Scielo RSS <![CDATA[In die Skriflig ]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2305-085320120002&lang=en vol. 46 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Handling a crisis via a combination of human initiative and godly direction: Insights from the Book of Ruth</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532012000200001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The biblical text introduces Ruth, a Moabite woman, at a time of personal crisis. She faces destitution. Life has handed her multiple blows, amongst them widowhood and childlessness. Her single asset? Naomi, a cranky, elderly but endearing mother-in-law. Naomi, an Israelite and also widowed, is now quite determined to go home to Bethlehem. Ruth joins Naomi's journey, but for Ruth it is a pilgrimage, for it is at this time that she switches allegiance from the gods of Moab to the God of Israel. As an immigrant facing change on every level - a new culture, a new religion, no friends and no job - Ruth nonetheless triumphs. Within only a couple of months, not only does she marry a prominent and prosperous bachelor, Boaz, but also wins the hearts of her mother-in-law's friends, the women of Bethlehem. This analysis of her successful pilgrimage offers contemporary guidelines for facing dramatic changes. Using a literary method, this article examines one of the Bible's accounts of how a personal crisis is resolved via a combination of God's providence and human initiative and courage.<hr/>Die bybelse teks stel die leser voor aan Rut, 'n Moabitiese vrou, tydens 'n persoonlike krisis in haar lewe. Sy is 'n weduwee, kinderloos en staar dus armoede in die gesig. Haar enigste pluspunt is Naomi, haar bejaarde, ietwat verbitterde dog innemende skoonmoeder. Naomi, 'n Israeliet en ook 'n weduwee, is vasbeslote om na haar huis in Betlehem terug te keer. Rut vergesel haar en dit word vir Rut 'n pelgrimstog na die God van Israel, weg van die afgode van Moab af. As immigrant wat 'n vreemde kultuur en godsdiens, 'n toekoms sonder vriende en werkloosheid moet verwerk, seëvier Rut uiteindelik. Sy trou binne 'n paar maande met Boas, 'n prominente en welvarende vrygesel en wen ook die harte van haar skoonmoeder se vriendinne, die vroue van Bethlehem. Die ontleding van Rut se suksesvolle pelgrimstog bied tydgenootlike riglyne aan diegene wat voor groot veranderinge in hulle lewens te staan kom. Met behulp van die literêre metode ondersoek hierdie artikel 'n bybelse mededeling wat aantoon hoedat 'n persoonlike krisis deur middel van God se voorsienigheid en menslike inisiatief en moed opgelos kan word. <![CDATA[<b>Doctrine on God and doctrine on scripture: Focus and challenge</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532012000200002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die keuse van die onderwerp vir hierdie artikel moet teen 'n bepaalde agtergrond gesien word. In die eerste plek het dit om die plek en taak van die dogmatiek, waarin die Godsleer en die Skrifleer 'n besondere plek inneem, gegaan. Dogmatiek is immers die wetenskaplike sisteem van die kennis van God, en God openbaar Hom in besonder deur die Skrif. In die tweede plek het dit oor die aktualiteit van die onderwerp gegaan. Daar word vandag toenemend gepleit vir 'n nuwe Godsbeeld, wat God se verhouding tot die wêreld betref. Die begrip wat gebruik word is panenteïsme. Wat die Skrifleer betref, is die vraag na die gesag van die Skrif voortdurend aan die orde. Wat die begrip panenteïsme betref (God in alles en alles in God), in onderskeid van die begrippe deïsme, panteïsme en teïsme, is vanuit die Skrif bevind dat daar geen ineenvloeiing van God en die geskape werklikheid is, soos die voorstanders van panenteïsme (o.a. die Nuwe Hervorming en Julian Müller in Suid-Afrika) bepleit het nie. Wat die Skrifleer betref, het die debat weereens, soos in die 16de eeu, saamgetrek in die vraag of die Bybel die Woord van God is of die ervaring van mense. Die skrywer se eie standpunt het saamgetrek in volledige instemming met die Gereformeerde belydenis soos verwoord in Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis, Artikel 2-7. Die voorstanders van 'n nuwe Godsbeeld (panenteïsme) het egter in hulle Skrifleer radikaal van die Reformatoriese tradisie afgewyk. Die fokus en uitdaging vir die Gereformeerde dogmatiek lê in die onverswakte handhawing van die Goddelike gesag van die Woord. In sy Woord openbaar God Homself as die transendente en immanente God (teïsme). Hierdie waarheid het onder andere besondere implikasies vir die leer van die voorsienigheid. Wanneer die dogmatiek, in samewerking met ander relevante teologiese dissiplines en die wetenskap van die wysbegeerte en literatuurwetenskap sy taak verrig, eindig ware teologie in doksologie.