. Thinking, as the most important ecclesiological factor causing church decline, can be changed, thus preventing further decline of the sister churches. <![CDATA[<b>Metatheoretical points of departure with regard to scientific research in Liturgy</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Om die nuwe ontwikkelings in die Liturgiek grondig te kan beoordeel, moet na die metateoretiese onderbou van die verskillende standpunte gekyk word. Wanneer 'n navorser op die terrein van die Liturgiek nie hierdie wendings in sy metateoretiese vertrekpunte verreken nie, kan sodanige navorser of meegesleur word deur hierdie denkrigtings, of aan die ander kant, impulsief reaksionêr 'n onwetenskaplike oordeel daaroor uitspreek. Die navorsingsartikel het daarom ten doel om die eie reformatoriese metateoretiese vertrekpunte ten opsigte van die Liturgiek te probeer formuleer en om vas te stel wat die invloed daarvan is in die konteks van wendings in die denkklimaat asook die leefwêreld en kultuur waarin die wetenskaplike taak uitgevoer word. Hierdie navorsingsartikel het verder ten doel om 'n voorbeeld daar te stel hoe hierdie metateoretiese beskouing 'n navorsingsprojek kan stuur. Die wyse waarop God in die doop werksaam is en die effek daarvan op vergifnis en versoening in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks, is die voorbeeld van hoe 'n navorsingsprojek in die wetenskap van die Liturgiek aangepak kan word.<hr/>To be able to thoroughly judge the new developments in liturgy, the metatheoretical underpinnings of the different viewpoints must be examined. When a researcher in the field of Liturgy does not take these alterations on his metatheoretical points of departure into consideration, one can be carried away by these schools of thought, or on the other hand, express an unscientific judgement in an impulsive reactionary manner. The objective of this research article is therefore to try and formulate reformed metatheoretical points of departure with regard to Liturgy and to determine the impact thereof in the context of alterations in the climate of thought, the world we are living in and the culture within which the scientific task is carried out. A further objective of the research article is to provide an example of the way in which this metatheoretical view can steer a research project. The way in which God is working through baptism and the effect thereof on forgiveness and reconciliation in the South African context, is an example of the way in which a research project can be undertaken in the science of Liturgy. <![CDATA[<b>Metatheoretical assumptions in scientific research about the ministry of the congregation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Hierdie artikel is deel van 'n reeks oor die verrekening van die metateoretiese vertrekpunte in die wetenskap van Praktiese Teologie. Die eerste fase van die reeks bied die teoretiese onderbou vir die werklikheids-, hermeneuties- en wetenskapsteoretiese beskouing van die vak. Die tweede fase fokus op die invloed wat hierdie vertrekpunte op die wetenskaplike navorsing van die verskillende vakgroepe in die Praktiese Teologie het. Hierdie artikel handel oor die wetenskaplike benaderingswyse tot die navorsingsveld van gemeentebediening. In hierdie artikel word die persoonlike metateoretiese perspektief waarmee die vakgebied van gemeentebediening benader word, uitgespel en verantwoord ten opsigte van die volgende: die werklikheidsbeskouing waarmee daar op die navorsingsveld van gemeentebou gefokus word; die onderbou van die hermeneutiese beskouing wat nodig is om tot 'n verstaan te kom en tot 'n verantwoordbare verhouding tussen die elemente wat in die gemeentebouproses ter sprake kom; en ten slotte om die wetenskapsteoretiese benadering waarmee die navorsingsveld van gemeentebou op 'n wetenskaplik-verantwoorde wyse ondersoek kan word, te beskryf.<hr/>This article is part of a series about taking into account the metatheoretical assumptions in scientific practical-theological research. The first part of this series gives the theoretical foundation for the view on reality-theoretical, hermeneutical-theoretical and scientific-theoretical approaches to the research field. The second part focuses on the effect that these assumptions will have on the scientific research of the various subject groups in Practical Theology. This article describes the scientific approach to the research field of congregational ministry. This article describes the personal metatheoretical perspective from which the subject area is approached and gives account of the following: the view on reality with which the research field of congregational ministry is studied; the foundation on which the hermeneutical viewpoint is built to attain an understanding and a founded relationship between the elements that are applicable in the ministry of the congregation; as well as in the last instance, to describe the scientific-theoretical approach to the research field in a justified manner. <![CDATA[<b>Streams of living water</b>: <b>New Testament perspectives on the missional character of the church</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Oor 'n wye front word besorgdheid uitgespreek oor die stagnering en kwynende getallegroei van hoofstroom-reformatoriese kerke in Suid-Afrika. Die besorgdheid word egter ook uitgespreek dat predikante en kerke in hulle ywer om kerklike vernuwing teweeg te bring, soveel kompromieë maak dat die kerk sy eie aard as heilge volk van God in die wêreld verloor. Daar is 'n internasionale tendens te bespeur by reformatoriese kerke, in Suid-Afrika, Noord Amerika, Australië, Nederland, Duitsland en die Verenige Koninkryk om die na-binne-gerigtheid van kerke om te draai om werklik missionêre kerke te kan wees. Daar is ook tekens van 'n groeiende ontwakende passie om die onbereikte taalgroepe tot by die uithoeke van die aarde te bereik met die evangelie. Daar is oor 'n wye front lewendige debatte aan die gang wat vra vir 'n herevaluering van oorgeërfde ekklesiologiese tradisies en gebruike en 'n herbesinning oor Bybelse beginsels. In die lig van hierdie ontwikkelings is die doel van hierdie artikel om Nuwe-Testamentiese beginsels op te som en te onderstreep en as boustene aan te bied om die profiel van 'n missionêre kerk te skets.<hr/>Grave concerns are expressed about the decline of mainline reformed churches in South Africa, especially the Reformed Churches in South Africa. At the same time fears are expressed that efforts to facilitate renewal in churches in order to become healthy and more effective missional churches, are making too many compromises with the gospel, so that the church is in danger of losing its very character as God's holy people in the world. There is also an international phenomenon of reformed and evangelical type churches in North America, the Netherlands, Germany, the UK and Australia endeavouring to outgrow their ingrown vision and become part of God's mission to reach unreached people groups in every corner of the world. There are lively debates on reviewing and rethinking inherited ecclesiological theological traditions and practices in churches. This article endeavours to gather basic building bricks by summarising and emphasising the most basic New Testament principles for outlining the profile of a missional church. <![CDATA[<b>Mount Sinai and Mount Zion</b>: <b>Discontinuity and continuity in the book of Hebrews</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The author of Hebrews draws significant contrasts between Mount Sinai and Mount Zion which both played a major role in the old covenant. For the author of Hebrews the former mountain, Mount Sinai, only had limited significance with respect to the new covenant, whereas the latter mountain, Mount Zion, continued to have significance in the new covenant. Mount Zion was viewed as a shadow of the heavenly reality, which is the true destination for the pilgrimage community. Mount Sinai as the locus of encounter or meeting between God and Israel only played a transitory role, whereas Mount Zion had perpetual significance as the destination, the dwelling place of God and his people.<hr/>Die skrywer van Hebreërs wys op betekenisvolle teenstellings tussen Berg Sinai en Berg Sion, wat elkeen 'n beduidende rol in die ou verbond gespeel het. Vir die Hebreërskrywer het Berg Sinai egter beperkte betekenis vir die nuwe verbond, terwyl Sion nog steeds betekenis het. Berg Sion word as skaduwee van die hemelse werklikheid beskou, wat die uiteindelike bestemming van die pelgrimsgemeenskap is. Berg Sinai, as die lokus van ontmoeting tussen God en Israel, speel slegs 'n oorgangsrol, terwyl Berg Sion steeds beduidende betekenis het as bestemming en woonplek van God en sy volk. <![CDATA[<b>Renewal and reconstruction</b>: <b>Holy Writ in Ezra-Nehemiah - A missional reading</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In this article we investigate the missional potential of the two-volume book of Ezra-Nehemiah. We contend that the written word of God is a transforming power in society through the mediation of the church. This implies that spiritual renewal precedes social reconstruction. We examine this book historically, canonically and exegetically to lay a foundation for a missiological reflection on the results of this excursion in the field of biblical studies. We close with the formulation of some missional conclusions that serve as guidelines for the development of a relevant theology of mission.<hr/>In hierdie artikel ondersoek ons die missionêre moontlikhede van die tweedelige boek Esra-Nehemia. Ons stel dat die geskrewe woord van God 'n hervormende krag in die samelewing is deur die bemiddeling van die kerk. Dit impliseer dat geestelike vernuwing sosiale rekonstruksie voorafgaan. Ons doen historiese, kanoniese en eksegetiese ondersoek na die boek om 'n grondslag te lê vir 'n missiologiese beskouing van die resultate van hierdie ekskursie in die Bybelwetenskapveld. Ons sluit af met die formulering van missionêre gevolgtrekkings om te dien as wegwysers vir die ontwikkeling van 'n toepaslike sendingsteologie. <![CDATA[<b>The perceptions and attitudes of religious newlywedded couples regarding sexual intimacy in the marriage</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Hierdie artikel is gebaseer op empiriese navorsing om die persepsies en houdings van gelowige, jonggetroude egpare oor seksuele intimiteit in die huwelik na te vors. Daar is gefokus op hoe die egpare die verhouding sien waarbinne seksuele intimiteit geniet en beleef mag word; wat na hulle mening die man en vrou se plig is rakende die seksuele; wat hulle persepsies is oor die vryheid wat seksuele intimiteit binne die huwelik bied, en wat eksklusiwiteit ten opsigte van seksuele intimiteit binne die huwelik vir elkeen van hulle beteken. 'n Kwalitatiewe navorsingsontwerp is gebruik en sewe gelowige egpare wat minder as twee jaar getroud was (N = 11), het aan die navorsing deelgeneem. Die navorsingsdata is uit 'n kort vraelys verkry en deur semigestruktureerde onderhoude wat met sommige van die deelnemers gevoer is. 'n Ryke oes van data is verkry en 'n hele aantal temas is identifiseer. Hierdie temas sluit goed aan by die basisteoretiese en metateoretiese perspektiewe wat as onderbou vir hierdie navorsing gedien het.<hr/>This article is based on empirical research done to explore the perceptions and attitudes of religious newlywedded couples regarding sexual intimacy in the marriage. The research focused on how the couples regard a relationship in which sexual intimacy can be enjoyed and experienced; what, in their opinion, the husband and the wife's responsibilities are towards each other regarding sex; what their perceptions are about the freedom that sexual intimacy offers in marriage, and what marital exclusivity regarding sexual intimacy means to each of the participants. A qualitative research design was used and seven religious couples that were married less than two years (N = 11) participated in this research. The research data was obtained by using a short questionnaire and semi-structured interviews which were conducted with some of the participants. Rich data was obtained and many themes were identified. These themes correspond well with the basic-theoretical and meta-theoretical perspectives that served as underpinning for the research. <![CDATA[<b>Modern discourses in theology today</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In hierdie artikel word aandag gevra vir enkele moderne diskoerse in die teologie vandag. Volgens die outeur staan die vrae oor God, Jesus, die mens en die aarde in die sentrum van belangstelling en oorheers dit in 'n groot mate die teologiese debat. Die opkoms van die moderne aggressiewe ateïsme, die wetenskaplike navorsing oor die historiese Jesus, die groeiende vrae oor die mens en die menslike samelewing, asook die dreigende ekologiese krisis op aarde, sorg vir nuwe debatte van ongekende omvang. Die outeur bespreek hierdie debatte oorsigtelik, met kritiek waar nodig, en sluit af met enkele rigtingwysers van wat hy as 'goeie teologie' verstaan.<hr/>In this article attention is paid to some modern discourses in theology today. According to the author the questions about God, Jesus, man and the earth are in the centre of interest and to a large extent dominate the theological debate. The rise of modern aggressive atheism, the scientific research on the historic Jesus, the growing questions about man and human society as well as the threatening ecological crisis on earth, provide new discourses of unparalleled magnitude. The author provides a broad summary of these discourses, with criticism where necessary, and concludes with some indicators of his view what can be called 'good theology'. <![CDATA[<b>Experience of burnout among postgraduate theological students of the Reformed Churches in South Africa - A pastoral analysis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die doel met hierdie artikel is om vas te stel wat die belewenis van uitbranding by nagraadse teologiese studente van die Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika (GKSA) is. Deur middel van kwantitatiewe empiriese navorsing is vasgestel wat die vlak van uitbranding by nagraadse teologiese studente van die GKSA is. Met die navorsing is vasgestel dat 75% van die nagraadse teologiese studente wat aan die studie deelgeneem het, 'n mate van emosionele uitbranding beleef. Van hierdie 75% het 35% van die deelnemers akute uitbranding beleef en 'n verdere 15% kan binne die ineenstortingstadium van uitbranding gekategoriseer word. Verskeie faktore is geïdentifiseer wat moontlik tot die nagraadse teologiese studente se belewenis van uitbranding kan bydra. Hierdie faktore sluit onder meer in die oneffektiewe bestuur van die werkslading; die belewenis van werksoorlading en 'n gebrek aan die beheer en bestuur van hulle akademiese werkslading; 'n persepsie dat hulle nie genoeg erkenning vir hulle bydrae en of insette ontvang nie; persoonlike probleme in die private lewe van die studente; 'n verlies aan werksvreugde en gebrekkige interpersoonlike verhoudings; 'n gebrek aan die opleiding van emosionele vaardighede en interpersoonlike verhoudings in die kurrikulum; 'n gebrek aan die handhawing van gesonde emosionele grense en die volhoubare ontwikkeling van die student se eie geestelike lewe; asook 'n tekort aan die vervulling van persoonlike doelwitte. 1 Konings 19 word as bybelse vertrekpunt gebruik vir die behandeling en voorkoming van uitbranding by nagraadse teologiese studente van die GKSA.<hr/>The aim of this article is to establish to what extent the postgraduate theological students of the Reformed Churches in South Africa (RCSA) experience burnout. Quantitative empirical research was conducted to establish their levels of burnout. The researcher found that 75% of the postgraduate students had experienced burnout to some extent. Out of these 75% participants, 35% experienced acute burnout, and a further 15% could be classified as being in the breakdown phase of burnout. Various factors were identified that may contribute to the postgraduate theological students' experiencing of burnout. These factors include inter alia the ineffective management of the academic work load; their experiencing of overload and a lack of control over the amount of academic work; perceptions that they are not rewarded sufficiently for their contributions; personal problems in their private lives; a lack of emotional development and growth and a need for interpersonal skills training in their curriculum; a lack of maintaining healthy emotional boundaries; structuring and ordering of the postgraduate theological students' own spiritual life; and a lack of fulfilment of goals. 1 Kings 19 is used as a biblical basis for the treatment and prevention of emotional burnout among the postgraduate theological students of the RCSA. <![CDATA[<b>Keith Ward's soft panentheism</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article seeks to assess the general approach to a Christian interpretation of reality as popularly applied by Keith Ward. It is suggested that he employs panentheist criteria in his attempts to buttress a theological accommodation of both material and spiritual interpretations of reality. This assessment will take a general reformational theological approach. Suggestions will be included as to why panentheism has made such an impact amongst some Christians and why a bipolar approach to God appeals to some in the Christian community. Recommendations will then be made to be considered by those who may find the lure of Christian generic panentheism in different forms tempting enough to consider its interpretation replacing the traditional view of God.<hr/>Die doel van hierdie artikel is om die algemene benadering tot 'n Christelike interpretasie van die werklikheid, soos algemeen toegepas deur Keith Ward, te evalueer. Dit word voorgestel dat hy panenteïstiese kriteria toepas in sy pogings om teologiese akkommodasie van 'n materiële en geestelike interpretasie van die werklikheid te steun. Hierdie evaluering volg 'n algemene reformatoriese teologiese perspektief. Voorstelle word gemaak om te verduidelik waarom panenteïsme so 'n impak op sommige Christene het dat hulle 'n bipolêre benadering tot God verkies. Verder word aanbevelings gemaak vir diegene wat 'n Christelike generiese panenteïsme in verskillende vorme aanloklik genoeg vind om dit sodoende as 'n alternatiewe interpretasie vir die tradisionele siening van God te oorweeg. <![CDATA[<b>Kataphysical inquiry, onto-relationality and elemental forms in T.F. Torrance's doctrine of the mediation of Jesus Christ</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100020&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The doctrine of the mediation of Jesus Christ in the scientific theology of T.F. Torrance rests on the fundamental methodological axiom that knowledge is developed according to the nature (kata physin) of the object of scientific inquiry. To know God through the incarnate Son, who is 'of one nature with the Father', is to know God in strict accordance with God's nature and hence in a theologically scientific way. In Torrance's kataphysical method, a priori knowledge of God is excluded, for epistemology follows ontology. Because the fundamental aspects of reality are relational rather than atomistic, a scientific theological approach to the doctrine of the mediation of Jesus Christ requires that he be investigated within the nexuses of 'being-constituting' interrelations, or 'onto-relations', which disclose his identity as incarnate Saviour of the world. Following the principle of logical simplicity, the vast and scattered array of Torrance's thought can be reduced to a minimal number of elemental forms that succinctly describe in a unitary, non-dualist manner the onto-relations that constitute the identity of the incarnate Son. The primary elemental forms of Torrance's doctrine of mediation are the Nicene homoousion and the Chalcedonian doctrine of the hypostatic union. Two additional elemental forms that readily arise as corollaries of the doctrine of the hypostatic union are the doctrines of incarnational redemption and the 'vicarious humanity' of Jesus Christ. These elemental forms provide a conceptual lens for a theologically holistic view of the mediation of Jesus Christ in the scientific theology of T.F. Torrance.<hr/>Die leer van die versoening van Christus in die wetenskaplike teologie van T.F. Torrance berus op die fundamentele metodologiese aanname dat kennis volgens die aard (kataphysin) van die voorwerp van wetenskaplike ondersoek verwerf word. Om God deur die vleesgeworde Seun (wat een in wese met die Vader is) te ken, is om Hom in noue ooreenstemming met sy wese en daarom op 'n teologies-wetenskaplike wyse te ken. Volgens Torrance se katafisiese metode is aprioriese kennis van God nie moontlik nie, omdat die ontologie aan die epistemologie voorafgaan. Aangesien die fundamentele kenmerke van die werklikheid relasioneel eerder as atomisties is, vereis 'n wetenskaplik-teologiese benadering tot die leer van die versoening van Christus dat die ondersoek binne die kader van 'wesensbepalende' verhoudings of 'onto-verhoudings' plaasvind. Dit is immers laasgenoemde wat Christus se identiteit as vleesgeworde Verlosser van die wêreld blootlê. Deur die beginsel van logiese eenvoud toe te pas, kan die omvangryke en sporadiese idees van Torrance gereduseer word tot 'n kleiner aantal kernelemente wat op 'n unitêre, ondubbelsinnige wyse die 'onto-verhoudings' wat die identiteit van die vleesgeworde Seun verteenwoordig, duidelik beskryf. Die vernaamste kernelemente van Torrance se leer oor die middelaarskap is die Niceaanse homoousion en die Chalcedoniese leer van die wesenseenheid. Twee opvallende, parallelle kernelemente by die leer van die wesenseenheid is die leer van die verlossing op grond van die vleeswording en die plaasvervangende mensheid van Jesus Christus. Hierdie kernelemente verskaf 'n konsepsuele lens waardeur 'n teologiese, holistiese beskouing van die middelaarskap van Jesus Christus in die wetenskaplike teologie van T.F. Torrance ondersoek kan word. <![CDATA[<b>Prophetic preaching in the contemporary context of South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100021&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In South Africa we have a great legacy of prophetic preaching with preachers such as Desmond Tutu. Since the new dispensation, however, we are confronted today with a new situation of injustice and exclusion: the massive poverty amongst about 50% of the population. This article discusses the conditions for prophetic preaching in the current context of South Africa, which are a clear understanding of the poverty situation and solidarity of the church with the poor, a good understanding of prophetic preaching as a specific type of preaching, as well as the support of the congregation, the churches and the ecumenical church for prophetic preaching.<hr/>Met predikers soos Desmond Tutu het ons 'n goeie erfenis van profetiese prediking in Suid-Afrika. Sedert die nuwe bedeling word ons egter met 'n nuwe situasie van ongeregtigheid en uitsluiting gekonfronteer: die massiewe armoede van ongeveer 50% van die bevolking. Hierdie artikel bespreek die voorwaardes vir profetiese prediking in die huidige konteks van Suid-Afrika: 'n duidelike begrip van die armoedesituasie en solidariteit van die kerk met die armes, 'n goeie begrip van profetiese prediking as 'n spesifieke soort prediking, asook die ondersteuning van die gemeente, die kerk en die ekumeniese kerk vir profetiese prediking. <![CDATA[<b><i>Ho eschatos</i></b>: <b>The eschatological Christ and the future of reformed theology</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100022&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The doctrine on Christ brings us to the heart of our Christian faith and also that of dogmatics and theology in general. It is therefore not strange that theological research throughout history, and even more so today, focuses to a great extent on Christology. The problem statement of this article is that the traditional reformed doctrine on Christ, and in close connection to that the traditional doctrine on eschatology, is threatened. The aim of the article is to investigate a certain aspect of the current debate from a South African point of view in order to determine what the road ahead should be for reformed theology. This is done from within the paradigm of the Calvinistic-reformed tradition. Apart from a short historical overview, the article deals with the viewpoint of four South African theologians, namely Spangenberg, Van Aarde, Müller and Bosch, whose viewpoints clearly illustrate the difference between a more confessional, Scriptural approach and a more critical approach, especially with regard to the divine nature and the resurrection of Jesus Christ. One's view on the resurrection of Christ has implications for one's view on eschatology. It is the task of the reformed theology, in the interim period between the ascension and the second coming of Christ, to proclaim and glorify the risen, eschatological Christ.<hr/>Die leer aangaande Christus bring ons by die hart van ons Christelike geloof en so ook by die hart van dogmatiek en teologie in die algemeen. Dit is daarom nie vreemd dat teologiese navorsing dwarsdeur die geskiedenis, en ook vandag, op die Christologie fokus nie. Die probleemstelling van hierdie artikel is dat die tradisionele reformatoriese leer aangaande Christus, en in noue verband daarmee ook die tradisionele leer oor die eskatologie, bedreig word. Die doel van die artikel is om 'n bepaalde aspek van die huidige debat te ondersoek vanuit die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks ten einde te bepaal wat die toekomstaak van 'n reformatoriese teologie moet wees. Die ondersoek word gedoen vanuit die paradigma van die Calvinisties-reformatoriese tradisie. Behalwe vir 'n kort historiese oorsig, word die standpunte van vier Suid-Afrikaanse teoloë, naamlik Spangenberg, Van Aarde, Müller en Bosch aan die orde gestel. Uit hierdie standpunte word die verskil tussen 'n meer belydende, Skriftuurlike benadering en 'n meer kritiese benadering duidelik, veral met betrekking tot die Goddelike natuur en die opstanding van Christus. Die siening van die opstanding van Christus het verreikende implikasies vir die leer van die eskatologie. Die taak van 'n reformatoriese Teologie, in die interim tyd tussen hemelvaart en wederkoms, is om die opgestane, eskatologiese Christus te verkondig en verheerlik. <![CDATA[<b>The metaphor of light embedded in the Johannine prologue, Part 1</b>: <b>The Light before the incarnation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100023&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This is the first of two articles on how the Fourth Evangelist has ingeniously embedded the light metaphor in the prologue of the Fourth Gospel. The prologue is replete with this metaphor. A thorough discourse analysis explores the text's inner texture to determine the rhetoric and network of semantic relations, regarding light as the subject. From here the text's sacred texture is investigated. Various theological themes are interwoven into the text, with light being a consistent, embedded metaphor, embracing a wealth of facets and interpretations. This research focuses on the embedded light metaphor in the Johannine prologue as it relates to the Logos's ontological identity and functionality before his incarnation.<hr/>Hierdie is die eerste van twee artikels om aan te toon hoe die vierde Evangelis vindingryk die lig-metafoor in die proloog van die vierde Evangelie ingebed het. Die proloog is gevul met hierdie metafoor. Deur middel van 'n behoorlike diskoersanalise is die diepte-struktuur van die teks ondersoek om die retoriek en netwerk van semantiese verhoudings vanaf die perspektief van lig as onderwerp te bepaal. Hierna is die teologiese-struktuur van die teks ondersoek. Verskeie teologiese temas is in die teks verweef, met 'lig' as 'n konstante verankerde metafoor wat 'n rykdom van fasette en interpretasie insluit. Hierdie navorsing fokus op die ingebedheid van die lig-metafoor in die Johannese proloog soos wat dit verband hou met die ontologiese identiteit en funksionaliteit van die Woord voor die inkarnasie. <![CDATA[<b>Shifting thinking of the 2012 GKSA Synod</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100024&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In hierdie artikel word die moontlikheid van 'n denkverskuiwing bespreek en gemeet aan die hand van navorsing wat gedoen is onder die afgevaardigdes van die 2012-GKSA-Sinode. Die agtergrond rondom denkverandering word bespreek, waarna die bevindings van die empiriese studie oor die stand van denke aan die hand van drie aktuele stellings aangetoon word. Die stellings spruit voort uit die verskynsel van dalende lidmaatgetalle binne gemeentes. Navorsing wat tydens die Sinode aan die hand van 'n vraelys plaasgevind het, het gefokus op die mate van bewussyn by die afgevaardigdes in verband met die krisissituasie wat gereformeerde gemeentes ervaar ten opsigte van dalende lidmaatgetalle. Daarna is die moontlikheid van verskuiwende denke terug na die eise van die Groot Opdrag ondersoek. Indien verskuiwende denke wel voorkom, is ten slotte nagegaan of die totale Suid-Afrikaanse bevolking, ongeag taal of kultuur, as teikengroep gereken kan word. Die kwantitatiewe en kwalitatiewe benadering verskaf insiggewende statistiek, asook insae in verband met die denkverskuiwing en die sleutelposisie van die Groot Opdrag in die verskynsel van dalende lidmaatgetalle in gemeentes.<hr/>This article discusses the possibility of shifting thought and measuring it on the basis of research conducted among the 2012 RCSA Synod delegates. Background regarding the change in thought is discussed and followed up by the findings of an emperical study about the state of thinking, using three relevant statements. These statements stem from the phenomenon of declining numbers in congregations. The research is conducted at the Synod by means of a questionnaire, focused on the degree of awareness among the delegates regarding the declining numbers of members as a crisis situation in the reformed churches. Thereafter the possibility of a turnaround in thinking towards the demands of the Great Commission was addressed. The last statement focused on whether the entire South African population, regardless of language and culture, would be regarded as the target group in case a changing in thought exists. The qualitative and quantitative approach provide informative statistics, as well as insight regarding the shifting in thought and the key position the Great Commission takes in the phenomenon of declining numbers of members in congregations. <![CDATA[<b>Metatheoretical assumptions in scientific pastoral-theological research</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100025&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Hierdie artikel is deel van 'n reeks oor die verrekening van die metateoretiese vertrekpunte in die wetenskap van die Praktiese Teologie. Die eerste fase van die reeks bied die teoretiese onderbou vir die werklikheids-, hermeneuties- en wetenskapsteoretiese beskouing van die vak. Die tweede fase fokus op die invloed wat hierdie vertrekpunte op die wetenskaplike navorsing van die verskillende vakgroepe in die Praktiese Teologie het. Hierdie artikel handel oor die wetenskaplike benaderingswyse tot die navorsingsveld van die Pastorale Wetenskap. In hierdie navorsingsartikel word die persoonlike metateoretiese perspektief waarmee die vakgebied van die Pastorale Wetenskap benader word, uitgespel en verantwoord ten opsigte van die volgende aspekte: die werklikheidsbeskouing waarmee daar op die navorsingsveld van die Pastorale Wetenskap gefokus word; die onderbou van die hermeneutiese beskouing wat nodig is om tot 'n verstaan te kom van die elemente in die Pastoraat en om tot 'n verantwoordbare verhouding tussen te kom van die elemente wat in die Pastoraat ter sprake is; en ten slotte, om die wetenskapsteoretiese benadering te beskryf waarmee die navorsingsveld van die Pastorale Wetenskap op 'n wetenskaplik-verantwoorde wyse ondersoek kan word.