<hr/>The choice of the title for this article must be seen against a specific background. In the first place it had to do with the place and task of dogmatics, in which the doctrine on God and the doctrine on Scripture are most important. Dogmatics can be defined as the scientific system of the knowledge of God and God reveals Himself in particular in Scripture. Secondly, it had to do with the actuality of the topic. In the current debate there is an emphasis on a new view of God as far as his relationship with creation is concerned. The term used is panentheism. And as far as the doctrine on Scripture is concerned, the question of the authority of Scripture is always on the agenda. As far as the term panentheism (all in God and God in all) is concerned, distinguished from deism, pantheism and theism, it was concluded that in Scripture we do not find any identity or fusion between God and creation, as the advocates for panentheism (the New Reformers and Julian Müller inter alia in South Africa) plead. As far as the doctrine of Scripture is concerned, the focus is on the question whether the Bible is the Word of God or the experience of man. The author of this article found himself in full agreement with the Reformed confession as formulated in the Belgic Confession, Articles 2 - 7. On the other hand, the advocates for a new view about God (panentheism) deviate radically from the Reformed tradition. The focus and challenge for Reformed dogmatics lie in the maintaining of the Divine authority of Scripture. In his Word, God reveals Himself as both the transcendent and immanent God (theism). This truth has specific implications for the doctrine on providence inter alia. When Reformed dogmatics is practised in cooperation with other theological disciplines, philosophy, literature studies, et cetera, theology in the end becomes doxology. <![CDATA[<b>Pastoral guidance for the self-mutilator</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532012000200003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In hierdie artikel het dit geblyk dat die toenemende voorkoms van self-mutilering onder jongmense in talle gevalle as uitlaatklep gedien het vir opgeboude druk en nie soseer as 'n selfmoordpoging nie. Heel dikwels was dit 'n uitvloeisel van mishandeling en/of seksuele misbruik en die persoon het dan hierdie metode gebruik om van innerlike pyn ontslae te raak. Gevoelens van alleenheid, 'n behoefte aan beheer, 'n behoefte om net iéts te voel, asook 'n behoefte om die self te straf, kon ook 'n rol gespeel het. Die gesinsklimaat was oor die algemeen van besondere belang. Hierdie probleem het aan pastorale beraders en aan die kerk 'n besondere uitdaging gebied deur onder andere veel meer op die probleem van pyn, asook die hantering daarvan te fokus. Dit het verband gehou met die feit dat ontkenning in die verlede 'n groot rol gespeel het in sekere kerklike kringe en ook binne sekere gesinne. As deel van 'n pastoraal-terapeutiese strategie in die begeleiding van die self-mutileerder kon aspekte soos die identifisering van die rol van leuens, die benutting van oplossings uit die verlede, vergifnis, nagmaal, gebed en meditasie gevolglik uiters belangrike komponente van die helingsproses gevorm het. Pastorale beraders sal hulleself ten volle op die hoogte moet bring van die verskynsel van self-mutilering ten einde in staat te wees om werklik te kan help.<hr/>In this article it seemed that the increase in the occurrence of self-mutilation among young people in many cases served as a pressure-relief valve and not a suicide attempt as such. It was very often the outcome of ill-treatment and/ or sexual abuse and the person used this method to get rid of the inner pain. Feelings of aloneness, a need to be in control, a need to feel at least something and a need to punish the self could also have played a role. The family climate was generally very important. This provided a special challenge for pastoral counsellors as well as the church by, among others, focussing more on the problem of pain and how to handle it. This was relevant to the fact that denial had played a significant role in certain church circles as well as within some families. As part of the pastoral-therapeutic strategy in helping the self-mutilator, aspects such as identifying the role of lies, the use of solutions from the past, forgiveness, the Lord's Supper, prayer, and meditation were therefore very important components in the healing process. Pastoral counsellors would have to be well informed about the phenomenon of self-mutilation in order to be able to be of real help. <![CDATA[<b>The necessity of taking account of meta-theoretical assumptions in the scientific approach and task envisaged for practical theology</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532012000200004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Hierdie artikel is die vierde publikasie wat uit die navorsingsprojek Metateoretiese vertrekpunte in die praktiese teologie voortvloei. In die voorafgaande artikels is 'n saak uitgemaak vir die noodsaak daarvan om rekening te hou met die eie metateoretiese vertrekpunte rakende werklikheidsbeskouing en met kriteria waarvolgens die hermeneutiese proses wat in handelinge in die navorsingsveld van die praktiese teologie ter sprake kom, geïnterpreteer word. In hierdie artikel verskuif die fokus na die metateoretiese vertrekpunte wat in die navorser se wetenskapsbeskouing en -beoefening ter sprake kom. Die rol wat metateoretiese faktore speel in die manier waarop die wese en taak van die wetenskap gedefinieer word, kry aandag. 'n Poging word aangewend om 'n model te ontwerp waarin die teenwoordigheid en uitwerking van die navorser se metateoretiese vertrekpunte integraal verreken word in die proses van prakties-teologiese wetenskapsbeoefening. 'n Huidige navorsingsprojek, waarmee een van die medeskrywers van hierdie artikel besig is, word bespreek as voorbeeld van die impak wat metateoretiese vertrekpunte op die ontwerp van 'n studie kan hê.<hr/>This article is the fourth in the research project Meta-theoretical assumptions in practical theology. In the preceding articles, a case was made for the necessity of expressing the own meta-theoretical assumptions regarding the view on reality and the hermeneutical process involved in understanding the actions of faith in the research field of practical theology. In this article, the focus is on the meta-theoretical assumptions at play in the researchers' vision for engaging the research field on a scientific level. The role that meta-theoretical factors play in defining the nature and task of scientific activity, is discussed. An attempt is made to develop a model that integrates the presence and effects of meta-theoretical assumptions in the researchers' specific vision regarding the scientific task of practical theology. An example of an actual research project is given to illustrate the impact that meta-theoretical assumptions can have on the design of a scientific study. <![CDATA[<b>The importance of reckoning with metatheoretical assumptions in preaching and scientific research in Homiletics</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532012000200005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Hierdie artikel vorm deel van die tweede fase van die navorsingsprojek Metateoretiese vertrekpunte in Praktiese Teologie. Die probleem wat ondersoek word, het te doen met die onvermoë om rekening te hou met verskuiwings in die onderliggende metateoretiese voorveronderstellings in die praksis van prediking, sowel as in die aanpak van wetenskaplike navorsing in die vakgebied van Homiletiek. Ons fokus op die invloed van metateoretiese voorveronderstellings in die kommunikatiewe dimensie van werklikheidsbeskouing, hermeneutiese beskouinge rakende die kommunikatiewe veld wat werksaam is tydens die homiletiese proses, asook op die verrekening van wetenskapsteoretiese beskouinge met die oog op 'n verantwoordelike uitvoer van die wetenskaplike taak. Die artikel kulmineer in 'n beskrywing van hoe een van die navorsers 'n voorbeeld van sy eie onlangse homiletiese navorsing rakende profetiese prediking in 'n konteks van armoede interpreteer, wanneer die onderliggende metateoretiese standpunte eksplisiet verreken word.<hr/>This article forms part of the second phase of the research project Metatheoretical assumptions in Practical Theology. The research problem has to do with the inability to reckon with shifts in underlying metatheoretical assumptions in the praxis of preaching as well as in embarking on scientific research in the field of homiletics. We focus on the influence of metatheoretical assumptions in the communicative dimension of worldview, hermeneutic notions regarding the communicative field at work in the homiletic process and theoretical notions underlying the researcher's approach in complying with the scientific task of homiletics in a responsible manner. The article culminates in a description of one of the researchers' interpretation of an example of his own recent research in prophetic preaching in a context of poverty when the underlying metatheoretical assumptions were explicitly reckoned with. <![CDATA[<b>Prayer therapy in the healing of traumatic memories</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532012000200006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die vraag wat in hierdie artikel ondersoek word, is of gebed enige rol speel in die herwinning en verwerking van traumageheue tydens die proses van innerlike genesing. Die emosioneel verwonde persoon word soms op verskeie vlakke van die lewe gekortwiek as gevolg van hierdie emosionele pyn. Vir innerlike genesing om te realiseer, is dit nodig dat die