<hr/>This article is part of a series about taking into account the metatheoretical assumptions in scientific practical-theological research. The first part of this series gives the theoretical foundation for the view on reality-, hermeneutical- and scientific-theoretical approaches to the research field. The second part focuses on the effect these assumptions will have on the scientific research of the various subject groups in Practical Theology. This article describes the scientific approach to the research field of pastoral care. This research article describes the personal metatheoretical perspective from which the subject area is approached and gives account of the following: the view on reality with which the research field of Pastoral Science is studied; the foundation on which the hermeneutical viewpoint is built to attain an understanding and a founded relationship between the elements that are applicable in Pastoral Science; and, in the last instance, to describe the scientific theoretical approach to the research field in a justified manner. <![CDATA[<b>A quantitative investigation of the influence of some demographic variables as it pertains to clergywomen</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100026&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Hierdie artikel ondersoek lidmate se houding teenoor vroulike ampsdraers. Vir die doel van hierdie navorsingsprojek is die volgende navorsingsvraag geformuleer: Wat is kerklidmate se houding teenoor vroue as ampsdraers in die gemeente? Hierdie navorsingsvraag is met behulp van die volgende hipotese ondersoek: Daar is statisties-beduidende verskille tussen kerklidmate se houding teenoor vroulike ampsdraers en 'n aantal demografiese veranderlikes soos die geografiese ligging, die geslag, die huwelikstatus en die ouderdom. 'n Totaal van 1052 respondente bestaande uit 326 (31%) lidmate van die Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerkfamilie, 311 (29%) lidmate van die Christelike Herlewingskerk, 217 (21%) lidmate van die Gereformeerde Kerk en 198 (19%) lidmate van die Rooms-Katolieke Kerk is by die ondersoek betrek. Data is met behulp van 'n biografiese vraelys, asook die Petro Jonck Houding teenoor Vroulike Ampsdraers-vraelys ingesamel. Meerveranderlike variansie-ontledings is toegepas. Satistiese analise het getoon dat kerklidmate deurgaans 'n positiewe houding aangaande vroulike ampsdraers aanneem. Verder is gevind dat die geslag, die huwelikstatus en die geografiese ligging die grootste invloed op kerklidmate se houding ten opsigte van vroulike ampsdraers uitgeoefen het. Die opleidingsvlak het geen statisties-beduidende invloed op lidmate se houding teenoor vroulike ampsdraers uitgeoefen nie.<hr/>This article investigates the attitude of church members towards clergywomen. For the purpose of this research project, the following research question has been formulated: What is church members' attitude towards clergywomen in the congregation? This research question was explored by means of the following hypothesis: There are statistically significant differences between church members' attitude towards clergywomen and a number of demographic variables such as geographic location, gender, marital status and age. A total of 1052 respondents that included 326 (31%) members of the Dutch Reformed Church family, 311 (29%) members of the Christian Revival Church, 217 (21%) members of the Reformed Church and 198 (19%) members of the Roman Catholic Church were involved. Data were gathered by means of a biographic questionnaire and the Petro Jonck Attitude towards Female Officebearers Questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of variance was applied. A statistical analysis indicated that church members assume a positive attitude with regard to female office-bearers. Furthermore, it was concluded that gender, marital status and geographic location exerted the greatest influence on the dependent variable (attitude towards clergywomen) while, academic qualification had no statistically significant influence. <![CDATA[<b>Fighting corruption - a philosophical approach</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100027&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Corruption has reached astounding proportions in South Africa. The purpose of this article is to contribute to philosophical approaches aimed at combating corruption. In considering punishment for acts of corruption the most common approach is based on the philosophical theory of consequentialism, which allows only consideration of the consequences of corrupt acts. Ideally, cognisance should be taken of the norms in question, especially those norms demanding the judicious execution of obligations. It was, however, found that the Kantian categorical imperative presupposes an ideal rational society. The imperative has to be 'softened' by also allowing for enquiry about the corruptor's personal circumstances, in the light of Christ's love commandment. This article highlights the most prominent attributes of two important philosophical theories applicable to the study of corruption, namely utilitarianism (a variant of consequentialism) and deontology. It is argued that qualified deontological and utilitistic approaches hold the best promise to curb corruption in the long run. The conclusion is that the state will urgently have to attend to the social context by revitalising programmes of 'social renewal', based on effective application of the law, the provision of adequate education and the eradication of poverty. There is also an urgent need for the 'moral renewal' of the entire population, focused on Christian values, operationalised within the context of the South Africa of today. Herein lies a massive task for the church.<hr/>Korrupsie het verstommende afmetings in Suid-Afrika aangeneem. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om 'n bydrae te lewer tot filosofiese benaderings wat daarop gemik is om korrupsie te bestry. By die oorweging van strawwe vir korrupte dade word die mees algemene benadering gebaseer op die teorie van konsekwensialisme, wat slegs die gevolge van korrupte dade oorweeg. Ideaal-gesproke behoort ook kennis geneem te word van die norme wat ter sprake is, veral dié norme wat die getroue nakoming van pligte vereis. Daar is egter gevind dat die Kantiaanse kategoriese imperatief 'n ideale rasionele gemeenskap veronderstel. Die imperatief moet dus 'versag' word deur, in die lig van Christus se liefdesopdrag, plek te maak vir oorwegings in verband met die korrupte agent se persoonlike omstandighede. Die studie is uitgevoer deur 'n oorsig van die belangrikste standpunte van twee filosofiese teorieë, naamlik utilitarisme ('n variant van konsekwensialisme) en deontologie te gee. Daar is aangevoer dat gekwalifiseerde deontologiese en utilitaristiese benaderings belofte inhou om korrupsie op die langtermyn te beteuel. Die gevolgtrekking was dat die staat dringend aandag moet skenk aan die sosiale konteks deur die inwerkingstelling van 'n proses van 'sosiale vernuwing', gebaseer op die effektiewe toepassing van die wet, die voorsiening van voldoende onderwys en die bestryding van armoede. Daar is ook 'n dringende behoefte aan die 'morele vernuwing' van die bevolking, met die fokus op Christelike waardes, geoperasionaliseer vir die Suid-Afrika van vandag. Hierin lê 'n groot taak vir die kerk. <![CDATA[<b>Metatheoretical assumptions in scientific pastoral-theological research regarding child and youth ministry</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100028&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Hierdie artikel vorm deel van 'n navorsingsprojek oor die verrekening van die metateoretiese vertrekpunte in die wetenskap van die Praktiese Teologie. Die eerste fase van die reeks bied die teoretiese onderbou vir die werklikheids-, hermeneutiese en wetenskapsteoretiese beskouing van die vak. Die tweede fase fokus op die invloed wat hierdie vertrekpunte op die wetenskaplike navorsing van die verskillende vakgroepe in die Praktiese Teologie het. Hierdie artikel handel oor die wetenskaplike benaderingswyse tot die navorsingsveld van Kinder- en jeugbediening. In hierdie navorsingsartikel word die persoonlike metateoretiese perspektief waarmee die vakgebied van Kinder- en jeugbediening benader word, uitgespel en verantwoord ten opsigte van die werklikheidsbeskouing waarmee daar op die navorsingsveld van Kinder- en jeugbediening gefokus word; die onderbou van die hermeneutiese beskouing wat nodig is om tot 'n verstaan en 'n verantwoordbare verhouding te kom tussen die elemente wat in Kinderen jeugbediening ter sprake is; en ten slotte, om die wetenskapsteoretiese benadering te beskryf waarmee die navorsingsveld van Kinder- en jeugbediening op 'n wetenskaplikverantwoorde wyse ondersoek kan word.<hr/>This article is part of a research project on the metatheoretical assumptions in Practical Theology. The first part of this series gives the theoretical foundation for the view on reality-, hermeneutical- and scientific-theoretical approaches to the research field. The second part focuses on the effect that these assumptions will have on the scientific research of the various subject groups in Practical Theology. This article describes the scientific approach to the research field of child and youth ministry. This research article describes the personal metatheoretical perspective from which the subject area is approached, and it gives account of the view on reality with which the research field of Youth Ministry is studied; of the foundation on which the hermeneutical viewpoint is built, to attain an understanding and a founded relationship between the elements that are applicable in child and youth ministry; and finally, the scientific theoretical approach to the research field in a justified manner. <![CDATA[<b>The enquiry and the Serampore <i>'</i>Form of Agreement: William Carey as mission strategist for the 21<sup>st</sup> century</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100029&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Wereldwijd is aandacht gegeven aan de 250ste geboortedag van William Carey. Tot op de dag van vandaag wordt hij herinnerd als een zendingsman die met zijn visie voor de zending van blijvende betekenis is. Zijn leven is het onderwerp geweest van meer dan vijftig biografieën en deelstudies, maar het blijft moeilijk hem onder één noemer te vatten. Hij wordt genoemd de stichter en de vader van de moderne zending (Smith 1885:437), maar óók een groot staatsman, een onderlegde botanist, en een echte vriend van Bengalen en India (Davis 1963:73). Carey was in alle opzichten een pionier, die zich hierin onderscheidde van anderen uit zijn tijd dat zijn zendingswerk diep geworteld was in een verscheidenheid van seculiere wetenschappen. Zijn werk geeft een 'turning point' (Neill 1982:261) aan voor het zendingswerk in de 19e eeuw. De geloofscrisis binnen de kerken van het Westen heeft geleid tot een verlies van overtuiging dat het geloof in Christus Jezus zó essentieel is, dat zonder geloof in Hem mensen verloren gaan. We vragen ons af, 'Hoe komt het dat Carey tot op heden in de wereld van de missiologie blijft meetellen?' Wij doen onszelf te kort wanneer we niet luisteren naar zijn stem, mede omdat 'in the whole history of the church no nobler man has ever given himself so fully to the service of the Redeemer' (Neill et al. 1971:83). Hij had een visie¹ op zending, maar ook een concreet plan om tot uitvoering van zijn visie te komen. Carey is met zijn zendingsprincipes voor de 21ste eeuw een modern zendingsstrateeg.<hr/>Worldwide attention has been given to William Carey's 250th birthday in 2011. He is remembered today as a man of distinguished importance for his work in India and his vision for missions. Though his life has been the subject of more than fifty biographies and case studies, it is difficult to view him under one common denominator. He has been called the 'founder and father of modern missions' (Smith 1885:437) and 'a great statesman, a skilled botanist and a real friend of Bengal and the rest of India' (Davis 1963:73). In all aspects he was a pioneer. Distinguishing him from others, we see that his mission work is deeply rooted in a variety of secular disciplines. His work indicates a turning point (Neill 1982:261) in 19th-century mission work. The religious crisis in the Western churches has led to a loss of conviction that belief in Christ Jesus is vital, and that without faith in Him people are lost. We ask the question, 'Why does Carey still feature in the world of missions today?' We wrong ourselves when we do not listen to his voice, because it has been said that 'in the whole history of the church no nobler man has ever given himself so fully to the service of the Redeemer' (Neill et al. 1971:83). He had a vision¹ for missions, but also a concrete plan for the realisation of this vision. For the 21st century Carey with his mission principles is a modern mission strategist. <![CDATA[<b>The Christian philosophy of H. Dooyeweerd (1894-1977) as reconstructed according to the problem-historical method of Vollenhoven</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100030&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Hierdie inleidende, oorsigtelike artikel is die derde in 'n reeks van drie in hierdie tydskrif. Die kort trilogie beoog om die grondleggers van 'n Christelike filosofie, naamlik D.H.Th. Vollenhoven (1892-1978), H.G. Stoker (1899-1993) en H. Dooyeweerd (1894-1977) bekend te stel. In hierdie bydrae word gepoog om die hooftrekke van Dooyeweerd se komplekse filosofiese ontwikkelingsgang te rekonstrueer met behulp van sy Nederlandse kollega, Vollenhoven, se probleem-historiese metode van wysgerige historiografie. Ter inleiding word belangrike agtergrondinligting oor hierdie internasionaal erkende Christelike denker gegee. Daar word ook daarop gewys dat Dooyeweerd en Vollenhoven aan die begin (1918-1922) dieselfde filosofiese standpunt (wat deur Vollenhoven ontwerp is) gehuldig het. Mettertyd het hulle filosofiese paaie egter verskillend ontwikkel en groot verskille het in hulle konsepsies ontstaan. In die tweede gedeelte word eerstens daarop gewys dat Vollenhoven asook verskeie van sy leerlinge lank tevore reeds monargianistiese tendense by Dooyeweerd vermoed het. Sedert 2010 suggereer navorsing dat Dooyeweerd se filosofie oor 'n periode van ongeveer 50 jaar deur ten minste die volgende drie verskillende fases ontwikkel het: 1918-1922 (kritiese realisme), 1923-1928 (semimistiek) en 1929-1977 (monistiese monargianisme). Met hierdie indeling as hipotese word daarna verskillende moontlike invloede op Dooyeweerd van binne die eie geesgenootlike kring sowel as daarbuite nagegaan. Laastens word enkele van sy uitstaande bydraes uitgelig. Op grond van 'n terugblik van al drie die bydraes in hierdie reeks, word ten slotte enkele opmerkings ten opsigte van die pad vorentoe gemaak.<hr/>This introductory overview is the third in a series of three in this journal. The aim of this trilogy is to introduce the founders of a Christian philosophy, viz. D.H.Th. Vollenhoven (1892-1978), H.G. Stoker (1899-1993) and H. Dooyeweerd (1994-1977) to the readers. The present article tries to reconstruct the contours of the complex philosophical development of Dooyeweerd by employing the problem-historical method of philosophical historiography of his colleague, Vollenhoven. The introduction provides important background information about this internationally acclaimed scholar. It is indicated that at the emergence of a reformational philosophy (1918-1922) these two thinkers shared a viewpoint mainly developed by Vollenhoven. Afterwards, however, their philosophical journeys developed in different directions, distinct from each other. A second section of the article draws attention to the fact that since long ago Vollenhoven and some of his followers suspected monarchian tendencies in Dooyeweerd's thinking. Since 2010 new research suggests that his philosophy developed during a period of about 50 years through at least the following three phases: 1918-1922 (critical realism), 1923-1928 (semi-mysticism) and 1929-1977 (monistic monarchianism). This hypothesis about Dooyeweerd's philosophical development enables a next (third) step, viz. to trace the possible internal influences (from his like-minded predecessors) as well as external (secular) ones on the formation of his thought. A following (fourth) part provides a few highlights of his contribution to Christian scholarship. Finally, in retrospection on all three articles, this contribution is concluded with a few remarks about the road ahead. <![CDATA[<b>The righteousness of Jesus and John the Baptist as depicted by Matthew</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100031&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Righteousness forms a significant feature in the first gospel. This article focuses on two of the seven occurrences of this term in Matthew, where it refers to Jesus and John. The argument in this article is that Matthew intentionally uses the word righteousness with reference to Jesus and John to shape the lifestyle of his community. Jesus is the central focus of this community's identity. In solidarity with his people, Jesus fulfilled all righteousness. John is described as a figure that rightly recognised Jesus and also fulfilled all righteousness in his teaching and practice. The Matthean community should do the same. Though the word righteousness can be used in a soteriological sense, Matthew uses it in an ethical sense. By righteousness Matthew refers to the proper behavioural norms and attitudes for his community. He contrasts the righteousness of his community with that of the scribes and Pharisees as a distinguishing factor.<hr/>Geregtigheid vorm 'n belangrike motief in die eerste evangelie. Hierdie artikel fokus op twee van die sewe voorkomste van hierdie term in Matteus, waar dit na Jesus en Johannes verwys. Die argument in hierdie artikel is dat Matteus doelbewus die woord geregtigheid in verband met Jesus en Johannes gebruik om die lewenstyl van sy gemeenskap te omskryf. Jesus vorm die sentrale fokus van hierdie gemeenskap se identiteit. Jesus het Homself volledig met sy volk geïdentifiseer en alle geregtigheid vervul. Johannes word beskryf as 'n persoon wat Jesus tereg herken het. In sy verkondiging en optrede het hy ook alle geregtigheid vervul. Die Matteus-gemeenskap moet dieselfde doen. Hoewel die woord geregtigheid in 'n soteriologiese sin gebruik kan word, gebruik Matteus dit in 'n etiese sin. Met geregtigheid verwys Matteus na die gepaste gedrag en gesindheid vir sy gemeenskap. As 'n onderskeidende faktor, kontrasteer hy die geregtigheid van sy gemeenskap met dié van die skrifgeleerdes en Fariseërs. <![CDATA[<b>A study of the woman in the crowd and her desperate courage (Mark 5:21-43)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100032&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examines the cameo appearance of an unnamed woman in the gospel of Mark, a member of a crowd following Jesus (Mk 5:24b-34). Chronically ill and probably dying, she thinks she is inconspicuous. The text identifies her in terms of her gender, illness, covenant status, prolonged suffering and penury. Yet, a careful reading reveals her stealth, desperation, courage and eloquence - all elements of character and, it turns out, of a faith focused on Jesus. Combining both literary and canonical insights, this article shows how the story of the anonymous woman, set within the larger context of the healing of Jairus' daughter, sheds light on the developing concepts of faith, fear, purity, discipleship, confession and family matters in Mark. The woman's interaction with Jesus adds depth to Mark's portrait of him and contributes to the ongoing revelation in Mark that Jesus is indeed the Son of God (Mk 1:1).<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek die reliëfverskyning van 'n naamlose vrou in die evangelie van Markus. Sy was deel van die skare wat Jesus gevolg het (Mark 5:24b-34). Omdat sy kronies siek en moontlik sterwend was, het sy gedink sy is onopvallend in die skare. Sy word in die teks geïdentifiseer in terme van haar geslag, siekte, verbondstatus, langdurige lyding en armoedige voorkoms. 'n Noukeurige bestudering van die gedeelte openbaar ook haar heimlikheid, desperaatheid, moed en welsprekendheid - alles eienskappe van 'n sterk karakter en, soos dit later blyk, haar gefokusde geloof op Jesus. Deur die letterkundige en kanonieke insigte te kombineer, wys die artikel hoe die verhaal van die anonieme vrou, gesien teen die agtergrond van die genesing van Jaïrus se dogtertjie, lig werp op die ontwikkelende konsepte van geloof, vrees, suiwerheid, dissipelskap, belydenis en familie-aangeleenthede in die boek Markus. Die vrou se interaksie met Jesus verskaf diepte aan Markus se uitbeelding van Hom en maak 'n bydrae tot Markus se deurgaanse openbaring dat Jesus inderdaad die Seun van God is (Mark 1:1). <![CDATA[<b>An ecumenical church polity</b>: <b>A better way?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100033&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die argument word gehoor dat kerkregeringstelsels soos dié van die Rooms-Katolieke, Lutherse en gereformeerde kerke van 'n transendentale aard was en is. Daardeur word geïmpliseer dat hierdie stelsels een transendentale, unieke vaste beginsel gebruik om 'n hele stelsel van kerkregering van buite af te bepaal. Volgens Leo Koffeman, 'n voorstander van 'n ekumeniese kerkreg, plaas hierdie stelsels hulself hiermee buite die diskoers oor kerkreg en kerkregering en die beweging van die Heilige Gees. 'n Ekumeniese kerkreg, daarenteen, is ten gunste van 'n gemeenskaplike kerkreg tussen kerke. Omdat dit verskillende tradisies bymekaar bring, is dit 'n kritiese en daarom beter benadering. Die skrywer oorweeg hierdie argumente krities in die lig van 'n gereformeerde benadering tot kerkreg.<hr/>The argument is used that church political systems like that of the Roman Catholic, Lutheran and reformed churches were of a transcendental character. By that it is implied that it used one transcendental and unique 'hard principle' from outside to direct a system of church government. Such uniqueness, according to Leo Koffeman who advocates an ecumenical church polity, places it outside the church political discourse and the way of the Holy Spirit. An ecumenical church polity seeks a combined polity between churches and is, by bringing different traditions together, a critical and therefore better undertaking. The author examines these arguments critically in the light of a reformed church polity. <![CDATA[<b>Paedosexuality as manifestation of deviant sexuality</b>: <b>A clerical and pastoral challenge</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100034&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die fokus van hierdie artikel is om aan te toon dat pedoseksualiteit en pedofilie 'n uitdaging aan die pastoraat en die kerk stel. Nie net in Suid-Afrika nie, maar ook internasionaal is pedoseksuele gedrag 'n wydverspreide probleem. Navorsing op hierdie gebied is 'n pastorale uitdaging. Volgens baie mense is seksueel-afwykende gedrag nie iets wat in die Christengemeenskap voorkom nie. Dit is egter ver van die waarheid af. Pedoseksualiteit en pedofilie kom voor in alle beroepe, op alle sosio-ekonomiese vlakke, in alle ouderdomme, kulture en seksuele oriëntasies en in alle gelowe. Pedofilie word in twee hoofgroepe verdeel, naamlik die situasionele kindermolesteerder en die voorkeur-kindermolesteerder. Die wortels van pedofilie lê normaalweg in die kinderjare terwyl die seksuele wanorde gedurende adolessensie ontwikkel. Drie tipes lewenservaring op 'n vroeë ouderdom word aangedui as aanleidend tot pedoseksualiteit, naamlik seksuele kontak vóór die ouderdom van 16 jaar met 'n aansienlik ouer persoon; seksuele kontak voor die ouderdom van 13 jaar met lede van die eie portuurgroep; en nie-seksuele geweld wat hoofsaaklik deur ouers teenoor kinders gepleeg is. Aangesien daar geen rehabiliteringsprogramme in Suid-Afrika bestaan vir persone met seksueel-afwykende gedrag nie en seksuele waardes vinnig in die breë samelewing afgeneem het, behoort die kerk op die voorgrond te tree op hierdie gebied.<hr/>The focus of this article is to show that paedosexuality and paedophilia poses a challenge to both the pastorate and the church. Not only in South Africa, but also internationally, has paedosexual behaviour become a widespread problem. Research in this field poses a pastoral challenge. According to the opinion of most people sexually deviant behaviour is not something that occurs in the Christian community. This assumption, however, is not the truth. Paedosexuality and paedophilia are present in all occupations, on every socio-economic level, in all age groups, all cultures, in all sexual orientations and religions. Paedophilia can be divided into two main groupings, namely the situational and the preference child molester. The roots of paedophilia can usually be traced back to childhood and the dishevelment developed during adolescence. Three types of life experiences are indicated as causal factors in paedosexuality, namely sexual contact before the age of 16 with someone much older; sexual contact before the age of 13 with members of their peer group; and non-sexual violence committed against them - usually by a parent. The church must take the lead on this matter, as there are no existing rehabilitation programs in South Africa for persons with sexual deviant behaviour while sexual values are waning among the general population. <![CDATA[<b>Astonishment and joy</b>: <b>Luke 1 as told from the perspective of Elizabeth</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100035&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article, a dramatic, scholarly monologue, examines the events that Luke 1 recounts, retelling them from the viewpoint of Elizabeth, the elderly wife of Zechariah, a priest. It uses a literary method and presents the monologue as an eyewitness account.¹ Luke 1 frames its central events from a female and gynocentric perspective.² As a participant in the infancy narrative in Luke 1, Elizabeth should figure predominantly in scholarly articles and sermons. Surprisingly, she does not. Instead, scholarly, lectionary and congregational attention focuses primarily on Zechariah and Mary, two of the other speaking characters. Consequently, this article seeks to showcase, honour, and analyse Elizabeth, an overlooked yet pivotal character in Luke's gospel. Via a dramatic monologue, it lets her speak about the astonishing recent events in her life and thereby invites readers and hearers to share her joy, surely a singular theme in Luke's gospel.<hr/>Hierdie artikel, 'n wetenskaplike monoloog in dramavorm, ondersoek die gebeure volgens Lukas 1. Dit word hervertel vanuit die perspektief van Elisabet, die bejaarde vrou van die priester Sagaria. 'n Literêre metode word gebruik en die monoloog word as 'n ooggetuieverslag aangebied. Lukas 1 se hoofgebeure word vanuit 'n vroulike perspektief asook dié van ongebore babas ('gynocentric') gekontekstualiseer. As inherent deel van die jeugvertelling van Lukas 1 behoort Elisabet oorwegend in wetenskaplike artikels en preke te figureer. Dit is verrassend dat dit nie gebeur nie. In wetenskaplike leesstukke en tydens gemeentelike byeenkomste word hoofsaaklik op Sagaria en Maria, die ander twee hoofkarakters, gefokus. Elisabet is 'n miskende sleutelkarakter in die Evangelie van Lukas en daarom poog hierdie artikel om Elisabet uit te lig, eervol te erken en te analiseer. Deur dramatiese monoloog kry Elisabet die geleentheid om oor die verstommende gebeure van haar onlangse lewe te praat. Sy nooi hiermee die lesers en toehoorders uit om in haar vreugde te deel - sekerlik 'n buitengewone tema in die Lukasevangelie. <![CDATA[<b>When Mary tells Joseph</b>: <b>A play based on Matthew 1:18-19</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100036&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This play looks at a summary in Matthew 1:18-19.¹ The summary discloses that Joseph learns of Mary's pregnancy and chooses to divorce her. The play, based on this summary, investigates how he may have learned of her pregnancy, that is, from Mary herself.² The play combines scholarship and the standard literary features of a drama-character, conflict, plot, setting, point of view, tone and dialogue.³ It includes material from Luke 1, Deuteronomy 22:21-29 and Numbers 30:6-8. The play encourages and engages the imagination of the cast and the audience.4<hr/>Hierdie toneelstuk handel oor die gedeelte in Matteus 1:18-19, waar Josef uitvind van Maria se swangerskap en besluit om van haar te skei. Die toneelstuk ondersoek die manier waarop hy van haar swangerskap te hore kom, naamlik van Maria self. In die drama word vakkundigheid gekombineer met die tipiese literêre elemente van 'n karakterspel, naamlik konflik, intrige, uitgangspunte, stemming en dialoog. Dele uit Lukas 1, Deuteronomium 22:21-29 en Numeri 30:6-8 word ook ingesluit. Die verbeelding en betrokkenheid van die rolspelers en die gehoor word deur die toneelstuk aangewakker. <![CDATA[<b>A practical-theological reflection on the role of perceptions in the act of listening and the importance of dialogue in discourses about sermons</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100037&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Uit die kerklike praksis blyk dat prediking wat dikwels goed bedoel word en op biddende wyse gelewer word, voor die hindernis van persepsies stuit wat dan verlammend op die luisteraksie inwerk. Tussen die blote hoor van en 'n diepgaande luister na die prediking bestaan 'n groot verskil. In die lig hiervan word die volgende navorsingsvraag vir hierdie navorsing geformuleer: In hoe 'n mate begelei predikers hulle hoorders op 'n dialogiserende manier in die kuns om werklik te kan luister, sodat dít wat gesê en bedoel is die hoorders se persepsies kan beïnvloed? Ten einde hierdie navorsingsvraag te beantwoord, word die probleemveld vanuit verskillende prakties-teologiese invalshoeke verken. Metateoretiese perspektiewe vanuit die veld van die Sosiale Psigologie en Kommunikasiekunde word ook gebruik om daardeur insig oor die vorming van en die selektiewe aard van persepsies te verkry. In die ondersoek na normatiewe gesigspunte word die dialogiserende prediking en argumentasie vanuit Handelinge 17 en 19 verken. Die navorser kom tot die konklusie dat persepsies oor die prediker en die prediking verlammend kan inwerk en selfs daartoe aanleiding kan gee dat hoorders die kerk verlaat. Verder is ook bevind dat dialoog voor die preeklewering, die dialogiese gerigtheid van die prediking as deel van die liturgie van die gemeente, asook die preekgesprekke na afloop van die prediking, daartoe kan meewerk dat verkeerde persepsies reggestel word. Hierdeur word die gemeente 'n pratende gemeenskap wat van diepgaande kommunikasie leef.<hr/>From the ecclesiastical praxis it seems that preaching faces hindrances caused by negative perceptions, regardless of the good intentions of preachers and the interdependence between prayer and preaching. There is a vast difference between hearing sermons and listening to sermons. In the light of this problematic praxis, the following research question has been formulated: To what extent do preachers equip their listeners in a dialogue situation to listen profoundly with the object to influence the perceptions of listeners about the preacher and the preaching? In order to address this research question, the problem is investigated by taking into account the present practical theological vantage points concerning this field. This research field is further explored by trying to get a grasp on metatheoretical perspectives from the fields of Social Psychology and Communication Sciences. The author tries to investigate the difficult process of forming perceptions as well as the selective nature of perceptions. In an investigation into normative vantage points, perspectives from Acts 17 and 19 are explored with regard to the role of dialogue in Paul's preaching. The researcher comes to the conclusion that negative perceptions are indeed endangering the ecclesiastical praxis and can even cause listeners to leave the church. Preachers should utilise dialogue in preparing their sermons; focusing on the dialogic nature of preaching in the context of the liturgy. In addition, preachers should endeavour to stimulate feedback after delivering of their sermons in order to rectify fallacious perceptions. Congregations should become communities nurtured by profound communication. <![CDATA[<b>The challenge of atheism and anti-theism</b>: <b>Theological discourse with Armando Pellencin on his book <i>Ateïsme: die saak teen God</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100038&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In hierdie artikel beskryf die outeur hoedat hy onverwags in 2007 in 'n debat met die ateïs Armando Pellencin betrokke geraak het en hoedat dit uiteindelik gelei het tot die skryf van hierdie artikel oor ateïsme. Nadat hy in 'n kort intermezzo 'n oorsig oor die opkoms van ateïsme gebied het, lewer die outeur daarna 'n uiteensetting van die standpunte van Pellencin. In die volgende hoofdeel van die artikel argumenteer die outeur dat Pellencin - asook ander ateïste - nie afdoende en bevredigende antwoorde kan gee op die vyf fundamentele lewensvrae nie. Hierdie fundamentele lewensvrae is die volgende: Hoe verwerf 'n mens kennis (waarheid)?; Waar kom alles vandaan?; Waar gaan alles heen?; Wat is die sin van die lewe?; Hoe kan 'n mens tussen goed en kwaad onderskei? Die outeur konkludeer dat ateïsme, as geloofskeuse en lewens- en wêreldbeskouing faal vanweë die inherente tekortkomings wat aan die reduksionisiese benadering van naturalisme, rasionalisme, positivisme en sciëntisme verbonde is.<hr/>In this article the author describes how, in 2007, he got involved in an unexpected discourse with the atheist Armando Pellencin and how it eventually lead to the writing of this article on atheism. After a short intermezzo in which an overview of the rise of atheism is presented, the views of Pellencin are expounded. In the main part of the article the author argues that Pellencin and other atheists fail to supply decisive and satisfactory answers to the five fundamental questions in life. This fundamental questions are the following: How do we achieve knowledge (truth)?; Where does everything come from?; Where is everything going to?; What is the meaning of life?; How should we discern between good and evil? The author concludes that atheism, as a matter of faith, fails as a life and worldview, because of the deficiencies inherent in a reductionist approach such as naturalism, rationalism, positivism and scientism. <![CDATA[<b>Theoretical strengthening of the concept of appealing in analysed sermons on Matthew 25</b>: <b>31-46 in the context of poverty in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100039&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en From a qualitative grounded theory analysis in a sample of 26 sermons with Matthew 25:3146 as sermon text, a rhetorical structure of how the preachers try to convince their listeners to care for the poor emerged. The homiletical concept of appealing related to all the categories borne out of the analysis of the inner world of the 26 sermons, and also to the categories showing this rhetorical structure in the sermons. The article discusses what the dimensions are in the concept of appealing borne out of the sermons in which the rhetorical structure was apparent, which rhetorical theory would fit as theoretical base for the concept of appealing in its relationship with the rhetorical structure in the sermons, and what dilemma the preachers face when they try to convince their listeners to participate in the care for the poor. The rhetorical theory of deliberative rhetoric (Aristotle) and the classical theory with the three dimensions logos, ethos and pathosis discussed in this article as theoretical thickening of the concept of appealing to the listeners of the sermons. This article attempts to demonstrate how to go about theorising from a grounded theory analysis of sermons with Matthew 25:31-46 as a sermon text with, as result, a theory that could help preachers in preaching from this text in the context of poverty in South Africa.<hr/>Vanuit 'n kwalitatief-gegronde teorie-ontleding (grounded theory analysis) van 26 preke met Matteus 25:31-46 as preekteks, het 'n retoriese struktuur na vore gekom waarmee predikers hulle toehoorders wil oorreed om armes te versorg. Die homiletiese konsep van appèl, hou verband met al die kategorieë wat uit die inhoudsanalise van die binnewêreld van die 26 preke na vore gekom het, asook die kategorieë waarin die retoriese struktuur sigbaar is. Die artikel bespreek die dimensies in die konsep van appèl wat na vore kom uit die preke waarin die retoriese struktuur duidelik is, welke retoriese teorie as teoretiese basis kan dien vir die konsep van appèl in verband met die retoriese struktuur in die preke, asook teenoor welke dilemma die predikers te staan kom wanneer hulle probeer om hulle hoorders te oorreed om vir armes te versorg. Die deliberatiewe retoriese teorie van Aristoteles en die klassieke teorie met die dimensies logos, etos en pathos word in die artikel bespreek as teoretiese versterking vir die konsep van appèl op die toehoorders van die preek. Die artikel poog om aan te toon hoe 'n mens teoretisering vanuit 'n gegronde teorie-ontleding van preke met Matteus 25:31-46 as preekteks kan aanpak, met as resultaat, 'n teorie waarmee predikers gehelp word om in die armoedekonteks van Suid-Afrika te preek. <![CDATA[<b>Patronage and clientelism in the fourth gospel</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100040&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Patronage and clientelism as a social-scientific model is used in this article to read the fourth gospel. It is the contention of the article that this model affords the reader fresh vistas of meaning that otherwise would have remained unexplored. It is a reading amongst other readings and does not make pretensions to illuminate every segment of the fourth gospel. Rather, it selectively looks at areas where reading against the backdrop of a patron-client model illuminates the text. This reading sheds light on the greatest gift Jesus came to give, the gift of life as a beneficium, and affirms that the signs that Jesus performed are commendationes. Jesus brokers the blessings of the kingdom to those who believe in him on behalf of the father who is the ultimate patron. Jesus also challenges popular notions of patronage by performing acts reserved for slaves by, for example, washing the feet of his disciples.<hr/>In hierdie artikel word die begrippe begunstiging en kliëntskap as 'n sosiaal-wetenskaplike model vir die verstaan van die vierde evangelie aangewend. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om aan die leser 'n nuwe begrip te bied wat andersins onontgin sou bly. Die teks van die vierde evangelie word vanuit een invalshoek onder ander invalshoeke gelees en daar word nie voorgegee dat elke segment van hierdie betrokke evangelie daardeur belig sal kan word nie. Daar word vanuit 'n selektiewe invalshoek gefokus op sekere dele waarin die teks verlig word deur perspektiewe wat deur die beskermheer-kliënt model gebied word. So 'n fokus beklemtoon juis die grootste geskenk wat Jesus Christus aan die mensdom gee, naamlik die gawe van lewe. Jesus gee namens die Vader, wie die uiteindelike beskermheer is, die seëninge van die koninkryk aan diegene wat in Hom glo. Terselfdertyd daag Jesus ook die aanvaarde model rakende die draagwydte van beskermheer-skap uit deur verskeie handelinge wat vir slawe gereserveer was, self te verrig, soos dit blyk uit die was van sy dissipels se voete. <![CDATA[<b>An analysis of 'non-Johannine' vocabulary in John 7:53-8:11, Part 1</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100041&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Although scholars usually use external evidence to argue against the inclusion of John 7:53-8:11 in the Gospel of John, they frequently suggest arguments of internal evidence, mostly based on the inclusion of non-Johannine vocabulary, to support these objections. However, in contrast to the textual evidence, arguments about non-Johannine vocabulary seldom receive the necessary amount of evaluation. This article is the first of a two-part series that evaluates explanations for the appearance of various 'non-Johannine' terms. Both articles rebut claims of 'non-Johannine' vocabulary in John 7:53-8:11, thereby providing opportunities for discussing Johannine features in the passage.<hr/>Hoewel navorsers eksterne bewyse gebruik om teen die insluiting van Johannes 7:53-8:11 in die Evangelie van Johannes te argumenteer, maak hulle dikwels voorstelle van interne bewyse, meestal gebaseer op die insluiting van nie-Johannese terme, ter ondersteuning van sodanige besware. In teenstelling met die tekstuele bewyse, ontvang die voorstelle vir nie-Johannese terme egter selde die nodige evaluering. Hierdie artikel is die eerste van 'n tweeledige reeks wat verklarings vir die verskynsel van verskeie 'nie-Johannese' terme evalueer. Albei artikels weerlê die bewerings wat gemaak word ten opsigte van 'nie-Johannese' terme in Johannes 7:53-8:11 en skep daardeur geleentheid vir 'n bespreking van Johannese eienskappe. <![CDATA[<b>An analysis of 'non-Johannine' vocabulary in John 7:53-8:11, Part 2</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100042&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Although scholars usually use external evidence to argue against the inclusion of John 7:53-8:11 in the Gospel of John, they frequently suggest arguments of internal evidence, mostly based on the inclusion of non-Johannine vocabulary, to support their objections. However, in contrast to the textual evidence, arguments of non-Johannine vocabulary seldom receive the necessary amount of evaluation. This article is the second of a two-part series that evaluates explanations for the appearance of various 'non-Johannine' terms. Both articles rebut claims of 'non-Johannine' vocabulary in John 7:53-8:11, thereby providing opportunities for discussing Johannine features in the passage.<hr/>Hoewel navorsers eksterne bewyse gebruik om teen die insluiting van Johannes 7:53-8:11 in die Evangelie van Johannes te argumenteer, maak hulle dikwels voorstelle van interne bewyse, meestal gebaseer op die insluiting van nie-Johannese terme, ter ondersteuning van sodanige besware. In teenstelling met die tekstuele bewyse, ontvang die voorstelle vir nie-Johannese termes egter selde die nodige evaluering. Hierdie artikel is die tweede van 'n tweeledige reeks wat verklarings vir die verskynsel van verskeie 'nie-Johannese' terme evalueer. Albei artikels weerlê die bewerings wat gemaak word ten opsigte van 'nie-Johannese' terme in Johannes 7:53-8:11 en skep daardeur geleentheid vir 'n algemene bespreking van Johannese eienskappe. <![CDATA[<b>The metaphor of light embedded in the Johannine prologue, Part 2: The Light at and after the incarnation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100043&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This is the second of two articles on how the fourth evangelist has embedded the light metaphor in the prologue of the Fourth Gospel. The prologue is replete with this metaphor. A thorough discourse analysis explores the text's inner texture to determine the rhetoric and network of semantic relations - regarding light as the subject. From here the text's sacred texture is investigated. Various theological themes are interwoven into the text, with light being a consistent, embedded metaphor, embracing a wealth of facets and interpretations. This research focuses on the embedded light metaphor in the Johannine prologue as it relates to the Word's performance during and after the incarnation.<hr/>Hierdie is die tweede van twee artikels om aan te toon hoe die vierde evangelis die lig-metafoor in die proloog van die Vierde Evangelie ingebed het. Die proloog is deurdrenk met hierdie metafoor. Deur middel van 'n behoorlike diskoersanalise is die diepte-struktuur van die teks ondersoek om die retoriek en netwerk van semantiese verhoudings vanaf die perspektief van lig as onderwerp te bepaal. Hierna is die teologiese struktuur van die teks ondersoek. Verskeie teologiese temas is in die teks verweef, met 'lig' as 'n konstante verankerde metafoor wat 'n rykdom van fasette en interpretasie insluit. Hierdie navorsing fokus op die ingebedheid van die lig-metafoor in die Johannese proloog soos wat dit verband hou met die funksionering van die Woord tydens en na die inkarnasie. <![CDATA[<b>Between tradition and renewal</b>: <b>Some considerations about the use of tradition in reformed theology</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100044&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In the theology and practice of the Christian church a tension between tradition and renewal exists. This essay focuses on this tension to provide a first step of methodological reflection to deal with it. Firstly, this tension is illustrated from the reformed perspective of sola scriptura that led to criticism of the tradition on the one hand, whilst understanding the reformed movement as part of the tradition on the other hand. A danger of unqualified sola scriptura is subjectivity. Subsequently, the importance of tradition is elaborated from the perspective of the church as the body of Christ across all ages. This implies that Christians should study and love the traditional theology because of the fundamental unity of the church that transcends cultural diversity. Rejecting tradition will cut the church from its historical and spiritual roots. Thirdly, this raises the question whether the church is imprisoned by tradition, as well as the problem of the relation between tradition and renewal. In response, it is argued that the doctrine of incarnation guarantees openness to history. With the help of the philosophical and Christian view on structural contingency, the belief that tradition is principally open to renewal is defended. Some examples are given as illustrations of how classic theological concepts can be reframed in our postmodern context. The last part of this essay concludes with the insight of Cyprian that only the conveyed tradition can be renewed, implying that renewal is in essence not a new theology, but a new application of apostolic theology.<hr/>Hierdie artikel fokus op die spanning tussen tradisie en vernuwing in die praktyk van die Christelike kerk. Eerstens word die probleem vanuit die reformatoriese perspektief van die sola scriptura geïllustreer, wat aan die een kant tot kritiek op die tradisie gelei het, maar terselfdertyd word die reformatoriese beweging as deel van die tradisie verstaan. Die gevaar van 'n ongekwalifiseerde handhawing van die sola scriptura-oortuiging is subjektiwiteit. Vervolgens word die belangrikheid van die tradisie uitgebrei vanuit die perspektief van die kerk as liggaam van Christus oor alle eeue. Dit impliseer dat Christene tradisionele teologie behoort te bestudeer, omdat die fundamentele eenheid van die kerk kulturele diversiteit oorkom. Die verwerping van die tradisie sal gevolglik die kerk van sy geestelike wortels afsny. Derdens bring dit die vraag na vore of die kerk deur tradisie gevange gehou word. In hierdie verband wys die artikel daarop dat die leer van die inkarnasie openheid ten opsigte van die geskiedenis waarborg. Met behulp van die Christelike siening van strukturele gebeurlikheid, word die oortuiging dat die tradisie prinsipieel vir vernuwing oop is, verdedig. 'n Paar voorbeelde word gegee om te illustreer hoe klassieke teologiese konsepte in ons postmoderne tyd benut kan word. Die artikel sluit af met 'n verwysing na die insig van Siprianus, naamlik dat net die oorgelewerde tradisie vernuwe kan word. Dit impliseer dat vernuwing essensieel nie 'n nuwe teologie is nie, maar 'n nuwe toepassing van die klassieke teologie. <![CDATA[<b>Pastoral care to or with sex-starved pregnant women in an African context</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100045&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The aim of this article is to highlight some African women's problematic sex life, even in their married lives, as a result of prescribed and lengthy periods of abstinence from sex - especially during pregnancy. Literature studies, especially on Yoruba sexual practices, showed that forced abstinence from sexual activity during pregnancy is rife and that many women seem content with the situation, probably as a result of their internalisation of patriarchal beliefs and values, prescribed as a means of socialisation. This phenomenon of abstinence from sexual intercourse during pregnancy by the women in some African societies is the focus of the study. The article examined the following: views of sex amongst Black African people, medical views of sex and views of sex in Christian tradition. Also examined at length was the phenomenon of abstinence from sex in an African context. The findings led to a critical evaluation of the phenomenon and a search for pastoral guidelines that could facilitate transformation, intimacy and committed sexual life in African families.<hr/>Die doel van hierdie artikel is om die problematiese seksuele lewens van sommige vrouens in Afrika na vore te bring. Die probleme kom voor ten spyte van die feit dat hulle getroud is omdat lang tydperke van onthouding, veral tydens swangerskap, vir hulle voorgeskryf word. 'n Literatuurstudie, veral oor die Yoruba se seksuele praktyke, dui daarop dat gedwonge onthouding van seksuele aktiwiteite gedurendede swangerskap heersend is. Verder kom dit ook voor asof baie vrouens nie daarmee probleme ervaar nie, waarskynlik as gevolg van hulle geïnternaliseerde patriargale oortuigings en waardes, wat vir sosialiseringsdoeleindes voorgeskryf word. Hierdie studie fokus op die verskynsel van onthouding van geslagsomgang gedurende swangerskap deur vrouens in sommige Afrika-gemeenskappe. Die artikel ondersoek die volgende: Swart Afrikane se tradisionele seksbeskouing, die mediese seksbeskouing en die Christelike tradisie se seksbeskouing. Die verskynsel van seksonthouding in 'n Afrika-konteks word ook ondersoek. Die bevindinge lei tot 'n kritiese evaluering van die fenomeen en die soeke na pastorale riglyne wat transformasie, intimiteit en toewyding in seksuele verhoudings in families in Afrika sou kon fasiliteer. <![CDATA[<b>Wife beating amongst Africans as a challenge to pastoral care</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100046&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Traditional African people are known for respecting their marriage. Even though marriage is so highly regarded, it is astonishing to realise that wife beating has become an extremely common practice amongst them. It therefore becomes an important research question to ask about the extent to which deeply-seated traditional customs regarding wife beating as a form of stamping down authority and of trying to keep the household in order, will have to be confronted with what is deemed to be good practice from the perspective of the law, community and pastoral caregivers. There are women who live with scars on their faces and bodies, having been beaten by their husbands. Although there are many forms of abuse towards women in family situations, this article aims particularly to focus on wife beating that is practiced for traditional as well as other related reasons. This research will involve itself with establishing whether the reasons for wife beating are part of the traditional system for keeping the household in order and interrogate both legal and pastoral interventions that attempt to eliminate or avoid such behaviour.<hr/>Tradisionele Afrikane is nog altyd daarvoor bekend dat hulle die instelling van die huwelik respekteer. Verbasend genoeg is vroueslanery egter 'n ou gevestigde gebruik wat vandag algemeen onder Afrikane voorkom. Die mate waartoe diepgewortelde gebruike soos vroueslanery as 'n manier om gesag af te dwing en orde in die huis te handhaaf, gekonfronteer sal moet word met wat as goeie praktyk beskou word vanuit die gesigspunt van die reg, die gemeenskap en pastorale versorgers, is dus 'n belangrike navorsingsvraag. Baie vroue dra fisiese en emosionele littekens wat deur hulle eggenote veroorsaak is. Alhoewel daar baie vorme van vrouemishandeling in familiesituasies voorkom, fokus hierdie artikel veral op vroueslanery wat om tradisionele en verwante redes beoefen word. Hierdie navorsing probeer vasstel of die redes vir vroueslanery deel van die tradisionele sisteem uitmaak waarvolgens orde in die huishouding gehandhaaf is. Dit ondersoek regs- sowel as pastorale ingryping wat sodanige gedrag probeer elimineer of voorkom. <![CDATA[<b>Funny Bone finds a home: A musical featuring the Body of Christ</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100047&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This play is a teaching tool and examines the concepts of unity and disunity in the Body of Christ. Based on 1 Corinthians 12:12-27, the play contains as characters the body parts mentioned by Paul in his instruction on the need for honouring different ministries and functions in the church. Combining humour and song, the play follows in the steps of ancient medieval allegories and illustrates a biblical teaching in a contemporary way.<hr/>Hierdie musiekblyspel kan vir onderrigdoeleindes gebruik word. Dit ondersoek die eenheids- en konflikaspekte in verband met die Liggaam van Christus. Dit is gebaseer op 1 Korintiërs 12:12-27 en die karakters van die toneelstuk beeld die verskillende liggaamsdele uit soos deur Paulus genoem in sy opdrag om die verskillende evangeliebedienings en funksies van die kerk te erken. Deur humor en sang te kombineer, volg die toneelstuk die voetspore van 'n antieke Middeleeuse sinnebeelding en illustreer bybelse onderrig op 'n hedendaagse wyse. <![CDATA[<b> Mēden</b><b><i> diakrinomenos</i></b><b> in Acts 10:20 as entscheidenden Wendepunkt prescription of the Spirit</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100048&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Daar word meestal aanvaar dat die woord διακρινόµενος in Handelinge 10:20 vir die betekenis 'huiwer/twyfel' gebruik word en dat Petrus volgens hierdie vers die opdrag kry om saam met Kornelius se mense te gaan 'sonder om te huiwer'. In hierdie artikel word egter aangetoon dat die woord διακρινόµενος in die vers vir die betekenis 'om onderskeid te tref' gebruik word en dat die Heilige Gees met die woorde µηδέν διακρινόµενος aan Petrus en die Christelike Kerk 'n entscheidenden Wendepunkt [belangrike keerpunt]-voorskrif gee. Dit is 'n voorskrif wat aandui dat 'n spesifieke bedeling tot 'n einde gekom het, naamlik die bedeling waarin Israel onderskeid ten opsigte van voedsel en van mense moes tref. Die voorskrif van die Gees µηδέν διακρινόµενος gee ook 'n aanduiding van 'n nuwe bedeling wat aangebreek het. In die nuwe bedeling hoef mense nie eers deel van Israel te word voordat hulle vir God aanvaarbaar is nie. Hierdie nuwe bedeling het God deur Jesus Christus en sy versoeningswerk laat aanbreek. In die nuwe bedeling is God nie meer net die God van Israel nie, maar is sy Gesalfde Here van almal en Regter oor alle mense van alle tye. In hierdie bedeling ontvang elke mens van alle volke wat in Jesus Christus glo, vergifnis in sy Naam en is almal wat in Hom glo, één.<hr/>It is generally accepted that the word διακρινόµενος in Acts 10:20 is used for the meaning 'hesitate/doubt' and therefore Peter is according to this verse, instructed to go with Cornelius's people 'without hesitation'. In this article, however, it is argued that the word διακρινόµενος is used for the meaning 'to distinguish' and that the Holy Spirit gives Peter and the Christian Church an entscheidenden Wendepunkt prescript with the words µηδέν διακρινόµενος. It is a prescript which indicates that a particular epoch has come to an end, namely the epoch in which Israel had to distinguish with regard to food and people. The prescript of the Spirit µηδέν διακρινόµενος also heralds a new epoch. In the new epoch, people do not need to become part of Israel before they can be accepted by God. This new epoch was brought about by God through Jesus Christ and his work of reconciliation. In the new epoch, God is no longer just the God of Israel; his Anointed is Lord and Judge of all people of all times. In this epoch all people from all nations who believe in Jesus Christ, receive forgiveness in his Name and all people who believe in him, are one. <![CDATA[<b>The office of prophets as an emergency measure</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100049&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Initially there was not supposed to be a prophetic office in Israel. 'Prophetism' was considered to be part of work that the priests performed. Thus, the priests were seen to be acting as prophets. Generally speaking, the prophets of the Old Testament are described as people who preached the Word of God. In the same way, priests are generally described as people who fulfilled functions at the temple and whose task it was to sacrifice on behalf of the Israelites. This article, however, argues that Yahweh intended much more through the establishment and ministry of the priests than merely administer sacrifices. It is the contention that Yahweh ordained the office of priests to preach the Word of God or to give advice in accordance with the will of Yahweh as it is documented in the Torah. The article's contribution to the subject of prophetism in Israel will begin by studying the chronological history of Israel as it is described in the Hebrew Bible. The terms prophet, prophecy and prophetism will also be examined as they are used in the Hebrew Bible. By doing so, the article will show that it was only when the priests failed in their prophetic calling or when Yahweh wanted to change the cult or political establishment that He called people from outside of the established cult to fulfil the role of prophet. Yahweh used the prophetic office in times of need. One may call it an emergency measure - in times when the priests failed in their calling.<hr/>Die bedoeling was aanvanklik nie dat daar 'n profetiese amp in Israel moes wees nie. 'Profetisme' was veronderstel om deel van die priesterlike amp te wees. Die priesters het dus as profete opgetree. Oor die algemeen word die Ou-Testamentiese profete as persone beskryf wat die Woord van God verkondig het. Op 'n soortgelyke algemene wyse word priesters as persone beskryf wat hulle werk by die tempel verrig het en wie se taak dit was om namens die Israeliete te offer. Hierdie artikel argumenteer egter dat Jahwe oorspronklik met die instelling van die priesteramp meer as net offerdiens in gedagte gehad het. Jahwe het oorspronklik die priesteramp ingestel om die Woord van God te preek en om advies te gee in oorstemming met die wil van Jahwe soos dit in die Tora vervat is. In hierdie artikel word die chronologiese geskiedenis van Israel soos dit in die Hebreeuse Bybel beskryf word, bestudeer. Die terme profeet, profesie en profetisme soos in die Hebreeuse Bybel gebruik, sal ook beskryf word. In die bestudering van hiervan sal aangedui word dat Jahwe persone van buite die kultus slegs as profete aangestel het wanneer die priesters in hulle profetiese taak gefaal het of wanneer Hy verandering in die bestaande kultus of politieke stelsel te weeg wou bring. Jahwe het dus die profete-amp as noodmaatreël gebruik wanneer die priesters in hulle profetiese roeping gefaal het. <![CDATA[<b>Liturgical guidelines for congregations to have a voice in the serious problem of economical inequality in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100050&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en It is part of the calling of the church to address issues of justice and peace, and to care for the poor and the marginalised in society, because the church is the body of Christ and therefore the heart and hands of Christ in this world. In this article, the problem statement is: 'How can liturgical guidelines help churches to become involved in the economic inequality and the consequent poverty in our society?' Richard Osmer articulates a practical theological method that is largely employed in this research. South Africa is the world's most unequal nation. The South African economy grew steadily from 1992 to 2008, but the benefits were distributed unequally, such that income inequality actually worsened. It is necessary to get a truthful starting point for the church to address this need - and the best way will be to discover the identity of the church. The church's identity is described in the liturgical sense in three phases of involvement in society, namely (1) the gathering and sending of the local congregation; (2) the liturgical responsibility with the ecumenical church; and (3) the possible cooperation with those who do not share the Christian faith.