persoon die onderdrukte, onverwerkte emosies wat op 'n traumagebeurtenis volg, moet erken en verwerk. In baie gevalle is dit egter onmoontlik vir die persoon om die skakeling te maak tussen sy of haar huidige probleme en onderdrukte, onverwerkte emosies. In gevalle waar daar dissosiasie plaasgevind het, kan die persoon nie die emosies spontaan herroep en hanteer nie. Dit is onder andere in sulke gevalle waar gebedsterapie van groot waarde kan wees. Tydens gebedsterapie tree die pastorale berader as fasiliteerder op om die persoon na Jesus Christus te bring sodat Hy hom kan genees. In werklikheid word Jesus Christus se bediening steeds voortgesit. Oorwinning oor pynlike trauma-herinneringe stel die mens in staat om emosionele en geestelike groei te beleef.<hr/>The research question in this article pertains to whether prayer has a place in recovering and healing traumatic memories during the process of inner healing. A person is often challenged at different levels because of emotional pain. For inner healing to happen, suppressed memories need to be identified and processed. In many cases the person finds it impossible to make a connection between current problems and repressed emotions. When dissociation occurs, the person cannot spontaneously recall these emotions. It is in such cases that prayer therapy may prove to be of value. During prayer ministry the counsellor acts as facilitator leading the counselee by faith into the presence of Jesus Christ for healing. On effect, the earthly ministry of Jesus Christ is continued in this way. Conquering painful, traumatic memories in this manner will help the person to grow spiritually and recover emotionally. <![CDATA[<b>An empirical investigation into the social and medical conditions of religious people living with HIV or AIDS in order to determine guidelines for hope</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532012000200007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Hierdie eerste artikel in 'n reeks waar die sentrale en skerpsinnig-wyse sleutelposisie van eskatologiese hoop en getuienis daarvan in die lewe van die gelowiges met MIV/VIGS beklemtoon word, fokus op die mediese en sosiale omstandighede van die persoon met Vigs in 'n terminale fase. Empiriese navorsing is onderneem aan die hand van 'n kwalitatiewe studie by die gesondheidsentrum van 'n voorstedelike motorvervaardigingsaanleg. Die navorsingsontwerp en -metodologie word bespreek en geverifieer. Twee groepsonderhoude met multi-veranderlikes per deelnemer (gelowiges met MIV/VIGS en 'n kontrolegroep van mediese personeel/gesondheidwerkers) wat onderneem is, het vasgestel dat die persone met MIV/VIGS in 'n uiters negatiewe situasie leef, wat onder meer bestuurbaar gemaak word deur die sogenaamde signature strengths van die Positiewe Psigologie. Pastorale behoeftes sluit gebed, vertroosting en koinonia/samesyn (fellowship) in. Opvolartikels sal fokus op die bydrae van die metateorieë van die mediese en kommunikasiewetenskap en die Positiewe Psigologie as komplementerende ervaringsveld. Op 'n veel hoër vlak is spirituele gesondheid en heling as vrug van die Heilige Gees van kardinale belang vir die ewige lewe: versterkende geestelike krag vanuit hulle eskatologiese hoop vir die ewige lewe saam met God, waar geen swaarkry is nie. Praktiese riglyne tot kerugmatiese, liturgiese, koinoniale en diakoniale getuienis oor hoop sal in hierdie opvolgartikels voorgestel word.<hr/>This first article in a series where the central and perspicacious position of eschatological hope and witnessing thereof in the life of a believer with HIV or AIDS is emphasised, focuses on the medical and social circumstances of people with HIV or AIDS. Empirical research via a qualitative study at the health centre of an urban vehicle manufacturing plant was conducted in this study. The research methodology and design are discussed and verified. Two group interviews with multivariables per participant (believers with HIV or AIDS and a control group of health workers) established that people living with HIV or AIDS are spiritually enormously strengthened by their eschatological hope of eternal life with God without this earthly suffering. Pastoral needs include prayer, comfort and koinonia and/or fellowship. They revealed an extremely grave situation, which can, however, be made manageable with inter alia positive signature strengths. Follow-up articles will focus on the contribution of meta-theories of complementary and entwined sciences. Practical guidelines in terms of witnessing hope by means of kerygmatical, liturgical, koinonial and diaconial communication and acts will be suggested in these articles. <![CDATA[<b>A framework for crafting and implementing a congregational strategy in the local congregations of the Reformed Churches of