<hr/>Deel van die kerk se roeping is om aangeleenthede soos geregtigheid en vrede aan te spreek, asook om vir armes en gemarginaliseerdes in die samelewing te sorg. Die kerk is immers die liggaam van Christus en daarom die hart en hande van Christus in die wêreld. Die probleemstelling van hierdie artikel is: 'Hoe kan liturgiese riglyne kerke help om betrokke te raak by die ekonomiese ongelykhede en gevolglike armoede in die Suid-Afrikaanse samelewing?' Richard Osmer bied 'n prakties-teologiese metode wat met vrug gebruik is in hierdie navorsing. Suid-Afrika is die wêreld se mees ekonomies-ongelyke nasie. Die Suid-Afrikaanse ekonomie het van 1992 tot 2008 stelselmatig gegroei, maar die voordele daarvan is sodanig versprei dat die ongelykheid in inkomste toegeneem het. Dit is nodig om 'n betroubare vertrekpunt vir die kerk te vind om hierdie probleem te hanteer - en die beste wyse is om by die identiteit van die kerk aansluiting te vind. Die identiteit van die kerk in die liturgiese sin word in drie fases van betrokkenheid in die samelewing beskryf: (1) die vergadering en uitstuur van die plaaslike gemeente; (2) die liturgiese verantwoordelikheid tesame met die ekumeniese kerk; en (3) die moontlike samewerking met hulle wat nie in die Christelike geloof deel nie. <![CDATA[<b>Revelation 1:7 - A roadmap of God's </b><b>τέλος</b><b> for his creation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100051&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Revelation 1:7 points to an anticipated final appearance of Jesus at the consummation. This κηρύσσω developed from the late Jewish apocalyptic eschatology. This apocalyptic end time dawned with Jesus. The present time is thus simultaneously the end time, though the consummation is still in the future. As Jesus appeared on earth with his resurrection, so will he appear at the consummation - his resurrection appearance is a simile of his appearance at the consummation. He will appear in a corporeal form. The writer encourages the second-generation marginalised Christians. The Roman emperor is not the victor - Jesus is the axis mundi of God's final purpose for his creation. The final appearance of Jesus will bring redemption for the believers and mourning for the unbelievers. The κηρύσσω of Revelation 1:7 is diametrically the opposite of the chiliasts. The country of Israel and her present inhabitants have no eschatological role to fulfil at the consummation.<hr/>Openbaring 1:7 dui op 'n geantisipeerde finale verskyning van Jesus met die voleinding. Hierdie κηρύσσω het uit die Joodse laat-apokaliptiese eskatologie ontwikkel. Die apokaliptiese eindtyd het met Jesus se opstanding plaasgevind en die Nuwe-Testamentiese hede is dus alreeds die eindtyd. Die voleinding is egter nog in die toekoms. Jesus se verskyning met sy opstanding is 'n metafoor vir sy koms by die voleinding. Hy sal liggaamlik verskyn. Die skrywer bemoedig die gemarginaliseerde tweede generasie Christene. Die Romeinse keiser is nie die oorwinnaar nie - Jesus is die axis mundi van God se finale plan vir sy skepping. Die finale verskyning van Jesus sal vir die gelowiges ewige verlossing bewerk, maar die ongelowiges sal in rou gedompel word. Die κηρύσσω van Openbaring 1:7 is die teenoorgestelde van die standpunt van die chiliasme. Die land en huidige volk van Israel vervul geen eskatologiese rol by die voleinding nie. <![CDATA[<b>The ministry of hope at grassroots level in a post-apartheid South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100052&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In this article the the ministry of hope to women without hope are investigated in the South African context of hope and reconciliation. Since apartheid ended 19 years ago, a democratic policy has been followed. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission was assigned the task to lead the population of South Africa to hope and reconciliation. The question may truly be asked whether the current picture could be that of a healed country. On the one hand, a large part of the population demonstrates a negative attitude regarding future expectations of South Africa; on the other hand, there are people at grassroots level who strive daily to bring about reconciliation in society by trying to make life easier for others. Utilising the available resources, which are minimal, the women called Mamas Africa are examples of people who serve the hopeless with hope every day. The central theoretical argument is that the Mamas Africa phenomenon has the potential of bringing hope, should it branch out widely. The concept of Mamas Africa refers to women from all races who promote mutual commitment based on their faith, and also make a difference in the South African society. In this article, an empirical investigation was made into the motivation behind the Mamas Africa phenomenon in the first place. Secondly, a normative investigation was conducted into the theology of hope from the perspective of reformed theology; and finally, pragmatic guidelines have been provided for the ministry of hope to the hopeless in the South African society.<hr/>In hierdie artikel word die bediening van hoop en versoening aan oënskynlik hooplose vroue ondersoek in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks van hoop en versoening. Dit is reeds 19 jaar sedert apartheid afgeskaf is en 'n demokratiese beleid in Suid-Afrika gevolg word. Die Waarheids- en Versoeningskommissie (WVK) is getaak om die bevolking van Suid-Afrika na hoop en versoening te lei. Dit wil egter voorkom asof die bevolking van Suid-Afrika tans verder van rekonsiliasie is as direk na 1994. Die vraag kan tereg gevra word of dit 'n beeld is van 'n land wat genesing beleef. Ondanks die staking van die WVK se werksaamhede en die oorwegend negatiewe ingesteldheid van 'n groot deel van die bevolking rakende die toekomsverwagtinge in Suid-Afrika, is daar diegene op grondvlak wat elke dag daarna streef om versoening in die samelewing te bewerkstellig deur die lewe van ander te probeer vergemaklik. Die vroue genaamd 'Mamas Afrika' is voorbeelde van diegene wat, met die minimum hulpbronne tot hulle beskikking, daagliks die hooploses met hoop bedien. Die konsep Mamas Afrika verwys na vroue van alle rasse wat hulle, as uitvloeisel van hulle geloof en vertroue in God, beywer tot onderlinge versoening. Die vraag wat hier ter sprake is, is die volgende: Wat is die relevansie van die Christelike hoop en versoening as dryfveer vir morele aksie in die Suid-Afrikaanse samelewing se groei na versoening en nasiewording soos toegepas deur die Mamas Afrika? <![CDATA[<b>The teachings on providence from the reformed confessions seen against Adrio König's teachings on providence - a Dogma-historical evaluation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100053&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en König is 'n aktuele en invloedryke teoloog en sy standpunte kan nie gei'gnoreer word nie (Strauss 2004:123). König (2002:13) beskou homself as 'n gereformeerde teoloog alhoewel sy voorsienigheidsleer van die klassieke gereformeerde siening verskil. In sommige gevalle word König se teologie as reformatories gesien (bv. sy leer oor die regverdigmaking) en in ander gevalle weer nie, byvoorbeeld die leer oor die voorsienigheid (Strauss 2004:139). Volgens König (2002:33) is die klassieke gereformeerde verstaan van die voorsienigheid nie werklik vertroostend nie. Die klassieke gereformeerde siening van die voorsienigheid maak volgens König van God 'n bose God wat die kwaad beskik en dan net toekyk as die kwaad gebeur. König (2002:237) se oplossing vir die probleem van die klassieke gereformeerde siening is dat God nie ten volle in beheer is nie, maar dat Hy eendag eers in beheer sal kom. Hierdie siening van König is in stryd met die gereformeerde belydenis waarin bely word dat God deur sy voorsienige hand alle dinge onderhou en regeer. Die gevolgtrekking is dat König se voorsienigheidsleer in die lig van die gereformeerde belydenis nie vertroostend is of kan wees nie en net meer verwarring en wanhoop veroorsaak.<hr/>König is a contemporary and influential theologian and his views can not be ignored (Strauss 2004:123). König (2002:13) regards himself as a reformed theologian, but his doctrine on providence differs from the classic reformed view. In some cases, König's theology is viewed as reformed (eg. his doctrine on justification) but not in all cases, as is the case with the doctrine on providence (Strauss 2004:139). According to König (2002:33) the classic reformed understanding of providence is not comforting. Also, according to König, the classic reformed view of providence indicates God as an evil God who ordains evil, and then sits back and watches as it unfolds. König's (2002:237) solution for the problem of the classic reformed view is that God is not fully in control, but that He only will be in control one day. This view of König is in conflict with the reformed confession which confesses that God through his providential hand maintains and governs all things. The conclusion is that König's doctrine of providence is not comforting in the light of the reformed confession, and that it only causes more confusion and despair. <![CDATA[<b>Indicators of the church in John's metaphor of the vine</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100054&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article aims to answer the question of what belongs to the essence of the church, as God intended it to be, by identifying certain indicators of the essence of the church through a study of one of the central metaphors of the New Testament: the vine in the Gospel of John. Through structural analyses, commentary and metaphorical analyses, several indicators of unity as part of the essence of the church emerge in this metaphor. These indicators are the primacy (or authority) of Christ, trinitarian balance, equality, interdependence, inclusivity, growth and unity (in diversity).<hr/>Hierdie artikel poog om die volgende vraag te beantwoord: Wat behoort tot die essensie van kerkwees soos God dit bedoel het? Dit word gedoen deur sekere aanwysers van die essensie van kerkwees te identifiseer vanuit 'n studie van een van die essensiele metafore vir kerkwees in die Nuwe Testament, naamlik die Wynstok in die Evangelie van Johannes. Deur middel van struktuuranalise, kommentaar en metaforiese analise kom verskeie eenheidsaanwysers as deel van die essensie van kerkwees in hierdie metafoor na vore. Hierdie aanwysers is die hoer gesag (of outoriteit) van Christus, die balans van die Drie-eenheid, gelykheid, interafhanklikheid, inklusiwiteit, groei en eenheid (in diversiteit). <![CDATA[<b>'Fundamentalism' and 'fundamentalist' semantically considered: Their lexical origins, early polysemy, and pejoration</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100055&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The words fundamentalist (as both a noun and an adjective) and fundamentalism were coined in 1920 within the Northern Baptist Convention when that and other American Protestant denominations were experiencing theological turmoil due to the advance of theological modernism. It is argued in the present article that both terms initially had positive meanings when used by defenders of orthodoxy. However, within weeks of their birth both were criticised by less conservative Christians. Like many other theological terms they underwent semantic change - in this case pejoration and lexical extension. Moreover, by 1923 'fundamentalist' had been extended into political journalism to refer to strict adherents of one ideology or another. The greatest change, however, and one that fixed these neologisms in the public mind in both North America and the United Kingdom, came with the widely published 'Scopes monkey trial' of 1925, when the association of 'fundamentalists' and 'fundamentalism' with anti-intellectualism and obscurantism reached its apogee.<hr/>Die terme fundamentalis (as 'n selfstandige sowel as byvoeglike naamwoord) en fundamentalisme het binne die Noordelike Baptiste-tradisie ontstaan toe hulle en ander Amerikaanse Protestantse denominasies onrus op teologiese gebied beleef het as gevolg van die opkoms van teologiese modernisme. Die betoog in hierdie artikel is dat albei hierdie terme aanvanklik positiewe betekenis gehad het toe dit deur die beskermers van die ortodoksie gebruik is. Albei terme is egter binne weke na hulle ontstaan deur minder konserwatiewe Christene gekritiseer. Soos vele ander teologiese terme, het hierdie woorde ook semantiese veranderinge ondergaan, in hierdie geval met ongunstige betekenis en leksikale uitbreiding. Boonop is die term fundamentalis teen 1923 ook in die politieke joernalistiek gebruik om na die rigiede navolging van een of ander ideologie te verwys. Die grootste verandering, en een wat hierdie neologismes algemeen in Noord-Amerika sowel as in die Verenigde Koninkryk gevestig het, het egter gekom met die wyd gepubliseerde 'Scopes monkey trial' in 1925 toe die assosiasie van fundamentalis en fudamentalisme met anti-intellektualisme en verkramptheid 'n hoogtepunt bereik het. <![CDATA[<b>'Where to flee from this man'?</b> <b>A listening exercise in Ludwig Hofacker (1797-1828)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100056&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en De aanwezigheid van de levende God in preken kunnen wij niet terzijde stellen of verontachtzamen. Waar dit wel gebeurt, daar wordt verkondiging een voordracht, zonder de volmacht. Orthodoxie komt in ademnood wanneer exegese en dogmatiek opgaan in een aantal meningen en waarbij het getuigenis van de Bijbel op de achtergrond komt. Ludwig Hofacker (1798-1828)¹ was een prediker die in bijbelonderzoek en prediking zijn oor te luisteren legde aan de Bron. Het Woord van God was voor hem het homiletisch magazijn. Dat nu nog steeds, in de 21e eeuw, zijn preken gelezen worden, geeft aan dat zijn erfenis een opmerkelijke is. Hij pakte het probleem van de geestelijke dorheid op in een tijd gekenmerkt door het opkomend klimaat van het humanistisch rationalisme. Hofackers prediking geeft weer waar het werkelijk om gaat: Christus alleen. Deze preken laten ook de prediker zelf zien. Zijn stem roept op wat de Reformatie zo na aan het hart lag, en de cadenzen van het sola gratia, sola Scriptum, en het sola fide zijn in elke preek te horen. Het religieuze eigene van Hofacker sluit grote missionaire bewogenheid in.<hr/>In sermons we cannot disregard the presence of the living God, otherwise preaching will become a performance, without divine authority. Orthodoxy will be gasping for breath when exegesis and dogmatic theology are wholly absorbed in a number of opinions, causing biblical testimony to recede into the background. Ludwig Hofacker (1798-1828), was a preacher who in Bible study and preaching put his ears to the Fountain. The Word of God was his sole homiletic storehouse. Today, in our 21st century, his sermons are still being read. This indicates that he left us a remarkable body of work. He tackled the problem of spiritual dearth in a time of emerging humanistic rationalism. Hofacker's preaching reflected his core belief: Christ only. His sermons also reflect the preacher himself. His voice clearly recalls what was held so dear in the Reformation, and the cadences of the sola gratia, sola Scriptura and sola fide are heard in every sermon. His religious individuality included a strong motivation for missions <![CDATA[<b>A flame of sacred love: Mission involvement of women in the 19th century</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100057&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In the 19th century, women missionaries found acceptance in the public domain and opportunities for achievement that they were denied at home. Whilst they spearheaded movements for Christianising and modernising Asian (the focus of this article) and African societies through the evangelisation, education and physical care of women, many questions were raised about their motives and the way they executed their work. We need to rediscover the sacrificial dedication women had that made the 19th century the greatest century of Christian expansion. These were remarkable women who left everything behind - many of them leaving a permanent impression upon the people in whose cities they eventually resided - and who stand as examples to the present generation. Having lost most of the things the world prizes, they gained one thing they esteemed so highly. For them, the relative value of things temporal might go, provided that they could forever settle the eternal values. They lived out the words of Paul: 'I press on toward the goal for the prize of the upward call of God in Christ Jesus' (Phlp 3:14).<hr/>Vroue-sendelinge het in die negentiende eeu geleenthede vir prestasie en aanvaarding in die publieke domein gevind wat hulle andersins misgun is. Hoewel hulle die voortou geneem het met bewegings vir die kerstening en modernisering van gemeenskappe in Asie en Afrika deur middel van die evangelisasie, opvoeding en fisiese versorging van vrouens, is hulle motiewe en die manier waarop hulle te werk gegaan het, bevraagteken. Dit is dus nodig om die opoffering en toewyding van hierdie vroue, wat die negentiende e eeu uitgesonder het as die belangrikste eeu vir Christelike uitbreiding, te herontdek. Hierdie merkwaardige vroue het alles opgeoffer en vele van hulle het 'n onuitwisbare indruk gemaak het op die mense in wie se stede hulle uiteindelik tuisgegaan het. Hulle staan uit as voorbeelde vir die huidige generasie. Al het hulle soveel dinge verloor wat deur die wereld as belangrik geag is, het hulle veel gekry uit dit wat hulle persoonlik hoog geag het. Vir hulle het die relatiewe waarde van tydelike dinge min beteken, solank hulle die ewige waardes kon vestig. Hulle het voorwaar Paulus se woorde uitgeleef: 'Ek span my in om by die wenstreep te kom, sodat ek die hemelse prys kan behaal waartoe God my geroep het in Christus Jesus' (Fil 3:14). <![CDATA[<b>The philosophical-theological underpinnings of 'missionai' church: A critical evaluation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100058&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In hierdie artikel word 'n perspektief gebied op die tendens wat min of meer sedert die aanvang van die millennium ook in Suid Afrika posgevat het, naamlik om die kerk as die missionale kerk te tipeer. Hierdie ontwikkeling in die nadenke oor die kerk is oënskynlik 'n reaksie op 'n vroeëre, statiese siening van die kerk, waar meer op die kerk as instelling gefokus is en wat funksioneer deur mense nader te trek en deel te maak van die instelling. In teenstelling hiermee wil die missionale kerk in haar benadering by God self begin, as die sendende God en van daar 'n meer dinamies-kommunikatiewe siening van kerkwees ontwikkel. Laasgenoemde beteken dat die kerk veel meer binne die kultuur van die wêreld aanwesig is om daar op 'n nuwe werklikheid te wys. Die navorsingsvraag wat in hierdie artikel gevra word, het te make met die filosofies-teologiese vertrekpunte van die missionale kerkweesbenadering. Watter siening van die verhouding tussen God en die skepping, oftewel die transendente en die immanente, lê ten grondslag van hierdie benadering? Watter invloed het die inagneming van filosofies-teologiese oorwegings op die beoordeling van die missionale kerkgedagte? Hierdie vrae word beantwoord deur die opvatting van missionale kerkwees, asook die institusioneel-kontraktuele opvatting van kerkwees waarteenoor dit reageer, teen die agtergrond van die sakramentele verstaan van die kerk te plaas. Die sakramentele verstaan van die kerk was deel van die deelnemende wêreldbeeld wat vir die eerste millennium van die kerk se lewe as vanselfsprekend aanvaar is.<hr/>This article presents a perspective on the growing tendency - also in South Africa - to characterise the church as missional. Thinking of the church in missional terms is apparently in reaction against an earlier, static view that focused on the church as an institution, and more specifically, an institution that functions by drawing people to itself. In contrast, the missional approach to church wants to start with God, as the One that sends, and from that perspective develops a more dynamic and communicative conception of the church. An important implication of this would be to have the church much more present in and to the culture of the world, in order to effectively point to a new reality. The research question informing this article has to do with the philosophical and theological underpinnings of the missional church approach. What assumptions about the relation between God and creation, or transcendence and immanence, underlie this approach? What implications would the consideration of the philosophical and theological assumptions underlying the missional church movement have for its evaluation? These questions are answered by placing the missional notion of the church, as well as the institutional-contractual notion against which it reacts, against the background of a sacramental understanding of the church. The latter was the notion of the church that was almost universally taken for granted in the first millennium of the church's existence. <![CDATA[<b>Three I know not what: The influence of Greek philosophy on the doctrine of Trinity</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100059&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examines the origins of the traditional or orthodox Trinitarian formula. The main objective is to clarify to what extent the traditional Christian doctrine of the Trinity (Nicene formula) has been influenced by Greek philosophy. Through contemporary theological dialogue on this issue, the research focuses on the comparison between the traditional formulation of the doctrine of Trinity, influenced by Greek philosophy and the biblical revelation of the godhead. The conclusion is that the trinitarian formula might not be a dogmatic teaching, but a mystery (a dehellenisation of the concept of Trinity) and that the Church fathers and the post-Nicene church used the Greek philosophical-theological expressions for Trinity, already present in Scriptures in its doxological and liturgical form, primarily for the purpose of contextualisation.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek die oorsprong van die tradisionele of ortodokse trinitariese leerstuk. Die hoofdoel is om uit te vind tot watter mate die tradisioneel Christelike leer oor die Drie-eenheid (Niceense formule) deur die Griekse filosofie bei'nvloed is. Deur die hedendaagse teologiese debat oor hierdie onderwerp na te gaan, fokus die navorsing op 'n vergelyking tussen die tradisionele formulering van die leer van die Drie-eenheid soos be'invloed deur die ortodokse Griekse filosofie en deur die bybelse openbaring van die godheid. Die slotsom waartoe gekom word, is dat die trinitariese formule moontlik nie 'n dogmatiese leerstuk was nie, maar 'n misterie ('n dehellenisering van die Drie-eenheidsbegrip). Die kerkvaders en die post-Niceense kerk het die Griekse filosofies-teologiese uitdrukkings vir die Drie-eenheid, wat alreeds in die Skrif in sy doksologiese en liturgiese vorm voorgekom het, moontlik slegs vir die doel van kontekstualisering gebruik. <![CDATA[<b>Bereavement healing ministry amongst Abaluyia: Towards a 'circle for pastoral concern' as a healing model</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100060&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article formulates a new integrated pastoral care approach to bereavement healing ministry in Africa, termed a circle for pastoral concern. In pursuit of this, the article highlights the pastoral challenge brought about by the occurrence of death and bereavement within the cultural and Christian intermix. Using the example of the Abaluyia of western Kenya, traditional cultural bereavement healing approaches are assessed against the backdrop of Christian influence on the understanding and response to death and bereavement healing and the resultant tension. The article juxtaposes the Abaluyia cultural concept of okhukura [to encircle with loving care] with the biblical koindnia [fellowship, communion] as springboard for building culturally sensitive and biblically sound Christian caring communities. It is hoped that the juxtaposition helps to establish and promote meaningful engagement between therapeutic traditional beliefs and practices, and the gospel. The gospel-culture engagement within a local church setting provides the context in which bereavement healing and individual growth after the death of a significant other takes place. The juxtaposition is necessitated by the rampant practice in African pluralistic societies where Christians consciously, or otherwise, lurch back to cultural approaches in their effort to provide or find healing when faced with death and bereavement. The 'circle for pastoral concern' model encourages inclusiveness by enlisting the means and talents of the community of believers, both ordained and lay. The principle of inclusion ensures that the load of pastoral care is shared and assumes a deeper response due to diversity of gifts and talents within the caring community.<hr/>'n Nuwe integrale benadering vir pastorale hulpverlening en berading tydens rousmart word voorgestel, naamlik 'n omsirkelingsmodel vir pastorale omgee-uitreiking met die oog op treurbediening binne 'n Afrika-konteks. Die vraagstuk van pastorale hulp en heling word behandel. Treurprosesse in Afrika vind binne die wisselwerkende verband tussen Christelike geloof en kultuurkonteks plaas. As voorbeeld van 'n dergelike interkulturele benadering, word die gebruike tydens rou en smartbelewing van die Abaluyia-groep in die westelike deel van Kenia ondersoek. Die Abaluyia-konsep van okhukura [om met liefdevolle sorg te omarm] word met die Bybelse konsep van koindnia [onderlinge ondersteunende gemeenskap] vergelyk. Hierdie verband kan waarskynlik met die vestiging van sinvolle treurgroepe binne kulturele gemeenskapsverbande help, terwyl die wisselwerkende verband tussen tradisionele heling binne Afrikaspiritualiteite en die Christelike geloof in ag geneem word. Binne die Christelike konteks is dit die plaaslike kerk wat 'n deurslaggewende rol in die verwerking van smart kan speel. Dit is ook hier waar die filter tussen 'n Christelike praktyk en ander kulturele praktyke plaasvind ten einde die verwerking van smart optimaal toe te pas. 'n Dergelike sirkelverband is noodsaaklik om te voorkom dat Christene terugkeer na onaanvaarbare kulturele praktyke van smartverwerking binne 'n pluralistiese samelewing. Die model wat voorgestel word, is inklusief en sluit die offisiele amp sowel as die amp van gelowiges in. 'n Inklusiewe benadering versprei die verantwoordelikheid van pastorale betrokkenheid en skep 'n omgee-gemeenskap waar die verskeidenheid van gawes en talente ge'inkorporeer word. <![CDATA[<b>Types of questions in 1 Corinthians 7-8 and 10:1-11:1</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100061&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en 1 Korintiers 7-8 en 10:1-11:1 is deel van Paulus se antwoord op 'n brief wat hy van die Korintiers ontvang het (7:1). Die twee gedeeltes handel oor die huwelik en afgodery, meer spesifiek die eet van vleis in heidense tempels. In sy antwoord gebruik hy 'n aantal vrae wat in kommentare bloot as retoriese vrae beskryf word. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om hierdie vrae fyner te onderskei aan die hand van 'n model wat uit die taalhandelingsteorie ontwikkel is. Die model word kortliks opgesom, gevolg deur 'n sistematiese ondersoek van al die vrae in hierdie twee gedeeltes. Die gevolgtrekking is dat die noemer 'retoriese vraag' 'n oorvereenvoudiging is, wat nie reg laat geskied aan die wyse waarop Paulus verskillende soorte vrae gebruik om die impak van sy antwoord aan die Korintiers te verhoog nie. Deur die vrae te onderskei en binne 'n wetenskaplike raamwerk te beskryf, is ook 'n poging om 'n bydrae tot die vertaling en eksegese van die betrokke gedeeltes te lewer.<hr/>1 Corinthians 7-8 and 10:1-11:1 form part of Paul's response to a letter from the Corinthians, refered to in 7:1. These two sections deal with matters on marriage and idolatry, specifically that of eating meat in pagan temples. In Paul's response he uses a number of questions, which all commentaries simply describe as rhetorical questions. The purpose of this article is to distinguish these questions more clearly on the basis of a model, developed from speech act theory. The model is briefly summarised, followed by a systematic examination of all the questions in these two sections. The conclusion is that the denominator 'rhetorical question' is an oversimplification that does not do justice to the way in which Paul uses various types of questions to enhance the impact of his response to the Corinthians. By distinguishing and describing these questions within a scientific framework, an attempt was also made to contribute to the translation and exegesis of the passages involved. <![CDATA[<b>The view of Scripture according to feminist theologians, in particular that of Fiorenza, Brenner and Van Dijk-Hemmes</b> - <b>evaluated in the light of the reformed theology</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100062&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Dit wil voorkom asof die feministiese Skrifbeskouing op die beginsel van selektiewe Skrifgesag berus. Dit beteken dat slegs dié dele in die Bybel wat met die feministiese ideologie ooreenstem, as gesaghebbend aanvaar word. Dit is veral die sogenaamde androsentriese taalgebruik wat dit vir aanhangers van hierdie benadering moeilik maak om die hele Skrif as gesaghebbend te erken. Hermeneuties vertoon hierdie benadering groot ooreenkomste met die Postmodernisme, waarin geen vaste reëls bestaan om die betekenis van tekste te bepaal nie. Gesien in die lig van die gereformeerde teologie, soos veranker in die Woord en belydenisskrifte, vertoon die feministiese teologie ernstige leemtes. Die bydraes (Skrifbeskouing) van drie prominente feministiese teoloë - Fiorenza, Brenner en Van Dijk-Hemmes - word onder die loep geneem en teologies-krities geëvalueer ten einde hierdie leemtes uit te wys.<hr/>It appears that the feminist view of Scripture is based on the principle of selective authority of the Scriptures, which means that only the parts of the Bible corresponding with the feminist ideology are accepted as authoritative. The use of androcentric language, in particular, makes it difficult for followers of feminism to accept the whole Bible as authoritative. Hermeneutically, their approach resembles Postmodernism, interpreting without any rules. Viewed from the paradigm of the reformed theology, which is anchored in Scripture and the articles of faith, feminist theology shows serious shortfalls. The contributions of three prominent feminist theologians - Fiorenza, Brenner and Van Dijk-Hemmes - are studied closely and evaluated critically in the light of the reformed theology, to underline these shortfalls. <![CDATA[<b>Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa: A practical-theological response</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100063&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en On the 2012 Corruption Perceptions Index of Transparency International, 89.6% of Sub-Saharan African countries received scores below 50, where a score of zero signifies that the country is highly corrupt and a score of 100 declares a country free of corruption. From these results, it seems as if Sub-Saharan African countries are quite vulnerable to corruption. In this article, the question whether certain traits in the Sub-Saharan African culture such as communalism, gift giving and a shame culture could in some situations influence people's perception of, and their possible openness towards, certain forms of corruption was investigated. The research showed that cultural traits do influence people's behaviour and that there are certain traits in the Sub-Saharan African culture that might sanction corruption. In response to these findings, some preliminary suggestions were proposed as to how Christians living in Africa could evaluate their cultural practices in the light of God's Word and from a reformed theological paradigm. Instead of succumbing to the pressure posed by their culture to participate in immoral or corrupt activities, they could contribute to a moral regeneration on the African continent.<hr/>Volgens Transparency International se 2012-Corruption Perceptions Index het 89.6% van Afrikalande suid van die Sahara 'n telling van minder as 50 gekry, waar 'n telling van nul op hoe korrupsie dui en 'n telling van 100 aandui dat 'n land vry van korrupsie is. Hieruit blyk dat hierdie lande kwesbaar is vir korrupsie. In hierdie artikel word die moontlikheid ondersoek dat daar sekere eienskappe in die kultuur van hierdie lande is wat mense se persepsie van, en moontlike deelname aan, sekere vorme van korrupsie kan be'invloed. Aandag word aan aspekte soos kommunalisme, die gee van geskenke en 'n 'skandekultuur' gegee. Die navorsing toon dat kultuur wel mense se gedrag be'invloed en dat daar sekere eienskappe in die kultuur van Afrikalande suid van die Sahara is wat korrupsie kan versterk. Op grond van hierdie bevindinge word 'n paar voorlopige voorstelle gemaak oor hoe Christene wat in Afrika woon aspekte van hulle kultuur in die lig van God se Woord en vanuit 'n gereformeerde teologiese paradigma kan evalueer. In plaas daarvan om toe te gee aan die druk van hulle kultuur om aan immorele of korrupte aktiwiteite deel te neem, kan Christene tot 'n morele herlewing op die Afrika-kontinent bydra. <![CDATA[<b>Neutral or secularistic, humanistic and paganistic: The alternative religion of the West?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100064&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die soeke na neutraliteit in die wetenskapsbeoefening van die Weste het daartoe gelei dat 'n alternatiewe godsdiens na vore gekom het. Hierdie godsdiens is sekularisties, humanisties en paganisties. Die Christelike grondslae is verruil vir uitgangspunte wat die Christelike boodskap ondergrawe. Is daar 'n Christelike antwoord op die problematiek van die alternatiewe godsdiens wat in die Weste na vore kom? Die Christelike boodskap behoort 'n volledige en omvattende saak te wees. Wetenskap wat vanuit 'n Christelike geloofsperspektief beoefen word, behoort daarom onder andere die volgende aspekte te vertoon: 'n Verruimende perspektief van die erkenning van God, waarin die vryheid in Christus die ware vryheid tot die lewe is; ook medemenslikheid in die wetenskapsbeoefening vanuit die perspektief dat God die Een is wat in Jesus Christus die ware lewe gee. 'n Eskatologiese perspektief moet ook nie ontbreek nie. Die reformatoriese vernuwing van die samelewing en veral die wetenskap vereis die erkenning van Jesus Christus se lewensomvattende invloed en heerskappy. Hierdie apekte sal in die artikel bespreek word.<hr/>In search for neutrality in the scientific endeavour in the West an alternative religion was established. This religion is secularistic, humanistic and paganistic. Christian views in science and society were changed for views that in reality reject the Christian gospel. Is there a Christian reply to the deep problems of the alternative religion which presents itself in the West? The Christian message must be in total and encompassing. Science which is practiced from the perspective of faith should therefore, among others, have the following aspects: A broad perspective in acknowledging God in whom the freedom in Christ is the true freedom for life; and also a respect for humanity in the practice of science from the perspective that God is the One who in Jesus Christ gives true life. There must also be an eschatological perspective. Reformational renewal of the community and especially in science requires the acknowledgement of Jesus Christ's life-changing influence and rule. These aspects will receive attention in the article. <![CDATA[<b>The goal of Christian virtue ethics: From ontological foundation and covenant relationship to the Kingdom of God</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100065&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examined what constitutes Christian virtue ethics and its goal of highest human good. Christian virtue is a reality that is ontologically rooted in the grace of God through the atonement of Christ to envision the final good of creation. This view is drawn on the tripartite division of faith, hope and love as well as Paul Tillich's ontological focus on the acclaimed quality of the virtue of love in relation to, and unity with, the virtues of power and justice as the ultimate reality in the divine ground for human existence. Christian believers must reunite the virtues which are received from God and by which Christians transformed in reality as new beings in the pursuit of the supreme goodness. Michael Horton's covenantal model revealed a human being's encounter with God, not only meeting, but recognising a stranger (a genuine 'otherness') under a covenant that was initiated by the grace of God with an awareness of his presence that was always immanent. A covenantal approach is used to describe the divine 'presence' and 'absence' as ethical and relational in getting the right conception and direction for our purpose from God. It also deals with the question of how our moral life is related to God and fellow humans toward the final goodness which is the highest good of the Kingdom of God. This article concluded with the coming rule of God's imminent Kingdom as the true ultimate end of human beings and the eschatological fulfilment of humanity in goodness. The emphasis of the eschatological ethics lays on the theocentric futurity of the Kingdom directing Christians to the goal of the ultimate ideal and shaping the present existence of a Christian life.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Christelike deugde-etiek en die doelwit van die hoogste menslike heil. Christelike deug is 'n realiteitsontologie wat veranker is in God se genade deur die versoening van Christus om sodoende die uiteindelike heil van die skepping te visualiseer. Die siening is gebaseer op die drieledige verdeling van geloof, hoop en liefde. Verder is dit gebaseer op Paul Tillich se ontologiese fokus op die prysenswaardige deug van liefde in verhouding en in eenheid met die deugde van mag en geregtigheid as die uiteindelike realiteit van die mens se bestaan. Christen-gelowiges moet die deugde wat hulle van God ontvang en waardeur hulle vernuwe word, versoen met die realiteit as nuwe wesens wat na die hoogste heil soek. Michael Horton se verbondsmodel wys dat die menslike konfrontasie met God nie net 'n ontmoeting is nie, maar ook die herkenning van 'n vreemdeling, 'n gans Andere, binne 'n verbond wat deur die genade van God gei'nisieer word. Daar bly 'n bewustheid van sy teenwoordigheid wat altyd immanent is. 'n Verbondsbenadering beskryf die goddelike 'teenwoordigheid' en 'afwesigheid' as eties en relasioneel tot die verkryging van die regte verstaan van God self. Die verbondsbenadering gee ook 'n begrip van hoe ons morele lewe tot God en ons medemens verbind is tot die finale heil wat uiteindelik die heil van die Koninkryk van God inhou. Die artikel sluit af met die toekomstige regering van God se immanente Koninkryk as die ware uiteinde van die mens en die eskatologiese verwesenliking van goedheid. Die klem van eskatologiese etiek le in die teosentriese toekomsgerigtheid van die Koninkryk - wat vir Christene die rigting na die doel van die uiteindelike ideaal aandui en wat die huidige bestaan van 'n Christen bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>'n Werkswyse tot sinvolle stiltetyd</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100066&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examined what constitutes Christian virtue ethics and its goal of highest human good. Christian virtue is a reality that is ontologically rooted in the grace of God through the atonement of Christ to envision the final good of creation. This view is drawn on the tripartite division of faith, hope and love as well as Paul Tillich's ontological focus on the acclaimed quality of the virtue of love in relation to, and unity with, the virtues of power and justice as the ultimate reality in the divine ground for human existence. Christian believers must reunite the virtues which are received from God and by which Christians transformed in reality as new beings in the pursuit of the supreme goodness. Michael Horton's covenantal model revealed a human being's encounter with God, not only meeting, but recognising a stranger (a genuine 'otherness') under a covenant that was initiated by the grace of God with an awareness of his presence that was always immanent. A covenantal approach is used to describe the divine 'presence' and 'absence' as ethical and relational in getting the right conception and direction for our purpose from God. It also deals with the question of how our moral life is related to God and fellow humans toward the final goodness which is the highest good of the Kingdom of God. This article concluded with the coming rule of God's imminent Kingdom as the true ultimate end of human beings and the eschatological fulfilment of humanity in goodness. The emphasis of the eschatological ethics lays on the theocentric futurity of the Kingdom directing Christians to the goal of the ultimate ideal and shaping the present existence of a Christian life.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Christelike deugde-etiek en die doelwit van die hoogste menslike heil. Christelike deug is 'n realiteitsontologie wat veranker is in God se genade deur die versoening van Christus om sodoende die uiteindelike heil van die skepping te visualiseer. Die siening is gebaseer op die drieledige verdeling van geloof, hoop en liefde. Verder is dit gebaseer op Paul Tillich se ontologiese fokus op die prysenswaardige deug van liefde in verhouding en in eenheid met die deugde van mag en geregtigheid as die uiteindelike realiteit van die mens se bestaan. Christen-gelowiges moet die deugde wat hulle van God ontvang en waardeur hulle vernuwe word, versoen met die realiteit as nuwe wesens wat na die hoogste heil soek. Michael Horton se verbondsmodel wys dat die menslike konfrontasie met God nie net 'n ontmoeting is nie, maar ook die herkenning van 'n vreemdeling, 'n gans Andere, binne 'n verbond wat deur die genade van God gei'nisieer word. Daar bly 'n bewustheid van sy teenwoordigheid wat altyd immanent is. 'n Verbondsbenadering beskryf die goddelike 'teenwoordigheid' en 'afwesigheid' as eties en relasioneel tot die verkryging van die regte verstaan van God self. Die verbondsbenadering gee ook 'n begrip van hoe ons morele lewe tot God en ons medemens verbind is tot die finale heil wat uiteindelik die heil van die Koninkryk van God inhou. Die artikel sluit af met die toekomstige regering van God se immanente Koninkryk as die ware uiteinde van die mens en die eskatologiese verwesenliking van goedheid. Die klem van eskatologiese etiek le in die teosentriese toekomsgerigtheid van die Koninkryk - wat vir Christene die rigting na die doel van die uiteindelike ideaal aandui en wat die huidige bestaan van 'n Christen bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>Openhartige beoordeling van die <i>Emerging Church</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100067&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examined what constitutes Christian virtue ethics and its goal of highest human good. Christian virtue is a reality that is ontologically rooted in the grace of God through the atonement of Christ to envision the final good of creation. This view is drawn on the tripartite division of faith, hope and love as well as Paul Tillich's ontological focus on the acclaimed quality of the virtue of love in relation to, and unity with, the virtues of power and justice as the ultimate reality in the divine ground for human existence. Christian believers must reunite the virtues which are received from God and by which Christians transformed in reality as new beings in the pursuit of the supreme goodness. Michael Horton's covenantal model revealed a human being's encounter with God, not only meeting, but recognising a stranger (a genuine 'otherness') under a covenant that was initiated by the grace of God with an awareness of his presence that was always immanent. A covenantal approach is used to describe the divine 'presence' and 'absence' as ethical and relational in getting the right conception and direction for our purpose from God. It also deals with the question of how our moral life is related to God and fellow humans toward the final goodness which is the highest good of the Kingdom of God. This article concluded with the coming rule of God's imminent Kingdom as the true ultimate end of human beings and the eschatological fulfilment of humanity in goodness. The emphasis of the eschatological ethics lays on the theocentric futurity of the Kingdom directing Christians to the goal of the ultimate ideal and shaping the present existence of a Christian life.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Christelike deugde-etiek en die doelwit van die hoogste menslike heil. Christelike deug is 'n realiteitsontologie wat veranker is in God se genade deur die versoening van Christus om sodoende die uiteindelike heil van die skepping te visualiseer. Die siening is gebaseer op die drieledige verdeling van geloof, hoop en liefde. Verder is dit gebaseer op Paul Tillich se ontologiese fokus op die prysenswaardige deug van liefde in verhouding en in eenheid met die deugde van mag en geregtigheid as die uiteindelike realiteit van die mens se bestaan. Christen-gelowiges moet die deugde wat hulle van God ontvang en waardeur hulle vernuwe word, versoen met die realiteit as nuwe wesens wat na die hoogste heil soek. Michael Horton se verbondsmodel wys dat die menslike konfrontasie met God nie net 'n ontmoeting is nie, maar ook die herkenning van 'n vreemdeling, 'n gans Andere, binne 'n verbond wat deur die genade van God gei'nisieer word. Daar bly 'n bewustheid van sy teenwoordigheid wat altyd immanent is. 'n Verbondsbenadering beskryf die goddelike 'teenwoordigheid' en 'afwesigheid' as eties en relasioneel tot die verkryging van die regte verstaan van God self. Die verbondsbenadering gee ook 'n begrip van hoe ons morele lewe tot God en ons medemens verbind is tot die finale heil wat uiteindelik die heil van die Koninkryk van God inhou. Die artikel sluit af met die toekomstige regering van God se immanente Koninkryk as die ware uiteinde van die mens en die eskatologiese verwesenliking van goedheid. Die klem van eskatologiese etiek le in die teosentriese toekomsgerigtheid van die Koninkryk - wat vir Christene die rigting na die doel van die uiteindelike ideaal aandui en wat die huidige bestaan van 'n Christen bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>'n Nuttige gids om werklik soos 'n bevryde te leef</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100068&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examined what constitutes Christian virtue ethics and its goal of highest human good. Christian virtue is a reality that is ontologically rooted in the grace of God through the atonement of Christ to envision the final good of creation. This view is drawn on the tripartite division of faith, hope and love as well as Paul Tillich's ontological focus on the acclaimed quality of the virtue of love in relation to, and unity with, the virtues of power and justice as the ultimate reality in the divine ground for human existence. Christian believers must reunite the virtues which are received from God and by which Christians transformed in reality as new beings in the pursuit of the supreme goodness. Michael Horton's covenantal model revealed a human being's encounter with God, not only meeting, but recognising a stranger (a genuine 'otherness') under a covenant that was initiated by the grace of God with an awareness of his presence that was always immanent. A covenantal approach is used to describe the divine 'presence' and 'absence' as ethical and relational in getting the right conception and direction for our purpose from God. It also deals with the question of how our moral life is related to God and fellow humans toward the final goodness which is the highest good of the Kingdom of God. This article concluded with the coming rule of God's imminent Kingdom as the true ultimate end of human beings and the eschatological fulfilment of humanity in goodness. The emphasis of the eschatological ethics lays on the theocentric futurity of the Kingdom directing Christians to the goal of the ultimate ideal and shaping the present existence of a Christian life.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Christelike deugde-etiek en die doelwit van die hoogste menslike heil. Christelike deug is 'n realiteitsontologie wat veranker is in God se genade deur die versoening van Christus om sodoende die uiteindelike heil van die skepping te visualiseer. Die siening is gebaseer op die drieledige verdeling van geloof, hoop en liefde. Verder is dit gebaseer op Paul Tillich se ontologiese fokus op die prysenswaardige deug van liefde in verhouding en in eenheid met die deugde van mag en geregtigheid as die uiteindelike realiteit van die mens se bestaan. Christen-gelowiges moet die deugde wat hulle van God ontvang en waardeur hulle vernuwe word, versoen met die realiteit as nuwe wesens wat na die hoogste heil soek. Michael Horton se verbondsmodel wys dat die menslike konfrontasie met God nie net 'n ontmoeting is nie, maar ook die herkenning van 'n vreemdeling, 'n gans Andere, binne 'n verbond wat deur die genade van God gei'nisieer word. Daar bly 'n bewustheid van sy teenwoordigheid wat altyd immanent is. 'n Verbondsbenadering beskryf die goddelike 'teenwoordigheid' en 'afwesigheid' as eties en relasioneel tot die verkryging van die regte verstaan van God self. Die verbondsbenadering gee ook 'n begrip van hoe ons morele lewe tot God en ons medemens verbind is tot die finale heil wat uiteindelik die heil van die Koninkryk van God inhou. Die artikel sluit af met die toekomstige regering van God se immanente Koninkryk as die ware uiteinde van die mens en die eskatologiese verwesenliking van goedheid. Die klem van eskatologiese etiek le in die teosentriese toekomsgerigtheid van die Koninkryk - wat vir Christene die rigting na die doel van die uiteindelike ideaal aandui en wat die huidige bestaan van 'n Christen bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>Gelowiges wat vrae vra</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100069&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examined what constitutes Christian virtue ethics and its goal of highest human good. Christian virtue is a reality that is ontologically rooted in the grace of God through the atonement of Christ to envision the final good of creation. This view is drawn on the tripartite division of faith, hope and love as well as Paul Tillich's ontological focus on the acclaimed quality of the virtue of love in relation to, and unity with, the virtues of power and justice as the ultimate reality in the divine ground for human existence. Christian believers must reunite the virtues which are received from God and by which Christians transformed in reality as new beings in the pursuit of the supreme goodness. Michael Horton's covenantal model revealed a human being's encounter with God, not only meeting, but recognising a stranger (a genuine 'otherness') under a covenant that was initiated by the grace of God with an awareness of his presence that was always immanent. A covenantal approach is used to describe the divine 'presence' and 'absence' as ethical and relational in getting the right conception and direction for our purpose from God. It also deals with the question of how our moral life is related to God and fellow humans toward the final goodness which is the highest good of the Kingdom of God. This article concluded with the coming rule of God's imminent Kingdom as the true ultimate end of human beings and the eschatological fulfilment of humanity in goodness. The emphasis of the eschatological ethics lays on the theocentric futurity of the Kingdom directing Christians to the goal of the ultimate ideal and shaping the present existence of a Christian life.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Christelike deugde-etiek en die doelwit van die hoogste menslike heil. Christelike deug is 'n realiteitsontologie wat veranker is in God se genade deur die versoening van Christus om sodoende die uiteindelike heil van die skepping te visualiseer. Die siening is gebaseer op die drieledige verdeling van geloof, hoop en liefde. Verder is dit gebaseer op Paul Tillich se ontologiese fokus op die prysenswaardige deug van liefde in verhouding en in eenheid met die deugde van mag en geregtigheid as die uiteindelike realiteit van die mens se bestaan. Christen-gelowiges moet die deugde wat hulle van God ontvang en waardeur hulle vernuwe word, versoen met die realiteit as nuwe wesens wat na die hoogste heil soek. Michael Horton se verbondsmodel wys dat die menslike konfrontasie met God nie net 'n ontmoeting is nie, maar ook die herkenning van 'n vreemdeling, 'n gans Andere, binne 'n verbond wat deur die genade van God gei'nisieer word. Daar bly 'n bewustheid van sy teenwoordigheid wat altyd immanent is. 'n Verbondsbenadering beskryf die goddelike 'teenwoordigheid' en 'afwesigheid' as eties en relasioneel tot die verkryging van die regte verstaan van God self. Die verbondsbenadering gee ook 'n begrip van hoe ons morele lewe tot God en ons medemens verbind is tot die finale heil wat uiteindelik die heil van die Koninkryk van God inhou. Die artikel sluit af met die toekomstige regering van God se immanente Koninkryk as die ware uiteinde van die mens en die eskatologiese verwesenliking van goedheid. Die klem van eskatologiese etiek le in die teosentriese toekomsgerigtheid van die Koninkryk - wat vir Christene die rigting na die doel van die uiteindelike ideaal aandui en wat die huidige bestaan van 'n Christen bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>38 Dagreise in die spiritualiteit van die Johannes-evangelie</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100070&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examined what constitutes Christian virtue ethics and its goal of highest human good. Christian virtue is a reality that is ontologically rooted in the grace of God through the atonement of Christ to envision the final good of creation. This view is drawn on the tripartite division of faith, hope and love as well as Paul Tillich's ontological focus on the acclaimed quality of the virtue of love in relation to, and unity with, the virtues of power and justice as the ultimate reality in the divine ground for human existence. Christian believers must reunite the virtues which are received from God and by which Christians transformed in reality as new beings in the pursuit of the supreme goodness. Michael Horton's covenantal model revealed a human being's encounter with God, not only meeting, but recognising a stranger (a genuine 'otherness') under a covenant that was initiated by the grace of God with an awareness of his presence that was always immanent. A covenantal approach is used to describe the divine 'presence' and 'absence' as ethical and relational in getting the right conception and direction for our purpose from God. It also deals with the question of how our moral life is related to God and fellow humans toward the final goodness which is the highest good of the Kingdom of God. This article concluded with the coming rule of God's imminent Kingdom as the true ultimate end of human beings and the eschatological fulfilment of humanity in goodness. The emphasis of the eschatological ethics lays on the theocentric futurity of the Kingdom directing Christians to the goal of the ultimate ideal and shaping the present existence of a Christian life.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Christelike deugde-etiek en die doelwit van die hoogste menslike heil. Christelike deug is 'n realiteitsontologie wat veranker is in God se genade deur die versoening van Christus om sodoende die uiteindelike heil van die skepping te visualiseer. Die siening is gebaseer op die drieledige verdeling van geloof, hoop en liefde. Verder is dit gebaseer op Paul Tillich se ontologiese fokus op die prysenswaardige deug van liefde in verhouding en in eenheid met die deugde van mag en geregtigheid as die uiteindelike realiteit van die mens se bestaan. Christen-gelowiges moet die deugde wat hulle van God ontvang en waardeur hulle vernuwe word, versoen met die realiteit as nuwe wesens wat na die hoogste heil soek. Michael Horton se verbondsmodel wys dat die menslike konfrontasie met God nie net 'n ontmoeting is nie, maar ook die herkenning van 'n vreemdeling, 'n gans Andere, binne 'n verbond wat deur die genade van God gei'nisieer word. Daar bly 'n bewustheid van sy teenwoordigheid wat altyd immanent is. 'n Verbondsbenadering beskryf die goddelike 'teenwoordigheid' en 'afwesigheid' as eties en relasioneel tot die verkryging van die regte verstaan van God self. Die verbondsbenadering gee ook 'n begrip van hoe ons morele lewe tot God en ons medemens verbind is tot die finale heil wat uiteindelik die heil van die Koninkryk van God inhou. Die artikel sluit af met die toekomstige regering van God se immanente Koninkryk as die ware uiteinde van die mens en die eskatologiese verwesenliking van goedheid. Die klem van eskatologiese etiek le in die teosentriese toekomsgerigtheid van die Koninkryk - wat vir Christene die rigting na die doel van die uiteindelike ideaal aandui en wat die huidige bestaan van 'n Christen bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>Splinternuut deur God se genade</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100071&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examined what constitutes Christian virtue ethics and its goal of highest human good. Christian virtue is a reality that is ontologically rooted in the grace of God through the atonement of Christ to envision the final good of creation. This view is drawn on the tripartite division of faith, hope and love as well as Paul Tillich's ontological focus on the acclaimed quality of the virtue of love in relation to, and unity with, the virtues of power and justice as the ultimate reality in the divine ground for human existence. Christian believers must reunite the virtues which are received from God and by which Christians transformed in reality as new beings in the pursuit of the supreme goodness. Michael Horton's covenantal model revealed a human being's encounter with God, not only meeting, but recognising a stranger (a genuine 'otherness') under a covenant that was initiated by the grace of God with an awareness of his presence that was always immanent. A covenantal approach is used to describe the divine 'presence' and 'absence' as ethical and relational in getting the right conception and direction for our purpose from God. It also deals with the question of how our moral life is related to God and fellow humans toward the final goodness which is the highest good of the Kingdom of God. This article concluded with the coming rule of God's imminent Kingdom as the true ultimate end of human beings and the eschatological fulfilment of humanity in goodness. The emphasis of the eschatological ethics lays on the theocentric futurity of the Kingdom directing Christians to the goal of the ultimate ideal and shaping the present existence of a Christian life.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Christelike deugde-etiek en die doelwit van die hoogste menslike heil. Christelike deug is 'n realiteitsontologie wat veranker is in God se genade deur die versoening van Christus om sodoende die uiteindelike heil van die skepping te visualiseer. Die siening is gebaseer op die drieledige verdeling van geloof, hoop en liefde. Verder is dit gebaseer op Paul Tillich se ontologiese fokus op die prysenswaardige deug van liefde in verhouding en in eenheid met die deugde van mag en geregtigheid as die uiteindelike realiteit van die mens se bestaan. Christen-gelowiges moet die deugde wat hulle van God ontvang en waardeur hulle vernuwe word, versoen met die realiteit as nuwe wesens wat na die hoogste heil soek. Michael Horton se verbondsmodel wys dat die menslike konfrontasie met God nie net 'n ontmoeting is nie, maar ook die herkenning van 'n vreemdeling, 'n gans Andere, binne 'n verbond wat deur die genade van God gei'nisieer word. Daar bly 'n bewustheid van sy teenwoordigheid wat altyd immanent is. 'n Verbondsbenadering beskryf die goddelike 'teenwoordigheid' en 'afwesigheid' as eties en relasioneel tot die verkryging van die regte verstaan van God self. Die verbondsbenadering gee ook 'n begrip van hoe ons morele lewe tot God en ons medemens verbind is tot die finale heil wat uiteindelik die heil van die Koninkryk van God inhou. Die artikel sluit af met die toekomstige regering van God se immanente Koninkryk as die ware uiteinde van die mens en die eskatologiese verwesenliking van goedheid. Die klem van eskatologiese etiek le in die teosentriese toekomsgerigtheid van die Koninkryk - wat vir Christene die rigting na die doel van die uiteindelike ideaal aandui en wat die huidige bestaan van 'n Christen bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>'n Nuwe boek met nuwe perspektief op die preekvoorbereidingsproses</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100072&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examined what constitutes Christian virtue ethics and its goal of highest human good. Christian virtue is a reality that is ontologically rooted in the grace of God through the atonement of Christ to envision the final good of creation. This view is drawn on the tripartite division of faith, hope and love as well as Paul Tillich's ontological focus on the acclaimed quality of the virtue of love in relation to, and unity with, the virtues of power and justice as the ultimate reality in the divine ground for human existence. Christian believers must reunite the virtues which are received from God and by which Christians transformed in reality as new beings in the pursuit of the supreme goodness. Michael Horton's covenantal model revealed a human being's encounter with God, not only meeting, but recognising a stranger (a genuine 'otherness') under a covenant that was initiated by the grace of God with an awareness of his presence that was always immanent. A covenantal approach is used to describe the divine 'presence' and 'absence' as ethical and relational in getting the right conception and direction for our purpose from God. It also deals with the question of how our moral life is related to God and fellow humans toward the final goodness which is the highest good of the Kingdom of God. This article concluded with the coming rule of God's imminent Kingdom as the true ultimate end of human beings and the eschatological fulfilment of humanity in goodness. The emphasis of the eschatological ethics lays on the theocentric futurity of the Kingdom directing Christians to the goal of the ultimate ideal and shaping the present existence of a Christian life.