South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532012000200008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The church is not like any other institution or organisation in society. Although the church is primarily invisible and spiritual, it is a visible organisation in the world, and it spans across borders of nations, languages and countries. John Calvin strongly rejected the notion that the church is only a spiritual organisation of which the visible administrative side is downplayed. The fellowship of the church must not only be seen as a mystical relation with Jesus Christ. During 2010, an empirical study was done on the extent to which congregations of the Reformed Churches of South Africa (RCSA) adhere to the request to have a well-designed congregational strategy. The knowledge gained from a literature study on the science of Strategic Management and the results of the empirical study was combined into a framework for crafting and executing a congregational strategy. This framework can be used by congregational leaders to guide them through their own process of crafting and executing their unique congregational strategy. The research was concluded with a recommendation that the Theological School of the RCSA should consider including a course on Strategic Management in the training syllabus of aspiring ministers. Considering that Strategic Management is a specialised management science, and external Strategic Management consultants tend to be expensive, the research also recommended that the Administrative Bureau of the RCSA consider employing their own Strategic Management consultant for the RCSA with the specific assignment of assisting and guiding all congregations with their congregational strategy.<hr/>'n Kerk is 'n unieke organisasie. Die kerk is primêr onsigbaar en geestelik van aard. Tog funksioneer dit as 'n instituut in die wêreld en moet dit doelmatig en doeltreffend bestuur word, ten einde alles ordelik te laat verloop en doelgerig te laat funksioneer. Johannes Calvyn het die idee dat 'n gemeente slegs 'n geestelike instelling is, waarvan die sigbare administratiewe deel as onbelangrik afgemaak word, verwerp. 'n Empiriese studie is gedurende 2010 onderneem om vas te stel tot watter mate gemeentestrategieë wel in die Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika (GKSA) opgestel en uitgevoer word. Die kennis wat ingewin is met die empiriese studie is gekombineer met 'n literatuurstudie oor die vakgebied van Strategiese Bestuur, en 'n raamwerk vir die ontwerp en implementering van 'n gemeentestrategie is daargestel. Hierdie raamwerk kan deur gemeenteleiers gebruik word in die ontwerp en implementering van hulle gemeente se strategie. Die navorsing sluit af met die aanbeveling dat daar oorweging geskenk moet word om 'n kursus in strategiese bestuur in die opleidingsillabus van teologiese studente in te sluit. 'n Verdere aanbeveling is gemaak dat, weens die gespesialiseerde aard en koste aan eksterne Strategiese Bestuurskonsultante verbonde, die Administratiewe Buro van die GKSA oorweging behoort te skenk om hulle eie konsultant in diens te neem. Die opdrag moet wees om gemeentes van die GKSA by te staan in die ontwerp en implementering van die gemeentestrategie. <![CDATA[<b>The Sabbath as a remedy for human restlessness</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532012000200009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Considering that many people today suffer from restlessness, it would be very helpful to remind ourselves of a very old, very simple but very effective remedy: rest on the Sabbath. In the Christian tradition, Sabbath-keeping often only focused on its spiritual aspects. This article has focused on the benefit of rediscovering the gift of the Sabbath as 'a delight to the soul and a delight for the body' (Heschel). It has shown how we can explicitly learn from the Jewish tradition of holistic Sabbath observance. The article consists of four parts: the phenomenon of human restlessness, ten different facets of the Sabbath in the Old Testament, a short section on the history of pro-Sabbath and anti-Sabbath attitudes within the Christian churches and a concluding section about applying the basic principles of the Sabbath in modern life for the sake of a good work-life balance. Examples from the German context are included.<hr/>Wanneer die hedendaagse rusteloosheid van mense in ag geneem word, het dit waarde om onsself aan 'n baie ou, eenvoudige dog effektiewe maatreël tot herstel te herinner, naamlik om op die sabbat te rus. In die Christelike tradisie fokus sabbatsonderhouding dikwels slegs op godsdienstige aspekte. Hierdie artikel het gefokus op die wins in die herontdekking van die sabbatsgeskenk as 'n 'behae vir die siel en die liggaam' (Heschel). Dit toon duidelik hoe ons uit die Joodse tradisie van 'n holistiese sabbatsonderhouding kan leer. Die artikel het bestaan uit vier dele, naamlik die verskynsel van menslike rusteloosheid, tien verskillende fasette van die sabbat in die Ou Testament, 'n kort historiese oorsig oor pro- en teen-standpunte van die Christelike kerk ten opsigte van die sabbat, en ten slotte die toepassing van basiese sabbatsbeginsels in die moderne lewe ter handhawing van 'n goeie balans tussen werk en lewe. Voorbeelde uit die Duitse konteks is ook ingesluit. <![CDATA[<b>Beauty and battle: How the Spirit is moving and operating in the Reformed Churches of the Netherlands</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532012000200010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article discusses how we in the present day hear the sound of the Holy Spirit and where his work can be witnessed in the Reformed Churches of the Netherlands. Mainstream churches have been faced with many challenges during the first decade of the 21st century. Many people have left these churches and have had little contact with its institutions. Is it necessary for them to search for spirituality elsewhere? The author is convinced that the Lord is not bypassing his church. The following question is relevant, In what way is the Spirit working today? This question is urgent, because today there is a renewed search for the reality and power of the Holy Spirit. Within the great and traditional Reformed Churches we hope to see a spiritual renewal. Last year the synod of the Protestant Church in the Netherlands revealed a new vision for mission work, which indicates that the church wants to return to its core function, to reach out to others who do not know the Lord Jesus Christ. Looking forward to the dynamic work of the Holy Spirit in this century, we are already witnessing the beauty of the work of the Holy Spirit, but we have a battle to wage in order not to lose what has been gained.<hr/>In hierdie artikel word die teenwoordigheid en werking van die Heilige Gees in die Gereformeerde Kerke van Nederland bespreek. Die hoofstroomkerke het met baie uitdagings te kampe gehad tydens die eerste dekade van die 21ste eeu. Baie mense het hierdie kerke verlaat sonder om enige verdere interne kontak daarmee te hê. Was dit vir hulle nodig om elders na spiritualiteit te gaan soek? Die outeur is daarvan oortuig dat die Here nie sy kerk verlaat het nie. Die volgende vraag is relevant: Op watter wyse werk die Gees vandag? Hierdie vraag is belangrik, aangesien daar 'n hernude soeke is na die wese en krag van die Heilige Gees. Binne die groot tradisionele gereformeerde kerke hoop en verwag 'n mens om spirituele herlewing te sien. Die sleutelplan wat die Protestantse Kerk van Nederland (PKN) se sinode in 2009 bekendgestel het vir die oplewing in sending, wys dat die kerk wil terugkeer na sy kerntaak. 'n Toekomsblik op die dinamiese werk van die Heilige Gees in hierdie eeu dui op die grootsheid van die werk van die Heilige Gees tot dusver en dat ons die stryd moet verskerp om nie te verloor wat ons tans het nie. <![CDATA[<b>Comprehensible preaching is simple preaching: A practical-theological reflection on preaching style</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532012000200011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Prediking is intensioneel en wil verandering bewerk. Onder die prediking vind interaksie en kommunikasie tussen prediker en hoorder plaas. Die oomblik wanneer die prediker skryf of praat, maak hy of sy van styl gebruik. Styl is vir die prediker soos die kleur wat 'n kunstenaar gebruik. Die navorsingshipotese in die artikel is dat gebrekkige styl daartoe bydra dat God nie reg gehoor word in die prediking nie. In hierdie artikel word van 'n driedeling gebruik gemaak waarin 'n analiserende beskrywing van die prakties-teologiese situasie gebied word. Aan die hand van basisteoretiese perspektiewe word die normatiewe gesigspunte gestel, waarna veranderingstrategieë voorgestel word. Vanuit die Jakobusbrief word perspektiewe na vore gebring wat die noodsaak van goeie styl in die prediking benadruk. In die metateoretiese besinning word die kontoere van die Kunsgeskiedenis asook Kommunikasiekunde verken. In die praktykteoretiese perspektiewe wat bespreek word, word die ruimte wat stylvolle prediking moet skep, aangestip. Sodoende word dit benadruk dat enige styl nie noodwendig die korrekte styl is nie. 'n Goeie styl wend die regte woorde op die regte plekke in die preek aan en daarom is goeie styl eenvoudig en verstaanbaar.