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Christelike deugde-etiek en die doelwit van die hoogste menslike heil. Christelike deug is 'n realiteitsontologie wat veranker is in God se genade deur die versoening van Christus om sodoende die uiteindelike heil van die skepping te visualiseer. Die siening is gebaseer op die drieledige verdeling van geloof, hoop en liefde. Verder is dit gebaseer op Paul Tillich se ontologiese fokus op die prysenswaardige deug van liefde in verhouding en in eenheid met die deugde van mag en geregtigheid as die uiteindelike realiteit van die mens se bestaan. Christen-gelowiges moet die deugde wat hulle van God ontvang en waardeur hulle vernuwe word, versoen met die realiteit as nuwe wesens wat na die hoogste heil soek. Michael Horton se verbondsmodel wys dat die menslike konfrontasie met God nie net 'n ontmoeting is nie, maar ook die herkenning van 'n vreemdeling, 'n gans Andere, binne 'n verbond wat deur die genade van God gei'nisieer word. Daar bly 'n bewustheid van sy teenwoordigheid wat altyd immanent is. 'n Verbondsbenadering beskryf die goddelike 'teenwoordigheid' en 'afwesigheid' as eties en relasioneel tot die verkryging van die regte verstaan van God self. Die verbondsbenadering gee ook 'n begrip van hoe ons morele lewe tot God en ons medemens verbind is tot die finale heil wat uiteindelik die heil van die Koninkryk van God inhou. Die artikel sluit af met die toekomstige regering van God se immanente Koninkryk as die ware uiteinde van die mens en die eskatologiese verwesenliking van goedheid. Die klem van eskatologiese etiek le in die teosentriese toekomsgerigtheid van die Koninkryk - wat vir Christene die rigting na die doel van die uiteindelike ideaal aandui en wat die huidige bestaan van 'n Christen bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>'n Verstaan van God vir opbouende vernuwers - aldus Adrio König se teologie</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100073&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examined what constitutes Christian virtue ethics and its goal of highest human good. Christian virtue is a reality that is ontologically rooted in the grace of God through the atonement of Christ to envision the final good of creation. This view is drawn on the tripartite division of faith, hope and love as well as Paul Tillich's ontological focus on the acclaimed quality of the virtue of love in relation to, and unity with, the virtues of power and justice as the ultimate reality in the divine ground for human existence. Christian believers must reunite the virtues which are received from God and by which Christians transformed in reality as new beings in the pursuit of the supreme goodness. Michael Horton's covenantal model revealed a human being's encounter with God, not only meeting, but recognising a stranger (a genuine 'otherness') under a covenant that was initiated by the grace of God with an awareness of his presence that was always immanent. A covenantal approach is used to describe the divine 'presence' and 'absence' as ethical and relational in getting the right conception and direction for our purpose from God. It also deals with the question of how our moral life is related to God and fellow humans toward the final goodness which is the highest good of the Kingdom of God. This article concluded with the coming rule of God's imminent Kingdom as the true ultimate end of human beings and the eschatological fulfilment of humanity in goodness. The emphasis of the eschatological ethics lays on the theocentric futurity of the Kingdom directing Christians to the goal of the ultimate ideal and shaping the present existence of a Christian life.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Christelike deugde-etiek en die doelwit van die hoogste menslike heil. Christelike deug is 'n realiteitsontologie wat veranker is in God se genade deur die versoening van Christus om sodoende die uiteindelike heil van die skepping te visualiseer. Die siening is gebaseer op die drieledige verdeling van geloof, hoop en liefde. Verder is dit gebaseer op Paul Tillich se ontologiese fokus op die prysenswaardige deug van liefde in verhouding en in eenheid met die deugde van mag en geregtigheid as die uiteindelike realiteit van die mens se bestaan. Christen-gelowiges moet die deugde wat hulle van God ontvang en waardeur hulle vernuwe word, versoen met die realiteit as nuwe wesens wat na die hoogste heil soek. Michael Horton se verbondsmodel wys dat die menslike konfrontasie met God nie net 'n ontmoeting is nie, maar ook die herkenning van 'n vreemdeling, 'n gans Andere, binne 'n verbond wat deur die genade van God gei'nisieer word. Daar bly 'n bewustheid van sy teenwoordigheid wat altyd immanent is. 'n Verbondsbenadering beskryf die goddelike 'teenwoordigheid' en 'afwesigheid' as eties en relasioneel tot die verkryging van die regte verstaan van God self. Die verbondsbenadering gee ook 'n begrip van hoe ons morele lewe tot God en ons medemens verbind is tot die finale heil wat uiteindelik die heil van die Koninkryk van God inhou. Die artikel sluit af met die toekomstige regering van God se immanente Koninkryk as die ware uiteinde van die mens en die eskatologiese verwesenliking van goedheid. Die klem van eskatologiese etiek le in die teosentriese toekomsgerigtheid van die Koninkryk - wat vir Christene die rigting na die doel van die uiteindelike ideaal aandui en wat die huidige bestaan van 'n Christen bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>Om in God te glo</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100074&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examined what constitutes Christian virtue ethics and its goal of highest human good. Christian virtue is a reality that is ontologically rooted in the grace of God through the atonement of Christ to envision the final good of creation. This view is drawn on the tripartite division of faith, hope and love as well as Paul Tillich's ontological focus on the acclaimed quality of the virtue of love in relation to, and unity with, the virtues of power and justice as the ultimate reality in the divine ground for human existence. Christian believers must reunite the virtues which are received from God and by which Christians transformed in reality as new beings in the pursuit of the supreme goodness. Michael Horton's covenantal model revealed a human being's encounter with God, not only meeting, but recognising a stranger (a genuine 'otherness') under a covenant that was initiated by the grace of God with an awareness of his presence that was always immanent. A covenantal approach is used to describe the divine 'presence' and 'absence' as ethical and relational in getting the right conception and direction for our purpose from God. It also deals with the question of how our moral life is related to God and fellow humans toward the final goodness which is the highest good of the Kingdom of God. This article concluded with the coming rule of God's imminent Kingdom as the true ultimate end of human beings and the eschatological fulfilment of humanity in goodness. The emphasis of the eschatological ethics lays on the theocentric futurity of the Kingdom directing Christians to the goal of the ultimate ideal and shaping the present existence of a Christian life.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Christelike deugde-etiek en die doelwit van die hoogste menslike heil. Christelike deug is 'n realiteitsontologie wat veranker is in God se genade deur die versoening van Christus om sodoende die uiteindelike heil van die skepping te visualiseer. Die siening is gebaseer op die drieledige verdeling van geloof, hoop en liefde. Verder is dit gebaseer op Paul Tillich se ontologiese fokus op die prysenswaardige deug van liefde in verhouding en in eenheid met die deugde van mag en geregtigheid as die uiteindelike realiteit van die mens se bestaan. Christen-gelowiges moet die deugde wat hulle van God ontvang en waardeur hulle vernuwe word, versoen met die realiteit as nuwe wesens wat na die hoogste heil soek. Michael Horton se verbondsmodel wys dat die menslike konfrontasie met God nie net 'n ontmoeting is nie, maar ook die herkenning van 'n vreemdeling, 'n gans Andere, binne 'n verbond wat deur die genade van God gei'nisieer word. Daar bly 'n bewustheid van sy teenwoordigheid wat altyd immanent is. 'n Verbondsbenadering beskryf die goddelike 'teenwoordigheid' en 'afwesigheid' as eties en relasioneel tot die verkryging van die regte verstaan van God self. Die verbondsbenadering gee ook 'n begrip van hoe ons morele lewe tot God en ons medemens verbind is tot die finale heil wat uiteindelik die heil van die Koninkryk van God inhou. Die artikel sluit af met die toekomstige regering van God se immanente Koninkryk as die ware uiteinde van die mens en die eskatologiese verwesenliking van goedheid. Die klem van eskatologiese etiek le in die teosentriese toekomsgerigtheid van die Koninkryk - wat vir Christene die rigting na die doel van die uiteindelike ideaal aandui en wat die huidige bestaan van 'n Christen bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>'n Uitdaging vir elkeen!</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100075&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examined what constitutes Christian virtue ethics and its goal of highest human good. Christian virtue is a reality that is ontologically rooted in the grace of God through the atonement of Christ to envision the final good of creation. This view is drawn on the tripartite division of faith, hope and love as well as Paul Tillich's ontological focus on the acclaimed quality of the virtue of love in relation to, and unity with, the virtues of power and justice as the ultimate reality in the divine ground for human existence. Christian believers must reunite the virtues which are received from God and by which Christians transformed in reality as new beings in the pursuit of the supreme goodness. Michael Horton's covenantal model revealed a human being's encounter with God, not only meeting, but recognising a stranger (a genuine 'otherness') under a covenant that was initiated by the grace of God with an awareness of his presence that was always immanent. A covenantal approach is used to describe the divine 'presence' and 'absence' as ethical and relational in getting the right conception and direction for our purpose from God. It also deals with the question of how our moral life is related to God and fellow humans toward the final goodness which is the highest good of the Kingdom of God. This article concluded with the coming rule of God's imminent Kingdom as the true ultimate end of human beings and the eschatological fulfilment of humanity in goodness. The emphasis of the eschatological ethics lays on the theocentric futurity of the Kingdom directing Christians to the goal of the ultimate ideal and shaping the present existence of a Christian life.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Christelike deugde-etiek en die doelwit van die hoogste menslike heil. Christelike deug is 'n realiteitsontologie wat veranker is in God se genade deur die versoening van Christus om sodoende die uiteindelike heil van die skepping te visualiseer. Die siening is gebaseer op die drieledige verdeling van geloof, hoop en liefde. Verder is dit gebaseer op Paul Tillich se ontologiese fokus op die prysenswaardige deug van liefde in verhouding en in eenheid met die deugde van mag en geregtigheid as die uiteindelike realiteit van die mens se bestaan. Christen-gelowiges moet die deugde wat hulle van God ontvang en waardeur hulle vernuwe word, versoen met die realiteit as nuwe wesens wat na die hoogste heil soek. Michael Horton se verbondsmodel wys dat die menslike konfrontasie met God nie net 'n ontmoeting is nie, maar ook die herkenning van 'n vreemdeling, 'n gans Andere, binne 'n verbond wat deur die genade van God gei'nisieer word. Daar bly 'n bewustheid van sy teenwoordigheid wat altyd immanent is. 'n Verbondsbenadering beskryf die goddelike 'teenwoordigheid' en 'afwesigheid' as eties en relasioneel tot die verkryging van die regte verstaan van God self. Die verbondsbenadering gee ook 'n begrip van hoe ons morele lewe tot God en ons medemens verbind is tot die finale heil wat uiteindelik die heil van die Koninkryk van God inhou. Die artikel sluit af met die toekomstige regering van God se immanente Koninkryk as die ware uiteinde van die mens en die eskatologiese verwesenliking van goedheid. Die klem van eskatologiese etiek le in die teosentriese toekomsgerigtheid van die Koninkryk - wat vir Christene die rigting na die doel van die uiteindelike ideaal aandui en wat die huidige bestaan van 'n Christen bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>Breekpuntervarings is geloofservarings</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100076&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examined what constitutes Christian virtue ethics and its goal of highest human good. Christian virtue is a reality that is ontologically rooted in the grace of God through the atonement of Christ to envision the final good of creation. This view is drawn on the tripartite division of faith, hope and love as well as Paul Tillich's ontological focus on the acclaimed quality of the virtue of love in relation to, and unity with, the virtues of power and justice as the ultimate reality in the divine ground for human existence. Christian believers must reunite the virtues which are received from God and by which Christians transformed in reality as new beings in the pursuit of the supreme goodness. Michael Horton's covenantal model revealed a human being's encounter with God, not only meeting, but recognising a stranger (a genuine 'otherness') under a covenant that was initiated by the grace of God with an awareness of his presence that was always immanent. A covenantal approach is used to describe the divine 'presence' and 'absence' as ethical and relational in getting the right conception and direction for our purpose from God. It also deals with the question of how our moral life is related to God and fellow humans toward the final goodness which is the highest good of the Kingdom of God. This article concluded with the coming rule of God's imminent Kingdom as the true ultimate end of human beings and the eschatological fulfilment of humanity in goodness. The emphasis of the eschatological ethics lays on the theocentric futurity of the Kingdom directing Christians to the goal of the ultimate ideal and shaping the present existence of a Christian life.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Christelike deugde-etiek en die doelwit van die hoogste menslike heil. Christelike deug is 'n realiteitsontologie wat veranker is in God se genade deur die versoening van Christus om sodoende die uiteindelike heil van die skepping te visualiseer. Die siening is gebaseer op die drieledige verdeling van geloof, hoop en liefde. Verder is dit gebaseer op Paul Tillich se ontologiese fokus op die prysenswaardige deug van liefde in verhouding en in eenheid met die deugde van mag en geregtigheid as die uiteindelike realiteit van die mens se bestaan. Christen-gelowiges moet die deugde wat hulle van God ontvang en waardeur hulle vernuwe word, versoen met die realiteit as nuwe wesens wat na die hoogste heil soek. Michael Horton se verbondsmodel wys dat die menslike konfrontasie met God nie net 'n ontmoeting is nie, maar ook die herkenning van 'n vreemdeling, 'n gans Andere, binne 'n verbond wat deur die genade van God gei'nisieer word. Daar bly 'n bewustheid van sy teenwoordigheid wat altyd immanent is. 'n Verbondsbenadering beskryf die goddelike 'teenwoordigheid' en 'afwesigheid' as eties en relasioneel tot die verkryging van die regte verstaan van God self. Die verbondsbenadering gee ook 'n begrip van hoe ons morele lewe tot God en ons medemens verbind is tot die finale heil wat uiteindelik die heil van die Koninkryk van God inhou. Die artikel sluit af met die toekomstige regering van God se immanente Koninkryk as die ware uiteinde van die mens en die eskatologiese verwesenliking van goedheid. Die klem van eskatologiese etiek le in die teosentriese toekomsgerigtheid van die Koninkryk - wat vir Christene die rigting na die doel van die uiteindelike ideaal aandui en wat die huidige bestaan van 'n Christen bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>Leef 'n lewe met koninkryksimpak</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100077&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examined what constitutes Christian virtue ethics and its goal of highest human good. Christian virtue is a reality that is ontologically rooted in the grace of God through the atonement of Christ to envision the final good of creation. This view is drawn on the tripartite division of faith, hope and love as well as Paul Tillich's ontological focus on the acclaimed quality of the virtue of love in relation to, and unity with, the virtues of power and justice as the ultimate reality in the divine ground for human existence. Christian believers must reunite the virtues which are received from God and by which Christians transformed in reality as new beings in the pursuit of the supreme goodness. Michael Horton's covenantal model revealed a human being's encounter with God, not only meeting, but recognising a stranger (a genuine 'otherness') under a covenant that was initiated by the grace of God with an awareness of his presence that was always immanent. A covenantal approach is used to describe the divine 'presence' and 'absence' as ethical and relational in getting the right conception and direction for our purpose from God. It also deals with the question of how our moral life is related to God and fellow humans toward the final goodness which is the highest good of the Kingdom of God. This article concluded with the coming rule of God's imminent Kingdom as the true ultimate end of human beings and the eschatological fulfilment of humanity in goodness. The emphasis of the eschatological ethics lays on the theocentric futurity of the Kingdom directing Christians to the goal of the ultimate ideal and shaping the present existence of a Christian life.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Christelike deugde-etiek en die doelwit van die hoogste menslike heil. Christelike deug is 'n realiteitsontologie wat veranker is in God se genade deur die versoening van Christus om sodoende die uiteindelike heil van die skepping te visualiseer. Die siening is gebaseer op die drieledige verdeling van geloof, hoop en liefde. Verder is dit gebaseer op Paul Tillich se ontologiese fokus op die prysenswaardige deug van liefde in verhouding en in eenheid met die deugde van mag en geregtigheid as die uiteindelike realiteit van die mens se bestaan. Christen-gelowiges moet die deugde wat hulle van God ontvang en waardeur hulle vernuwe word, versoen met die realiteit as nuwe wesens wat na die hoogste heil soek. Michael Horton se verbondsmodel wys dat die menslike konfrontasie met God nie net 'n ontmoeting is nie, maar ook die herkenning van 'n vreemdeling, 'n gans Andere, binne 'n verbond wat deur die genade van God gei'nisieer word. Daar bly 'n bewustheid van sy teenwoordigheid wat altyd immanent is. 'n Verbondsbenadering beskryf die goddelike 'teenwoordigheid' en 'afwesigheid' as eties en relasioneel tot die verkryging van die regte verstaan van God self. Die verbondsbenadering gee ook 'n begrip van hoe ons morele lewe tot God en ons medemens verbind is tot die finale heil wat uiteindelik die heil van die Koninkryk van God inhou. Die artikel sluit af met die toekomstige regering van God se immanente Koninkryk as die ware uiteinde van die mens en die eskatologiese verwesenliking van goedheid. Die klem van eskatologiese etiek le in die teosentriese toekomsgerigtheid van die Koninkryk - wat vir Christene die rigting na die doel van die uiteindelike ideaal aandui en wat die huidige bestaan van 'n Christen bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>Using the book of Daniel for solid preaching during a time of persecution</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100078&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examined what constitutes Christian virtue ethics and its goal of highest human good. Christian virtue is a reality that is ontologically rooted in the grace of God through the atonement of Christ to envision the final good of creation. This view is drawn on the tripartite division of faith, hope and love as well as Paul Tillich's ontological focus on the acclaimed quality of the virtue of love in relation to, and unity with, the virtues of power and justice as the ultimate reality in the divine ground for human existence. Christian believers must reunite the virtues which are received from God and by which Christians transformed in reality as new beings in the pursuit of the supreme goodness. Michael Horton's covenantal model revealed a human being's encounter with God, not only meeting, but recognising a stranger (a genuine 'otherness') under a covenant that was initiated by the grace of God with an awareness of his presence that was always immanent. A covenantal approach is used to describe the divine 'presence' and 'absence' as ethical and relational in getting the right conception and direction for our purpose from God. It also deals with the question of how our moral life is related to God and fellow humans toward the final goodness which is the highest good of the Kingdom of God. This article concluded with the coming rule of God's imminent Kingdom as the true ultimate end of human beings and the eschatological fulfilment of humanity in goodness. The emphasis of the eschatological ethics lays on the theocentric futurity of the Kingdom directing Christians to the goal of the ultimate ideal and shaping the present existence of a Christian life.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Christelike deugde-etiek en die doelwit van die hoogste menslike heil. Christelike deug is 'n realiteitsontologie wat veranker is in God se genade deur die versoening van Christus om sodoende die uiteindelike heil van die skepping te visualiseer. Die siening is gebaseer op die drieledige verdeling van geloof, hoop en liefde. Verder is dit gebaseer op Paul Tillich se ontologiese fokus op die prysenswaardige deug van liefde in verhouding en in eenheid met die deugde van mag en geregtigheid as die uiteindelike realiteit van die mens se bestaan. Christen-gelowiges moet die deugde wat hulle van God ontvang en waardeur hulle vernuwe word, versoen met die realiteit as nuwe wesens wat na die hoogste heil soek. Michael Horton se verbondsmodel wys dat die menslike konfrontasie met God nie net 'n ontmoeting is nie, maar ook die herkenning van 'n vreemdeling, 'n gans Andere, binne 'n verbond wat deur die genade van God gei'nisieer word. Daar bly 'n bewustheid van sy teenwoordigheid wat altyd immanent is. 'n Verbondsbenadering beskryf die goddelike 'teenwoordigheid' en 'afwesigheid' as eties en relasioneel tot die verkryging van die regte verstaan van God self. Die verbondsbenadering gee ook 'n begrip van hoe ons morele lewe tot God en ons medemens verbind is tot die finale heil wat uiteindelik die heil van die Koninkryk van God inhou. Die artikel sluit af met die toekomstige regering van God se immanente Koninkryk as die ware uiteinde van die mens en die eskatologiese verwesenliking van goedheid. Die klem van eskatologiese etiek le in die teosentriese toekomsgerigtheid van die Koninkryk - wat vir Christene die rigting na die doel van die uiteindelike ideaal aandui en wat die huidige bestaan van 'n Christen bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>'n Bybelskool in boekvorm</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100079&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examined what constitutes Christian virtue ethics and its goal of highest human good. Christian virtue is a reality that is ontologically rooted in the grace of God through the atonement of Christ to envision the final good of creation. This view is drawn on the tripartite division of faith, hope and love as well as Paul Tillich's ontological focus on the acclaimed quality of the virtue of love in relation to, and unity with, the virtues of power and justice as the ultimate reality in the divine ground for human existence. Christian believers must reunite the virtues which are received from God and by which Christians transformed in reality as new beings in the pursuit of the supreme goodness. Michael Horton's covenantal model revealed a human being's encounter with God, not only meeting, but recognising a stranger (a genuine 'otherness') under a covenant that was initiated by the grace of God with an awareness of his presence that was always immanent. A covenantal approach is used to describe the divine 'presence' and 'absence' as ethical and relational in getting the right conception and direction for our purpose from God. It also deals with the question of how our moral life is related to God and fellow humans toward the final goodness which is the highest good of the Kingdom of God. This article concluded with the coming rule of God's imminent Kingdom as the true ultimate end of human beings and the eschatological fulfilment of humanity in goodness. The emphasis of the eschatological ethics lays on the theocentric futurity of the Kingdom directing Christians to the goal of the ultimate ideal and shaping the present existence of a Christian life.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Christelike deugde-etiek en die doelwit van die hoogste menslike heil. Christelike deug is 'n realiteitsontologie wat veranker is in God se genade deur die versoening van Christus om sodoende die uiteindelike heil van die skepping te visualiseer. Die siening is gebaseer op die drieledige verdeling van geloof, hoop en liefde. Verder is dit gebaseer op Paul Tillich se ontologiese fokus op die prysenswaardige deug van liefde in verhouding en in eenheid met die deugde van mag en geregtigheid as die uiteindelike realiteit van die mens se bestaan. Christen-gelowiges moet die deugde wat hulle van God ontvang en waardeur hulle vernuwe word, versoen met die realiteit as nuwe wesens wat na die hoogste heil soek. Michael Horton se verbondsmodel wys dat die menslike konfrontasie met God nie net 'n ontmoeting is nie, maar ook die herkenning van 'n vreemdeling, 'n gans Andere, binne 'n verbond wat deur die genade van God gei'nisieer word. Daar bly 'n bewustheid van sy teenwoordigheid wat altyd immanent is. 'n Verbondsbenadering beskryf die goddelike 'teenwoordigheid' en 'afwesigheid' as eties en relasioneel tot die verkryging van die regte verstaan van God self. Die verbondsbenadering gee ook 'n begrip van hoe ons morele lewe tot God en ons medemens verbind is tot die finale heil wat uiteindelik die heil van die Koninkryk van God inhou. Die artikel sluit af met die toekomstige regering van God se immanente Koninkryk as die ware uiteinde van die mens en die eskatologiese verwesenliking van goedheid. Die klem van eskatologiese etiek le in die teosentriese toekomsgerigtheid van die Koninkryk - wat vir Christene die rigting na die doel van die uiteindelike ideaal aandui en wat die huidige bestaan van 'n Christen bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>Bybel lees vir dag en tyd</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100080&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examined what constitutes Christian virtue ethics and its goal of highest human good. Christian virtue is a reality that is ontologically rooted in the grace of God through the atonement of Christ to envision the final good of creation. This view is drawn on the tripartite division of faith, hope and love as well as Paul Tillich's ontological focus on the acclaimed quality of the virtue of love in relation to, and unity with, the virtues of power and justice as the ultimate reality in the divine ground for human existence. Christian believers must reunite the virtues which are received from God and by which Christians transformed in reality as new beings in the pursuit of the supreme goodness. Michael Horton's covenantal model revealed a human being's encounter with God, not only meeting, but recognising a stranger (a genuine 'otherness') under a covenant that was initiated by the grace of God with an awareness of his presence that was always immanent. A covenantal approach is used to describe the divine 'presence' and 'absence' as ethical and relational in getting the right conception and direction for our purpose from God. It also deals with the question of how our moral life is related to God and fellow humans toward the final goodness which is the highest good of the Kingdom of God. This article concluded with the coming rule of God's imminent Kingdom as the true ultimate end of human beings and the eschatological fulfilment of humanity in goodness. The emphasis of the eschatological ethics lays on the theocentric futurity of the Kingdom directing Christians to the goal of the ultimate ideal and shaping the present existence of a Christian life.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Christelike deugde-etiek en die doelwit van die hoogste menslike heil. Christelike deug is 'n realiteitsontologie wat veranker is in God se genade deur die versoening van Christus om sodoende die uiteindelike heil van die skepping te visualiseer. Die siening is gebaseer op die drieledige verdeling van geloof, hoop en liefde. Verder is dit gebaseer op Paul Tillich se ontologiese fokus op die prysenswaardige deug van liefde in verhouding en in eenheid met die deugde van mag en geregtigheid as die uiteindelike realiteit van die mens se bestaan. Christen-gelowiges moet die deugde wat hulle van God ontvang en waardeur hulle vernuwe word, versoen met die realiteit as nuwe wesens wat na die hoogste heil soek. Michael Horton se verbondsmodel wys dat die menslike konfrontasie met God nie net 'n ontmoeting is nie, maar ook die herkenning van 'n vreemdeling, 'n gans Andere, binne 'n verbond wat deur die genade van God gei'nisieer word. Daar bly 'n bewustheid van sy teenwoordigheid wat altyd immanent is. 