<hr/>There is interdependence between preaching and transformation in the lives of hearers. There is a relationship of interaction and communication between preacher and hearers, exists in the act of preaching. When preachers open their mouths, style is used. Artists use colour in their paintings, but preachers use words to colour the content of their message. The research question for this investigation is therefore: What is the effect of an unclear style in sermons? The hypothesis for this research is that an unclear style in sermons does not change lives and fails to bring hearers into the presence of God. The research field is explored by coming to grips with the current practical theological situation. This article investigates certain meta-theoretical perspectives from the fields of Art History and Communication Skills. Basic-theoretical perspectives will be derived from the letter of James and normative vantage points will unfold. The researcher reaches the conclusion that good style creates a space in which hearers can communicate with God. A specific style of preaching is not necessarily the best style to use. Good style uses the correct words in the right places. Good style in a sermon makes preaching clear and comprehensible. <![CDATA[<b>A theological model for pastoral anthropology within the dynamics of interculturality: <i>Cura animarum</i> and the quest for <i>wholeness</i> in a <i>colo</i>-spirituality</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532012000200012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Healing is embedded in relational and systemic networks. In order to heal life (cura vitae) human relationships as determined by paradigms (patterns of thinking and conceptualisation) emanating from cultural settings, should be healed. In order to apply a holistic approach to healing in pastoral therapy, a systemic, relational and qualitative interpretation of soul in cura animarum [cure and care of human souls] was proposed. The notion of a colo-spirituality [spiritual culture] was developed in order to link interculturality to the trans-cultural notion of grace (the eschatological paradigm). The latter is the prerequisite for an intimate space of unconditional love in order to heal the quality of our human identity and attitude or habitus [being functions] within the existential realities of life (i.e. anxiety, guilt or shame, despair, helplessness or vulnerability, anger).<hr/>Die konsep van heling is ingebed binne relasionele en sistemiese netwerke. Ten einde die lewe self te genees (cura vitae) moet menslike verhoudinge soos wat dit bepaal word deur paradigmas (patrone van rasionele denkkonstrukte) en kulturele kontekste genees word. Ten einde 'n omvattende en integrale benadering tot pastoral terapie te volg, word 'n sistemiese, relasionele en kwalitatiewe verstaan van die menslike siel in 'n pastorale model vir cura animarum voorgestel. Ten einde 'n interkulturele benadering in pastorale terapie te volg en heling te verbind met die trans-kulturele konsep van genade (die eskatologiese paradigma) word die konsep van 'n colo-spiritualiteit ontwikkel. Die verstaan van genade as 'n transkulturele konsep is nodig met die oog op die vestiging van 'n ruimte van onvoorwaardelike liefde wat die kwaliteit van menswees en houdinge (habitus) binne verskillende eksistensiële realiteite (d.w.s. angs, skuld en skaamte, wanhoop, hulpeloosheid en weerloosheid, woede) deurslaggewend bepaal. <![CDATA[<b>A reformed perspective on taking mission and missiology to the heart of theological training</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532012000200013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Mission and missiology have been driven to the periphery of the life of both the church and theological institutions. Missiology has, in many theological institutions in the world, struggled to find a home. It has in some instances been regarded as an intruder, in some as an interloper and in others as irrelevant. Missiology is without a doubt a voice from the margins. This article seeks to go beyond the exercise to identify reasons for such a marginalisation by looking at ways in which mission and missiology can be restored to the heart of theological education. This article reminds us that the definition and practice of missiology should be firmly grounded in the missio Dei; hence all theological disciplines should intentionally have a missionary dimension. This will in essence allow missiology to exist as an independent subject but at the same time exercise its multidimensionality. It is, therefore, critical to maintain a dynamic and creative tension between intention and dimension to understand the place of missiology in the theological encyclopaedia.