'n Verbondsbenadering beskryf die goddelike 'teenwoordigheid' en 'afwesigheid' as eties en relasioneel tot die verkryging van die regte verstaan van God self. Die verbondsbenadering gee ook 'n begrip van hoe ons morele lewe tot God en ons medemens verbind is tot die finale heil wat uiteindelik die heil van die Koninkryk van God inhou. Die artikel sluit af met die toekomstige regering van God se immanente Koninkryk as die ware uiteinde van die mens en die eskatologiese verwesenliking van goedheid. Die klem van eskatologiese etiek le in die teosentriese toekomsgerigtheid van die Koninkryk - wat vir Christene die rigting na die doel van die uiteindelike ideaal aandui en wat die huidige bestaan van 'n Christen bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>Bennie van der Walt</b>: <b>An expert in propagating the all-encompassing implications of the Christian world- and life view</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100081&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examined what constitutes Christian virtue ethics and its goal of highest human good. Christian virtue is a reality that is ontologically rooted in the grace of God through the atonement of Christ to envision the final good of creation. This view is drawn on the tripartite division of faith, hope and love as well as Paul Tillich's ontological focus on the acclaimed quality of the virtue of love in relation to, and unity with, the virtues of power and justice as the ultimate reality in the divine ground for human existence. Christian believers must reunite the virtues which are received from God and by which Christians transformed in reality as new beings in the pursuit of the supreme goodness. Michael Horton's covenantal model revealed a human being's encounter with God, not only meeting, but recognising a stranger (a genuine 'otherness') under a covenant that was initiated by the grace of God with an awareness of his presence that was always immanent. A covenantal approach is used to describe the divine 'presence' and 'absence' as ethical and relational in getting the right conception and direction for our purpose from God. It also deals with the question of how our moral life is related to God and fellow humans toward the final goodness which is the highest good of the Kingdom of God. This article concluded with the coming rule of God's imminent Kingdom as the true ultimate end of human beings and the eschatological fulfilment of humanity in goodness. The emphasis of the eschatological ethics lays on the theocentric futurity of the Kingdom directing Christians to the goal of the ultimate ideal and shaping the present existence of a Christian life.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Christelike deugde-etiek en die doelwit van die hoogste menslike heil. Christelike deug is 'n realiteitsontologie wat veranker is in God se genade deur die versoening van Christus om sodoende die uiteindelike heil van die skepping te visualiseer. Die siening is gebaseer op die drieledige verdeling van geloof, hoop en liefde. Verder is dit gebaseer op Paul Tillich se ontologiese fokus op die prysenswaardige deug van liefde in verhouding en in eenheid met die deugde van mag en geregtigheid as die uiteindelike realiteit van die mens se bestaan. Christen-gelowiges moet die deugde wat hulle van God ontvang en waardeur hulle vernuwe word, versoen met die realiteit as nuwe wesens wat na die hoogste heil soek. Michael Horton se verbondsmodel wys dat die menslike konfrontasie met God nie net 'n ontmoeting is nie, maar ook die herkenning van 'n vreemdeling, 'n gans Andere, binne 'n verbond wat deur die genade van God gei'nisieer word. Daar bly 'n bewustheid van sy teenwoordigheid wat altyd immanent is. 'n Verbondsbenadering beskryf die goddelike 'teenwoordigheid' en 'afwesigheid' as eties en relasioneel tot die verkryging van die regte verstaan van God self. Die verbondsbenadering gee ook 'n begrip van hoe ons morele lewe tot God en ons medemens verbind is tot die finale heil wat uiteindelik die heil van die Koninkryk van God inhou. Die artikel sluit af met die toekomstige regering van God se immanente Koninkryk as die ware uiteinde van die mens en die eskatologiese verwesenliking van goedheid. Die klem van eskatologiese etiek le in die teosentriese toekomsgerigtheid van die Koninkryk - wat vir Christene die rigting na die doel van die uiteindelike ideaal aandui en wat die huidige bestaan van 'n Christen bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>Stap saam met die sterwende sy laaste treë</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100082&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examined what constitutes Christian virtue ethics and its goal of highest human good. Christian virtue is a reality that is ontologically rooted in the grace of God through the atonement of Christ to envision the final good of creation. This view is drawn on the tripartite division of faith, hope and love as well as Paul Tillich's ontological focus on the acclaimed quality of the virtue of love in relation to, and unity with, the virtues of power and justice as the ultimate reality in the divine ground for human existence. Christian believers must reunite the virtues which are received from God and by which Christians transformed in reality as new beings in the pursuit of the supreme goodness. Michael Horton's covenantal model revealed a human being's encounter with God, not only meeting, but recognising a stranger (a genuine 'otherness') under a covenant that was initiated by the grace of God with an awareness of his presence that was always immanent. A covenantal approach is used to describe the divine 'presence' and 'absence' as ethical and relational in getting the right conception and direction for our purpose from God. It also deals with the question of how our moral life is related to God and fellow humans toward the final goodness which is the highest good of the Kingdom of God. This article concluded with the coming rule of God's imminent Kingdom as the true ultimate end of human beings and the eschatological fulfilment of humanity in goodness. The emphasis of the eschatological ethics lays on the theocentric futurity of the Kingdom directing Christians to the goal of the ultimate ideal and shaping the present existence of a Christian life.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Christelike deugde-etiek en die doelwit van die hoogste menslike heil. Christelike deug is 'n realiteitsontologie wat veranker is in God se genade deur die versoening van Christus om sodoende die uiteindelike heil van die skepping te visualiseer. Die siening is gebaseer op die drieledige verdeling van geloof, hoop en liefde. Verder is dit gebaseer op Paul Tillich se ontologiese fokus op die prysenswaardige deug van liefde in verhouding en in eenheid met die deugde van mag en geregtigheid as die uiteindelike realiteit van die mens se bestaan. Christen-gelowiges moet die deugde wat hulle van God ontvang en waardeur hulle vernuwe word, versoen met die realiteit as nuwe wesens wat na die hoogste heil soek. Michael Horton se verbondsmodel wys dat die menslike konfrontasie met God nie net 'n ontmoeting is nie, maar ook die herkenning van 'n vreemdeling, 'n gans Andere, binne 'n verbond wat deur die genade van God gei'nisieer word. Daar bly 'n bewustheid van sy teenwoordigheid wat altyd immanent is. 'n Verbondsbenadering beskryf die goddelike 'teenwoordigheid' en 'afwesigheid' as eties en relasioneel tot die verkryging van die regte verstaan van God self. Die verbondsbenadering gee ook 'n begrip van hoe ons morele lewe tot God en ons medemens verbind is tot die finale heil wat uiteindelik die heil van die Koninkryk van God inhou. Die artikel sluit af met die toekomstige regering van God se immanente Koninkryk as die ware uiteinde van die mens en die eskatologiese verwesenliking van goedheid. Die klem van eskatologiese etiek le in die teosentriese toekomsgerigtheid van die Koninkryk - wat vir Christene die rigting na die doel van die uiteindelike ideaal aandui en wat die huidige bestaan van 'n Christen bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>Die betekenis van Jesus en Sy koninkryk vir die kerk</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100083&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examined what constitutes Christian virtue ethics and its goal of highest human good. Christian virtue is a reality that is ontologically rooted in the grace of God through the atonement of Christ to envision the final good of creation. This view is drawn on the tripartite division of faith, hope and love as well as Paul Tillich's ontological focus on the acclaimed quality of the virtue of love in relation to, and unity with, the virtues of power and justice as the ultimate reality in the divine ground for human existence. Christian believers must reunite the virtues which are received from God and by which Christians transformed in reality as new beings in the pursuit of the supreme goodness. Michael Horton's covenantal model revealed a human being's encounter with God, not only meeting, but recognising a stranger (a genuine 'otherness') under a covenant that was initiated by the grace of God with an awareness of his presence that was always immanent. A covenantal approach is used to describe the divine 'presence' and 'absence' as ethical and relational in getting the right conception and direction for our purpose from God. It also deals with the question of how our moral life is related to God and fellow humans toward the final goodness which is the highest good of the Kingdom of God. This article concluded with the coming rule of God's imminent Kingdom as the true ultimate end of human beings and the eschatological fulfilment of humanity in goodness. The emphasis of the eschatological ethics lays on the theocentric futurity of the Kingdom directing Christians to the goal of the ultimate ideal and shaping the present existence of a Christian life.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Christelike deugde-etiek en die doelwit van die hoogste menslike heil. Christelike deug is 'n realiteitsontologie wat veranker is in God se genade deur die versoening van Christus om sodoende die uiteindelike heil van die skepping te visualiseer. Die siening is gebaseer op die drieledige verdeling van geloof, hoop en liefde. Verder is dit gebaseer op Paul Tillich se ontologiese fokus op die prysenswaardige deug van liefde in verhouding en in eenheid met die deugde van mag en geregtigheid as die uiteindelike realiteit van die mens se bestaan. Christen-gelowiges moet die deugde wat hulle van God ontvang en waardeur hulle vernuwe word, versoen met die realiteit as nuwe wesens wat na die hoogste heil soek. Michael Horton se verbondsmodel wys dat die menslike konfrontasie met God nie net 'n ontmoeting is nie, maar ook die herkenning van 'n vreemdeling, 'n gans Andere, binne 'n verbond wat deur die genade van God gei'nisieer word. Daar bly 'n bewustheid van sy teenwoordigheid wat altyd immanent is. 'n Verbondsbenadering beskryf die goddelike 'teenwoordigheid' en 'afwesigheid' as eties en relasioneel tot die verkryging van die regte verstaan van God self. Die verbondsbenadering gee ook 'n begrip van hoe ons morele lewe tot God en ons medemens verbind is tot die finale heil wat uiteindelik die heil van die Koninkryk van God inhou. Die artikel sluit af met die toekomstige regering van God se immanente Koninkryk as die ware uiteinde van die mens en die eskatologiese verwesenliking van goedheid. Die klem van eskatologiese etiek le in die teosentriese toekomsgerigtheid van die Koninkryk - wat vir Christene die rigting na die doel van die uiteindelike ideaal aandui en wat die huidige bestaan van 'n Christen bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>'n Boek oor 'n besondere manier van geloofsgroei</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100084&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examined what constitutes Christian virtue ethics and its goal of highest human good. Christian virtue is a reality that is ontologically rooted in the grace of God through the atonement of Christ to envision the final good of creation. This view is drawn on the tripartite division of faith, hope and love as well as Paul Tillich's ontological focus on the acclaimed quality of the virtue of love in relation to, and unity with, the virtues of power and justice as the ultimate reality in the divine ground for human existence. Christian believers must reunite the virtues which are received from God and by which Christians transformed in reality as new beings in the pursuit of the supreme goodness. Michael Horton's covenantal model revealed a human being's encounter with God, not only meeting, but recognising a stranger (a genuine 'otherness') under a covenant that was initiated by the grace of God with an awareness of his presence that was always immanent. A covenantal approach is used to describe the divine 'presence' and 'absence' as ethical and relational in getting the right conception and direction for our purpose from God. It also deals with the question of how our moral life is related to God and fellow humans toward the final goodness which is the highest good of the Kingdom of God. This article concluded with the coming rule of God's imminent Kingdom as the true ultimate end of human beings and the eschatological fulfilment of humanity in goodness. The emphasis of the eschatological ethics lays on the theocentric futurity of the Kingdom directing Christians to the goal of the ultimate ideal and shaping the present existence of a Christian life.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Christelike deugde-etiek en die doelwit van die hoogste menslike heil. Christelike deug is 'n realiteitsontologie wat veranker is in God se genade deur die versoening van Christus om sodoende die uiteindelike heil van die skepping te visualiseer. Die siening is gebaseer op die drieledige verdeling van geloof, hoop en liefde. Verder is dit gebaseer op Paul Tillich se ontologiese fokus op die prysenswaardige deug van liefde in verhouding en in eenheid met die deugde van mag en geregtigheid as die uiteindelike realiteit van die mens se bestaan. Christen-gelowiges moet die deugde wat hulle van God ontvang en waardeur hulle vernuwe word, versoen met die realiteit as nuwe wesens wat na die hoogste heil soek. Michael Horton se verbondsmodel wys dat die menslike konfrontasie met God nie net 'n ontmoeting is nie, maar ook die herkenning van 'n vreemdeling, 'n gans Andere, binne 'n verbond wat deur die genade van God gei'nisieer word. Daar bly 'n bewustheid van sy teenwoordigheid wat altyd immanent is. 'n Verbondsbenadering beskryf die goddelike 'teenwoordigheid' en 'afwesigheid' as eties en relasioneel tot die verkryging van die regte verstaan van God self. Die verbondsbenadering gee ook 'n begrip van hoe ons morele lewe tot God en ons medemens verbind is tot die finale heil wat uiteindelik die heil van die Koninkryk van God inhou. Die artikel sluit af met die toekomstige regering van God se immanente Koninkryk as die ware uiteinde van die mens en die eskatologiese verwesenliking van goedheid. Die klem van eskatologiese etiek le in die teosentriese toekomsgerigtheid van die Koninkryk - wat vir Christene die rigting na die doel van die uiteindelike ideaal aandui en wat die huidige bestaan van 'n Christen bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>The Harbinger, truth or fiction?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100085&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examined what constitutes Christian virtue ethics and its goal of highest human good. Christian virtue is a reality that is ontologically rooted in the grace of God through the atonement of Christ to envision the final good of creation. This view is drawn on the tripartite division of faith, hope and love as well as Paul Tillich's ontological focus on the acclaimed quality of the virtue of love in relation to, and unity with, the virtues of power and justice as the ultimate reality in the divine ground for human existence. Christian believers must reunite the virtues which are received from God and by which Christians transformed in reality as new beings in the pursuit of the supreme goodness. Michael Horton's covenantal model revealed a human being's encounter with God, not only meeting, but recognising a stranger (a genuine 'otherness') under a covenant that was initiated by the grace of God with an awareness of his presence that was always immanent. A covenantal approach is used to describe the divine 'presence' and 'absence' as ethical and relational in getting the right conception and direction for our purpose from God. It also deals with the question of how our moral life is related to God and fellow humans toward the final goodness which is the highest good of the Kingdom of God. This article concluded with the coming rule of God's imminent Kingdom as the true ultimate end of human beings and the eschatological fulfilment of humanity in goodness. The emphasis of the eschatological ethics lays on the theocentric futurity of the Kingdom directing Christians to the goal of the ultimate ideal and shaping the present existence of a Christian life.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Christelike deugde-etiek en die doelwit van die hoogste menslike heil. Christelike deug is 'n realiteitsontologie wat veranker is in God se genade deur die versoening van Christus om sodoende die uiteindelike heil van die skepping te visualiseer. Die siening is gebaseer op die drieledige verdeling van geloof, hoop en liefde. Verder is dit gebaseer op Paul Tillich se ontologiese fokus op die prysenswaardige deug van liefde in verhouding en in eenheid met die deugde van mag en geregtigheid as die uiteindelike realiteit van die mens se bestaan. Christen-gelowiges moet die deugde wat hulle van God ontvang en waardeur hulle vernuwe word, versoen met die realiteit as nuwe wesens wat na die hoogste heil soek. Michael Horton se verbondsmodel wys dat die menslike konfrontasie met God nie net 'n ontmoeting is nie, maar ook die herkenning van 'n vreemdeling, 'n gans Andere, binne 'n verbond wat deur die genade van God gei'nisieer word. Daar bly 'n bewustheid van sy teenwoordigheid wat altyd immanent is. 'n Verbondsbenadering beskryf die goddelike 'teenwoordigheid' en 'afwesigheid' as eties en relasioneel tot die verkryging van die regte verstaan van God self. Die verbondsbenadering gee ook 'n begrip van hoe ons morele lewe tot God en ons medemens verbind is tot die finale heil wat uiteindelik die heil van die Koninkryk van God inhou. Die artikel sluit af met die toekomstige regering van God se immanente Koninkryk as die ware uiteinde van die mens en die eskatologiese verwesenliking van goedheid. Die klem van eskatologiese etiek le in die teosentriese toekomsgerigtheid van die Koninkryk - wat vir Christene die rigting na die doel van die uiteindelike ideaal aandui en wat die huidige bestaan van 'n Christen bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>Zithini na izibhalo</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100086&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examined what constitutes Christian virtue ethics and its goal of highest human good. Christian virtue is a reality that is ontologically rooted in the grace of God through the atonement of Christ to envision the final good of creation. This view is drawn on the tripartite division of faith, hope and love as well as Paul Tillich's ontological focus on the acclaimed quality of the virtue of love in relation to, and unity with, the virtues of power and justice as the ultimate reality in the divine ground for human existence. Christian believers must reunite the virtues which are received from God and by which Christians transformed in reality as new beings in the pursuit of the supreme goodness. Michael Horton's covenantal model revealed a human being's encounter with God, not only meeting, but recognising a stranger (a genuine 'otherness') under a covenant that was initiated by the grace of God with an awareness of his presence that was always immanent. A covenantal approach is used to describe the divine 'presence' and 'absence' as ethical and relational in getting the right conception and direction for our purpose from God. It also deals with the question of how our moral life is related to God and fellow humans toward the final goodness which is the highest good of the Kingdom of God. This article concluded with the coming rule of God's imminent Kingdom as the true ultimate end of human beings and the eschatological fulfilment of humanity in goodness. The emphasis of the eschatological ethics lays on the theocentric futurity of the Kingdom directing Christians to the goal of the ultimate ideal and shaping the present existence of a Christian life.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Christelike deugde-etiek en die doelwit van die hoogste menslike heil. Christelike deug is 'n realiteitsontologie wat veranker is in God se genade deur die versoening van Christus om sodoende die uiteindelike heil van die skepping te visualiseer. Die siening is gebaseer op die drieledige verdeling van geloof, hoop en liefde. Verder is dit gebaseer op Paul Tillich se ontologiese fokus op die prysenswaardige deug van liefde in verhouding en in eenheid met die deugde van mag en geregtigheid as die uiteindelike realiteit van die mens se bestaan. Christen-gelowiges moet die deugde wat hulle van God ontvang en waardeur hulle vernuwe word, versoen met die realiteit as nuwe wesens wat na die hoogste heil soek. Michael Horton se verbondsmodel wys dat die menslike konfrontasie met God nie net 'n ontmoeting is nie, maar ook die herkenning van 'n vreemdeling, 'n gans Andere, binne 'n verbond wat deur die genade van God gei'nisieer word. Daar bly 'n bewustheid van sy teenwoordigheid wat altyd immanent is. 'n Verbondsbenadering beskryf die goddelike 'teenwoordigheid' en 'afwesigheid' as eties en relasioneel tot die verkryging van die regte verstaan van God self. Die verbondsbenadering gee ook 'n begrip van hoe ons morele lewe tot God en ons medemens verbind is tot die finale heil wat uiteindelik die heil van die Koninkryk van God inhou. Die artikel sluit af met die toekomstige regering van God se immanente Koninkryk as die ware uiteinde van die mens en die eskatologiese verwesenliking van goedheid. Die klem van eskatologiese etiek le in die teosentriese toekomsgerigtheid van die Koninkryk - wat vir Christene die rigting na die doel van die uiteindelike ideaal aandui en wat die huidige bestaan van 'n Christen bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>Kinderseksualiteit: Noodsaaklike riglyne vir elke ouer</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100087&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examined what constitutes Christian virtue ethics and its goal of highest human good. Christian virtue is a reality that is ontologically rooted in the grace of God through the atonement of Christ to envision the final good of creation. This view is drawn on the tripartite division of faith, hope and love as well as Paul Tillich's ontological focus on the acclaimed quality of the virtue of love in relation to, and unity with, the virtues of power and justice as the ultimate reality in the divine ground for human existence. Christian believers must reunite the virtues which are received from God and by which Christians transformed in reality as new beings in the pursuit of the supreme goodness. Michael Horton's covenantal model revealed a human being's encounter with God, not only meeting, but recognising a stranger (a genuine 'otherness') under a covenant that was initiated by the grace of God with an awareness of his presence that was always immanent. A covenantal approach is used to describe the divine 'presence' and 'absence' as ethical and relational in getting the right conception and direction for our purpose from God. It also deals with the question of how our moral life is related to God and fellow humans toward the final goodness which is the highest good of the Kingdom of God. This article concluded with the coming rule of God's imminent Kingdom as the true ultimate end of human beings and the eschatological fulfilment of humanity in goodness. The emphasis of the eschatological ethics lays on the theocentric futurity of the Kingdom directing Christians to the goal of the ultimate ideal and shaping the present existence of a Christian life.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Christelike deugde-etiek en die doelwit van die hoogste menslike heil. Christelike deug is 'n realiteitsontologie wat veranker is in God se genade deur die versoening van Christus om sodoende die uiteindelike heil van die skepping te visualiseer. Die siening is gebaseer op die drieledige verdeling van geloof, hoop en liefde. Verder is dit gebaseer op Paul Tillich se ontologiese fokus op die prysenswaardige deug van liefde in verhouding en in eenheid met die deugde van mag en geregtigheid as die uiteindelike realiteit van die mens se bestaan. Christen-gelowiges moet die deugde wat hulle van God ontvang en waardeur hulle vernuwe word, versoen met die realiteit as nuwe wesens wat na die hoogste heil soek. Michael Horton se verbondsmodel wys dat die menslike konfrontasie met God nie net 'n ontmoeting is nie, maar ook die herkenning van 'n vreemdeling, 'n gans Andere, binne 'n verbond wat deur die genade van God gei'nisieer word. Daar bly 'n bewustheid van sy teenwoordigheid wat altyd immanent is. 'n Verbondsbenadering beskryf die goddelike 'teenwoordigheid' en 'afwesigheid' as eties en relasioneel tot die verkryging van die regte verstaan van God self. Die verbondsbenadering gee ook 'n begrip van hoe ons morele lewe tot God en ons medemens verbind is tot die finale heil wat uiteindelik die heil van die Koninkryk van God inhou. Die artikel sluit af met die toekomstige regering van God se immanente Koninkryk as die ware uiteinde van die mens en die eskatologiese verwesenliking van goedheid. Die klem van eskatologiese etiek le in die teosentriese toekomsgerigtheid van die Koninkryk - wat vir Christene die rigting na die doel van die uiteindelike ideaal aandui en wat die huidige bestaan van 'n Christen bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>Trellis and Vine: Discipleship</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100088&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examined what constitutes Christian virtue ethics and its goal of highest human good. Christian virtue is a reality that is ontologically rooted in the grace of God through the atonement of Christ to envision the final good of creation. This view is drawn on the tripartite division of faith, hope and love as well as Paul Tillich's ontological focus on the acclaimed quality of the virtue of love in relation to, and unity with, the virtues of power and justice as the ultimate reality in the divine ground for human existence. Christian believers must reunite the virtues which are received from God and by which Christians transformed in reality as new beings in the pursuit of the supreme goodness. Michael Horton's covenantal model revealed a human being's encounter with God, not only meeting, but recognising a stranger (a genuine 'otherness') under a covenant that was initiated by the grace of God with an awareness of his presence that was always immanent. A covenantal approach is used to describe the divine 'presence' and 'absence' as ethical and relational in getting the right conception and direction for our purpose from God. It also deals with the question of how our moral life is related to God and fellow humans toward the final goodness which is the highest good of the Kingdom of God. This article concluded with the coming rule of God's imminent Kingdom as the true ultimate end of human beings and the eschatological fulfilment of humanity in goodness. The emphasis of the eschatological ethics lays on the theocentric futurity of the Kingdom directing Christians to the goal of the ultimate ideal and shaping the present existence of a Christian life.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Christelike deugde-etiek en die doelwit van die hoogste menslike heil. Christelike deug is 'n realiteitsontologie wat veranker is in God se genade deur die versoening van Christus om sodoende die uiteindelike heil van die skepping te visualiseer. Die siening is gebaseer op die drieledige verdeling van geloof, hoop en liefde. Verder is dit gebaseer op Paul Tillich se ontologiese fokus op die prysenswaardige deug van liefde in verhouding en in eenheid met die deugde van mag en geregtigheid as die uiteindelike realiteit van die mens se bestaan. Christen-gelowiges moet die deugde wat hulle van God ontvang en waardeur hulle vernuwe word, versoen met die realiteit as nuwe wesens wat na die hoogste heil soek. Michael Horton se verbondsmodel wys dat die menslike konfrontasie met God nie net 'n ontmoeting is nie, maar ook die herkenning van 'n vreemdeling, 'n gans Andere, binne 'n verbond wat deur die genade van God gei'nisieer word. Daar bly 'n bewustheid van sy teenwoordigheid wat altyd immanent is. 'n Verbondsbenadering beskryf die goddelike 'teenwoordigheid' en 'afwesigheid' as eties en relasioneel tot die verkryging van die regte verstaan van God self. Die verbondsbenadering gee ook 'n begrip van hoe ons morele lewe tot God en ons medemens verbind is tot die finale heil wat uiteindelik die heil van die Koninkryk van God inhou. Die artikel sluit af met die toekomstige regering van God se immanente Koninkryk as die ware uiteinde van die mens en die eskatologiese verwesenliking van goedheid. Die klem van eskatologiese etiek le in die teosentriese toekomsgerigtheid van die Koninkryk - wat vir Christene die rigting na die doel van die uiteindelike ideaal aandui en wat die huidige bestaan van 'n Christen bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>New to doing research and writing papers?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100089&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examined what constitutes Christian virtue ethics and its goal of highest human good. Christian virtue is a reality that is ontologically rooted in the grace of God through the atonement of Christ to envision the final good of creation. This view is drawn on the tripartite division of faith, hope and love as well as Paul Tillich's ontological focus on the acclaimed quality of the virtue of love in relation to, and unity with, the virtues of power and justice as the ultimate reality in the divine ground for human existence. Christian believers must reunite the virtues which are received from God and by which Christians transformed in reality as new beings in the pursuit of the supreme goodness. Michael Horton's covenantal model revealed a human being's encounter with God, not only meeting, but recognising a stranger (a genuine 'otherness') under a covenant that was initiated by the grace of God with an awareness of his presence that was always immanent. A covenantal approach is used to describe the divine 'presence' and 'absence' as ethical and relational in getting the right conception and direction for our purpose from God. It also deals with the question of how our moral life is related to God and fellow humans toward the final goodness which is the highest good of the Kingdom of God. This article concluded with the coming rule of God's imminent Kingdom as the true ultimate end of human beings and the eschatological fulfilment of humanity in goodness. The emphasis of the eschatological ethics lays on the theocentric futurity of the Kingdom directing Christians to the goal of the ultimate ideal and shaping the present existence of a Christian life.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Christelike deugde-etiek en die doelwit van die hoogste menslike heil. Christelike deug is 'n realiteitsontologie wat veranker is in God se genade deur die versoening van Christus om sodoende die uiteindelike heil van die skepping te visualiseer. Die siening is gebaseer op die drieledige verdeling van geloof, hoop en liefde. Verder is dit gebaseer op Paul Tillich se ontologiese fokus op die prysenswaardige deug van liefde in verhouding en in eenheid met die deugde van mag en geregtigheid as die uiteindelike realiteit van die mens se bestaan. Christen-gelowiges moet die deugde wat hulle van God ontvang en waardeur hulle vernuwe word, versoen met die realiteit as nuwe wesens wat na die hoogste heil soek. Michael Horton se verbondsmodel wys dat die menslike konfrontasie met God nie net 'n ontmoeting is nie, maar ook die herkenning van 'n vreemdeling, 'n gans Andere, binne 'n verbond wat deur die genade van God gei'nisieer word. Daar bly 'n bewustheid van sy teenwoordigheid wat altyd immanent is. 'n Verbondsbenadering beskryf die goddelike 'teenwoordigheid' en 'afwesigheid' as eties en relasioneel tot die verkryging van die regte verstaan van God self. Die verbondsbenadering gee ook 'n begrip van hoe ons morele lewe tot God en ons medemens verbind is tot die finale heil wat uiteindelik die heil van die Koninkryk van God inhou. Die artikel sluit af met die toekomstige regering van God se immanente Koninkryk as die ware uiteinde van die mens en die eskatologiese verwesenliking van goedheid. Die klem van eskatologiese etiek le in die teosentriese toekomsgerigtheid van die Koninkryk - wat vir Christene die rigting na die doel van die uiteindelike ideaal aandui en wat die huidige bestaan van 'n Christen bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>The inspiring Spirit: Various essays on biblical spirituality</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100090&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examined what constitutes Christian virtue ethics and its goal of highest human good. Christian virtue is a reality that is ontologically rooted in the grace of God through the atonement of Christ to envision the final good of creation. This view is drawn on the tripartite division of faith, hope and love as well as Paul Tillich's ontological focus on the acclaimed quality of the virtue of love in relation to, and unity with, the virtues of power and justice as the ultimate reality in the divine ground for human existence. Christian believers must reunite the virtues which are received from God and by which Christians transformed in reality as new beings in the pursuit of the supreme goodness. Michael Horton's covenantal model revealed a human being's encounter with God, not only meeting, but recognising a stranger (a genuine 'otherness') under a covenant that was initiated by the grace of God with an awareness of his presence that was always immanent. A covenantal approach is used to describe the divine 'presence' and 'absence' as ethical and relational in getting the right conception and direction for our purpose from God. It also deals with the question of how our moral life is related to God and fellow humans toward the final goodness which is the highest good of the Kingdom of God. This article concluded with the coming rule of God's imminent Kingdom as the true ultimate end of human beings and the eschatological fulfilment of humanity in goodness. The emphasis of the eschatological ethics lays on the theocentric futurity of the Kingdom directing Christians to the goal of the ultimate ideal and shaping the present existence of a Christian life.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Christelike deugde-etiek en die doelwit van die hoogste menslike heil. Christelike deug is 'n realiteitsontologie wat veranker is in God se genade deur die versoening van Christus om sodoende die uiteindelike heil van die skepping te visualiseer. Die siening is gebaseer op die drieledige verdeling van geloof, hoop en liefde. Verder is dit gebaseer op Paul Tillich se ontologiese fokus op die prysenswaardige deug van liefde in verhouding en in eenheid met die deugde van mag en geregtigheid as die uiteindelike realiteit van die mens se bestaan. Christen-gelowiges moet die deugde wat hulle van God ontvang en waardeur hulle vernuwe word, versoen met die realiteit as nuwe wesens wat na die hoogste heil soek. Michael Horton se verbondsmodel wys dat die menslike konfrontasie met God nie net 'n ontmoeting is nie, maar ook die herkenning van 'n vreemdeling, 'n gans Andere, binne 'n verbond wat deur die genade van God gei'nisieer word. Daar bly 'n bewustheid van sy teenwoordigheid wat altyd immanent is. 'n Verbondsbenadering beskryf die goddelike 'teenwoordigheid' en 'afwesigheid' as eties en relasioneel tot die verkryging van die regte verstaan van God self. Die verbondsbenadering gee ook 'n begrip van hoe ons morele lewe tot God en ons medemens verbind is tot die finale heil wat uiteindelik die heil van die Koninkryk van God inhou. Die artikel sluit af met die toekomstige regering van God se immanente Koninkryk as die ware uiteinde van die mens en die eskatologiese verwesenliking van goedheid. Die klem van eskatologiese etiek le in die teosentriese toekomsgerigtheid van die Koninkryk - wat vir Christene die rigting na die doel van die uiteindelike ideaal aandui en wat die huidige bestaan van 'n Christen bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>Praktiese raad vir 'n vervulde lewe</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100091&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examined what constitutes Christian virtue ethics and its goal of highest human good. Christian virtue is a reality that is ontologically rooted in the grace of God through the atonement of Christ to envision the final good of creation. This view is drawn on the tripartite division of faith, hope and love as well as Paul Tillich's ontological focus on the acclaimed quality of the virtue of love in relation to, and unity with, the virtues of power and justice as the ultimate reality in the divine ground for human existence. Christian believers must reunite the virtues which are received from God and by which Christians transformed in reality as new beings in the pursuit of the supreme goodness. Michael Horton's covenantal model revealed a human being's encounter with God, not only meeting, but recognising a stranger (a genuine 'otherness') under a covenant that was initiated by the grace of God with an awareness of his presence that was always immanent. A covenantal approach is used to describe the divine 'presence' and 'absence' as ethical and relational in getting the right conception and direction for our purpose from God. It also deals with the question of how our moral life is related to God and fellow humans toward the final goodness which is the highest good of the Kingdom of God. This article concluded with the coming rule of God's imminent Kingdom as the true ultimate end of human beings and the eschatological fulfilment of humanity in goodness. The emphasis of the eschatological ethics lays on the theocentric futurity of the Kingdom directing Christians to the goal of the ultimate ideal and shaping the present existence of a Christian life.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Christelike deugde-etiek en die doelwit van die hoogste menslike heil. Christelike deug is 'n realiteitsontologie wat veranker is in God se genade deur die versoening van Christus om sodoende die uiteindelike heil van die skepping te visualiseer. Die siening is gebaseer op die drieledige verdeling van geloof, hoop en liefde. Verder is dit gebaseer op Paul Tillich se ontologiese fokus op die prysenswaardige deug van liefde in verhouding en in eenheid met die deugde van mag en geregtigheid as die uiteindelike realiteit van die mens se bestaan. Christen-gelowiges moet die deugde wat hulle van God ontvang en waardeur hulle vernuwe word, versoen met die realiteit as nuwe wesens wat na die hoogste heil soek. Michael Horton se verbondsmodel wys dat die menslike konfrontasie met God nie net 'n ontmoeting is nie, maar ook die herkenning van 'n vreemdeling, 'n gans Andere, binne 'n verbond wat deur die genade van God gei'nisieer word. Daar bly 'n bewustheid van sy teenwoordigheid wat altyd immanent is. 'n Verbondsbenadering beskryf die goddelike 'teenwoordigheid' en 'afwesigheid' as eties en relasioneel tot die verkryging van die regte verstaan van God self. Die verbondsbenadering gee ook 'n begrip van hoe ons morele lewe tot God en ons medemens verbind is tot die finale heil wat uiteindelik die heil van die Koninkryk van God inhou. Die artikel sluit af met die toekomstige regering van God se immanente Koninkryk as die ware uiteinde van die mens en die eskatologiese verwesenliking van goedheid. Die klem van eskatologiese etiek le in die teosentriese toekomsgerigtheid van die Koninkryk - wat vir Christene die rigting na die doel van die uiteindelike ideaal aandui en wat die huidige bestaan van 'n Christen bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>Spieëltjie, spieëltjie ... ?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100092&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examined what constitutes Christian virtue ethics and its goal of highest human good. Christian virtue is a reality that is ontologically rooted in the grace of God through the atonement of Christ to envision the final good of creation. This view is drawn on the tripartite division of faith, hope and love as well as Paul Tillich's ontological focus on the acclaimed quality of the virtue of love in relation to, and unity with, the virtues of power and justice as the ultimate reality in the divine ground for human existence. Christian believers must reunite the virtues which are received from God and by which Christians transformed in reality as new beings in the pursuit of the supreme goodness. Michael Horton's covenantal model revealed a human being's encounter with God, not only meeting, but recognising a stranger (a genuine 'otherness') under a covenant that was initiated by the grace of God with an awareness of his presence that was always immanent. A covenantal approach is used to describe the divine 'presence' and 'absence' as ethical and relational in getting the right conception and direction for our purpose from God. It also deals with the question of how our moral life is related to God and fellow humans toward the final goodness which is the highest good of the Kingdom of God. This article concluded with the coming rule of God's imminent Kingdom as the true ultimate end of human beings and the eschatological fulfilment of humanity in goodness. The emphasis of the eschatological ethics lays on the theocentric futurity of the Kingdom directing Christians to the goal of the ultimate ideal and shaping the present existence of a Christian life.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Christelike deugde-etiek en die doelwit van die hoogste menslike heil. Christelike deug is 'n realiteitsontologie wat veranker is in God se genade deur die versoening van Christus om sodoende die uiteindelike heil van die skepping te visualiseer. Die siening is gebaseer op die drieledige verdeling van geloof, hoop en liefde. Verder is dit gebaseer op Paul Tillich se ontologiese fokus op die prysenswaardige deug van liefde in verhouding en in eenheid met die deugde van mag en geregtigheid as die uiteindelike realiteit van die mens se bestaan. Christen-gelowiges moet die deugde wat hulle van God ontvang en waardeur hulle vernuwe word, versoen met die realiteit as nuwe wesens wat na die hoogste heil soek. Michael Horton se verbondsmodel wys dat die menslike konfrontasie met God nie net 'n ontmoeting is nie, maar ook die herkenning van 'n vreemdeling, 'n gans Andere, binne 'n verbond wat deur die genade van God gei'nisieer word. Daar bly 'n bewustheid van sy teenwoordigheid wat altyd immanent is. 'n Verbondsbenadering beskryf die goddelike 'teenwoordigheid' en 'afwesigheid' as eties en relasioneel tot die verkryging van die regte verstaan van God self. Die verbondsbenadering gee ook 'n begrip van hoe ons morele lewe tot God en ons medemens verbind is tot die finale heil wat uiteindelik die heil van die Koninkryk van God inhou. Die artikel sluit af met die toekomstige regering van God se immanente Koninkryk as die ware uiteinde van die mens en die eskatologiese verwesenliking van goedheid. Die klem van eskatologiese etiek le in die teosentriese toekomsgerigtheid van die Koninkryk - wat vir Christene die rigting na die doel van die uiteindelike ideaal aandui en wat die huidige bestaan van 'n Christen bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>Here ons wag en wag</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100093&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examined what constitutes Christian virtue ethics and its goal of highest human good. Christian virtue is a reality that is ontologically rooted in the grace of God through the atonement of Christ to envision the final good of creation. This view is drawn on the tripartite division of faith, hope and love as well as Paul Tillich's ontological focus on the acclaimed quality of the virtue of love in relation to, and unity with, the virtues of power and justice as the ultimate reality in the divine ground for human existence. Christian believers must reunite the virtues which are received from God and by which Christians transformed in reality as new beings in the pursuit of the supreme goodness. Michael Horton's covenantal model revealed a human being's encounter with God, not only meeting, but recognising a stranger (a genuine 'otherness') under a covenant that was initiated by the grace of God with an awareness of his presence that was always immanent. A covenantal approach is used to describe the divine 'presence' and 'absence' as ethical and relational in getting the right conception and direction for our purpose from God. It also deals with the question of how our moral life is related to God and fellow humans toward the final goodness which is the highest good of the Kingdom of God. This article concluded with the coming rule of God's imminent Kingdom as the true ultimate end of human beings and the eschatological fulfilment of humanity in goodness. The emphasis of the eschatological ethics lays on the theocentric futurity of the Kingdom directing Christians to the goal of the ultimate ideal and shaping the present existence of a Christian life.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Christelike deugde-etiek en die doelwit van die hoogste menslike heil. Christelike deug is 'n realiteitsontologie wat veranker is in God se genade deur die versoening van Christus om sodoende die uiteindelike heil van die skepping te visualiseer. Die siening is gebaseer op die drieledige verdeling van geloof, hoop en liefde. Verder is dit gebaseer op Paul Tillich se ontologiese fokus op die prysenswaardige deug van liefde in verhouding en in eenheid met die deugde van mag en geregtigheid as die uiteindelike realiteit van die mens se bestaan. Christen-gelowiges moet die deugde wat hulle van God ontvang en waardeur hulle vernuwe word, versoen met die realiteit as nuwe wesens wat na die hoogste heil soek. Michael Horton se verbondsmodel wys dat die menslike konfrontasie met God nie net 'n ontmoeting is nie, maar ook die herkenning van 'n vreemdeling, 'n gans Andere, binne 'n verbond wat deur die genade van God gei'nisieer word. Daar bly 'n bewustheid van sy teenwoordigheid wat altyd immanent is. 'n Verbondsbenadering beskryf die goddelike 'teenwoordigheid' en 'afwesigheid' as eties en relasioneel tot die verkryging van die regte verstaan van God self. Die verbondsbenadering gee ook 'n begrip van hoe ons morele lewe tot God en ons medemens verbind is tot die finale heil wat uiteindelik die heil van die Koninkryk van God inhou. Die artikel sluit af met die toekomstige regering van God se immanente Koninkryk as die ware uiteinde van die mens en die eskatologiese verwesenliking van goedheid. Die klem van eskatologiese etiek le in die teosentriese toekomsgerigtheid van die Koninkryk - wat vir Christene die rigting na die doel van die uiteindelike ideaal aandui en wat die huidige bestaan van 'n Christen bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>Pastorale begeleiding vir mense in krisistye</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100094&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examined what constitutes Christian virtue ethics and its goal of highest human good. Christian virtue is a reality that is ontologically rooted in the grace of God through the atonement of Christ to envision the final good of creation. This view is drawn on the tripartite division of faith, hope and love as well as Paul Tillich's ontological focus on the acclaimed quality of the virtue of love in relation to, and unity with, the virtues of power and justice as the ultimate reality in the divine ground for human existence. Christian believers must reunite the virtues which are received from God and by which Christians transformed in reality as new beings in the pursuit of the supreme goodness. Michael Horton's covenantal model revealed a human being's encounter with God, not only meeting, but recognising a stranger (a genuine 'otherness') under a covenant that was initiated by the grace of God with an awareness of his presence that was always immanent. A covenantal approach is used to describe the divine 'presence' and 'absence' as ethical and relational in getting the right conception and direction for our purpose from God. It also deals with the question of how our moral life is related to God and fellow humans toward the final goodness which is the highest good of the Kingdom of God. This article concluded with the coming rule of God's imminent Kingdom as the true ultimate end of human beings and the eschatological fulfilment of humanity in goodness. The emphasis of the eschatological ethics lays on the theocentric futurity of the Kingdom directing Christians to the goal of the ultimate ideal and shaping the present existence of a Christian life.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Christelike deugde-etiek en die doelwit van die hoogste menslike heil. Christelike deug is 'n realiteitsontologie wat veranker is in God se genade deur die versoening van Christus om sodoende die uiteindelike heil van die skepping te visualiseer. Die siening is gebaseer op die drieledige verdeling van geloof, hoop en liefde. Verder is dit gebaseer op Paul Tillich se ontologiese fokus op die prysenswaardige deug van liefde in verhouding en in eenheid met die deugde van mag en geregtigheid as die uiteindelike realiteit van die mens se bestaan. Christen-gelowiges moet die deugde wat hulle van God ontvang en waardeur hulle vernuwe word, versoen met die realiteit as nuwe wesens wat na die hoogste heil soek. Michael Horton se verbondsmodel wys dat die menslike konfrontasie met God nie net 'n ontmoeting is nie, maar ook die herkenning van 'n vreemdeling, 'n gans Andere, binne 'n verbond wat deur die genade van God gei'nisieer word. Daar bly 'n bewustheid van sy teenwoordigheid wat altyd immanent is. 'n Verbondsbenadering beskryf die goddelike 'teenwoordigheid' en 'afwesigheid' as eties en relasioneel tot die verkryging van die regte verstaan van God self. Die verbondsbenadering gee ook 'n begrip van hoe ons morele lewe tot God en ons medemens verbind is tot die finale heil wat uiteindelik die heil van die Koninkryk van God inhou. Die artikel sluit af met die toekomstige regering van God se immanente Koninkryk as die ware uiteinde van die mens en die eskatologiese verwesenliking van goedheid. Die klem van eskatologiese etiek le in die teosentriese toekomsgerigtheid van die Koninkryk - wat vir Christene die rigting na die doel van die uiteindelike ideaal aandui en wat die huidige bestaan van 'n Christen bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>Teologiese onderbou van geleenthede in die kerklike jaar</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100095&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examined what constitutes Christian virtue ethics and its goal of highest human good. Christian virtue is a reality that is ontologically rooted in the grace of God through the atonement of Christ to envision the final good of creation. This view is drawn on the tripartite division of faith, hope and love as well as Paul Tillich's ontological focus on the acclaimed quality of the virtue of love in relation to, and unity with, the virtues of power and justice as the ultimate reality in the divine ground for human existence. Christian believers must reunite the virtues which are received from God and by which Christians transformed in reality as new beings in the pursuit of the supreme goodness. Michael Horton's covenantal model revealed a human being's encounter with God, not only meeting, but recognising a stranger (a genuine 'otherness') under a covenant that was initiated by the grace of God with an awareness of his presence that was always immanent. A covenantal approach is used to describe the divine 'presence' and 'absence' as ethical and relational in getting the right conception and direction for our purpose from God. It also deals with the question of how our moral life is related to God and fellow humans toward the final goodness which is the highest good of the Kingdom of God. This article concluded with the coming rule of God's imminent Kingdom as the true ultimate end of human beings and the eschatological fulfilment of humanity in goodness. The emphasis of the eschatological ethics lays on the theocentric futurity of the Kingdom directing Christians to the goal of the ultimate ideal and shaping the present existence of a Christian life.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Christelike deugde-etiek en die doelwit van die hoogste menslike heil. Christelike deug is 'n realiteitsontologie wat veranker is in God se genade deur die versoening van Christus om sodoende die uiteindelike heil van die skepping te visualiseer. Die siening is gebaseer op die drieledige verdeling van geloof, hoop en liefde. Verder is dit gebaseer op Paul Tillich se ontologiese fokus op die prysenswaardige deug van liefde in verhouding en in eenheid met die deugde van mag en geregtigheid as die uiteindelike realiteit van die mens se bestaan. Christen-gelowiges moet die deugde wat hulle van God ontvang en waardeur hulle vernuwe word, versoen met die realiteit as nuwe wesens wat na die hoogste heil soek. Michael Horton se verbondsmodel wys dat die menslike konfrontasie met God nie net 'n ontmoeting is nie, maar ook die herkenning van 'n vreemdeling, 'n gans Andere, binne 'n verbond wat deur die genade van God gei'nisieer word. Daar bly 'n bewustheid van sy teenwoordigheid wat altyd immanent is. 'n Verbondsbenadering beskryf die goddelike 'teenwoordigheid' en 'afwesigheid' as eties en relasioneel tot die verkryging van die regte verstaan van God self. Die verbondsbenadering gee ook 'n begrip van hoe ons morele lewe tot God en ons medemens verbind is tot die finale heil wat uiteindelik die heil van die Koninkryk van God inhou. Die artikel sluit af met die toekomstige regering van God se immanente Koninkryk as die ware uiteinde van die mens en die eskatologiese verwesenliking van goedheid. Die klem van eskatologiese etiek le in die teosentriese toekomsgerigtheid van die Koninkryk - wat vir Christene die rigting na die doel van die uiteindelike ideaal aandui en wat die huidige bestaan van 'n Christen bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>Hoe relevant is nadenke oor die hemel en hel vandag?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100096&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examined what constitutes Christian virtue ethics and its goal of highest human good. Christian virtue is a reality that is ontologically rooted in the grace of God through the atonement of Christ to envision the final good of creation. This view is drawn on the tripartite division of faith, hope and love as well as Paul Tillich's ontological focus on the acclaimed quality of the virtue of love in relation to, and unity with, the virtues of power and justice as the ultimate reality in the divine ground for human existence. Christian believers must reunite the virtues which are received from God and by which Christians transformed in reality as new beings in the pursuit of the supreme goodness. Michael Horton's covenantal model revealed a human being's encounter with God, not only meeting, but recognising a stranger (a genuine 'otherness') under a covenant that was initiated by the grace of God with an awareness of his presence that was always immanent. A covenantal approach is used to describe the divine 'presence' and 'absence' as ethical and relational in getting the right conception and direction for our purpose from God. It also deals with the question of how our moral life is related to God and fellow humans toward the final goodness which is the highest good of the Kingdom of God. This article concluded with the coming rule of God's imminent Kingdom as the true ultimate end of human beings and the eschatological fulfilment of humanity in goodness. The emphasis of the eschatological ethics lays on the theocentric futurity of the Kingdom directing Christians to the goal of the ultimate ideal and shaping the present existence of a Christian life.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Christelike deugde-etiek en die doelwit van die hoogste menslike heil. Christelike deug is 'n realiteitsontologie wat veranker is in God se genade deur die versoening van Christus om sodoende die uiteindelike heil van die skepping te visualiseer. Die siening is gebaseer op die drieledige verdeling van geloof, hoop en liefde. Verder is dit gebaseer op Paul Tillich se ontologiese fokus op die prysenswaardige deug van liefde in verhouding en in eenheid met die deugde van mag en geregtigheid as die uiteindelike realiteit van die mens se bestaan. Christen-gelowiges moet die deugde wat hulle van God ontvang en waardeur hulle vernuwe word, versoen met die realiteit as nuwe wesens wat na die hoogste heil soek. Michael Horton se verbondsmodel wys dat die menslike konfrontasie met God nie net 'n ontmoeting is nie, maar ook die herkenning van 'n vreemdeling, 'n gans Andere, binne 'n verbond wat deur die genade van God gei'nisieer word. Daar bly 'n bewustheid van sy teenwoordigheid wat altyd immanent is. 'n Verbondsbenadering beskryf die goddelike 'teenwoordigheid' en 'afwesigheid' as eties en relasioneel tot die verkryging van die regte verstaan van God self. Die verbondsbenadering gee ook 'n begrip van hoe ons morele lewe tot God en ons medemens verbind is tot die finale heil wat uiteindelik die heil van die Koninkryk van God inhou. Die artikel sluit af met die toekomstige regering van God se immanente Koninkryk as die ware uiteinde van die mens en die eskatologiese verwesenliking van goedheid. Die klem van eskatologiese etiek le in die teosentriese toekomsgerigtheid van die Koninkryk - wat vir Christene die rigting na die doel van die uiteindelike ideaal aandui en wat die huidige bestaan van 'n Christen bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>Skitterende boek oor spanning, uitbranding en vrees</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532013000100097&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article examined what constitutes Christian virtue ethics and its goal of highest human good. Christian virtue is a reality that is ontologically rooted in the grace of God through the atonement of Christ to envision the final good of creation. This view is drawn on the tripartite division of faith, hope and love as well as Paul Tillich's ontological focus on the acclaimed quality of the virtue of love in relation to, and unity with, the virtues of power and justice as the ultimate reality in the divine ground for human existence. Christian believers must reunite the virtues which are received from God and by which Christians transformed in reality as new beings in the pursuit of the supreme goodness. Michael Horton's covenantal model revealed a human being's encounter with God, not only meeting, but recognising a stranger (a genuine 'otherness') under a covenant that was initiated by the grace of God with an awareness of his presence that was always immanent. A covenantal approach is used to describe the divine 'presence' and 'absence' as ethical and relational in getting the right conception and direction for our purpose from God. It also deals with the question of how our moral life is related to God and fellow humans toward the final goodness which is the highest good of the Kingdom of God. This article concluded with the coming rule of God's imminent Kingdom as the true ultimate end of human beings and the eschatological fulfilment of humanity in goodness. The emphasis of the eschatological ethics lays on the theocentric futurity of the Kingdom directing Christians to the goal of the ultimate ideal and shaping the present existence of a Christian life.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek Christelike deugde-etiek en die doelwit van die hoogste menslike heil. Christelike deug is 'n realiteitsontologie wat veranker is in God se genade deur die versoening van Christus om sodoende die uiteindelike heil van die skepping te visualiseer. Die siening is gebaseer op die drieledige verdeling van geloof, hoop en liefde. Verder is dit gebaseer op Paul Tillich se ontologiese fokus op die prysenswaardige deug van liefde in verhouding en in eenheid met die deugde van mag en geregtigheid as die uiteindelike realiteit van die mens se bestaan. Christen-gelowiges moet die deugde wat hulle van God ontvang en waardeur hulle vernuwe word, versoen met die realiteit as nuwe wesens wat na die hoogste heil soek. Michael Horton se verbondsmodel wys dat die menslike konfrontasie met God nie net 'n ontmoeting is nie, maar ook die herkenning van 'n vreemdeling, 'n gans Andere, binne 'n verbond wat deur die genade van God gei'nisieer word. Daar bly 'n bewustheid van sy teenwoordigheid wat altyd immanent is. 'n Verbondsbenadering beskryf die goddelike 'teenwoordigheid' en 'afwesigheid' as eties en relasioneel tot die verkryging van die regte verstaan van God self. Die verbondsbenadering gee ook 'n begrip van hoe ons morele lewe tot God en ons medemens verbind is tot die finale heil wat uiteindelik die heil van die Koninkryk van God inhou. Die artikel sluit af met die toekomstige regering van God se immanente Koninkryk as die ware uiteinde van die mens en die eskatologiese verwesenliking van goedheid. Die klem van eskatologiese etiek le in die teosentriese toekomsgerigtheid van die Koninkryk - wat vir Christene die rigting na die doel van die uiteindelike ideaal aandui en wat die huidige bestaan van 'n Christen bepaal.