<hr/>Sending en sendingwetenskap is na die periferie van die lewe van sowel die kerk as teologiese instellings verdryf. Sendingwetenskap het by baie teologiese instellings gesukkel om 'n tuiste te vind. In sommige gevalle is dit as 'n indringer beskou, in ander as 'n tussenganger, en in sommige gevalle as irrelevant. Sendingwetenskap is sonder twyfel 'n stem vanuit die buiterante. Hierdie navorsing poog om die redes vir so 'n marginalisasie te ontdek deur te kyk na maniere waarop sending en sendingwetenskap herstel kan word tot die hart van teologiese opleiding. Die artikel herinner ons dat die definisie en praktyk van sendingwetenskap stewig gegrond behoort te wees in die missio Dei, en daarom behoort alle teologiese dissiplines doelbewus 'n sendingdimensie te hê. Dit sal sendingwetenskap toelaat om as 'n onafhanklike vak te bestaan en om terselfdertyd multidimensionaliteit uit te oefen. Dit is gevolglik krities om 'n dinamiese en kreatiewe spanning tussen intensie en dimensie te behou om sodoende te verstaan wat die plek van sendingwetenskap in die teologiese ensiklopedie is. <![CDATA[<b>Revisiting <i>Shari'ah,</i> democracy and human rights in Nigeria</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532012000200014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article argued that in a pluralistic and complex society such as Nigeria the invocation of Shari'ah (Islamic law) does not augur well for the survival of democracy. The traditional belief of every Muslim is that fundamentalism has been and must continue to be rooted in the concept of theocracy upon which the medieval institution of the Caliphate actually rested. Muslim political leaders challenge the agitation for a secular state in Nigeria as an inspiration by Christian theology based on Western European thought. This article argued that political and social progress in Nigeria is unrealistic without the separation of religion and politics. It was identified in this article that the separation of religion and politics does not go down well with Islamic eschatology and cosmology, because Islam's main theological drive is toward an Islamic world empire. The solution offered in this article was that emphasis should be on ensuring that any legal framework or constitutional arrangement should be one that safeguards the interests of all citizens.<hr/>Hierdie artikel argumenteer dat, in 'n pluralistiese en komplekse samelewing soos Nigerië, die aanroeping van Shari'ah (Islamitiese wet) niks goeds voorspel vir die oorlewing van die demokrasie is nie. Die tradisionele geloof van elke Moslem is dat fundamentalisme in die konsep van teokrasie, wat sy oorsprong in die Middeleeuse instelling van die Kalifaat het, gewortel is en so moet bly. Politieke Moslemleiers beskuldig die Christelike teologie (wat op die Wes-Europese gedagte gebaseer is) as die oorsaak van die onrus as gevolg van die poging om 'n sekulêre staat in Nigerië tot stand te bring. In hierdie artikel is ook geargumenteer dat politieke en sosiale vooruitgang in Nigerië nie moontlik is sonder die skeiding van godsdiens en politiek nie. Daar is ook bevind dat die skeiding tussen godsdiens en politiek nie by die Islamitiese eskatologie en kosmologie inpas nie, omdat die Islam se belangrikse teologiese oogmerk 'n Islamitiese wêreldryk is. Die slotsom van die artikel is die beklemtoning van die feit dat enige wetlike raamwerk of grondwetlike samestellings daarop gerig moet wees om die belange van alle burgers te beskerm. <![CDATA[<b>Developing an integrated approach to interpret New Testament use of the Old Testament</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532012000200015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The aim of this article is to develop a specific approach to interpreting New Testament use of the Old Testament. The approach has integrated the most useful insights of studies in both Second Temple Judaism and present day literary theory in order to reach most consistently and effectively a valid explanation of the biblical data. In the process, several important hermeneutical issues have been addressed. The focus of New Testament use of the Old Testament in the person and redemptive work of Jesus should always be the goal of Christian interpretation. Whilst old and new texts mutually interpret one another, it has been argued that there has been no ultimate ambiguity about the author's intended, singular meaning or distortion of the original meaning of the old text. It is important to be aware that all readers come to a text with preconceived worldviews that are inevitably a mixture of biblical and unbiblical perspectives. However, this does not prevent a reader from attaining a valid understanding that adequately overlaps with the most probable meaning of the text as intended by the author. This most probable meaning is determined by the explanation that logically makes the most coherent and natural sense of most biblical data. The methodological procedure proposed has taken the grammatical-historical method as the normative starting point of exegesis. It has then proceeded to imitate the New Testament in consideration of the broader canonical context, before considering explanations derived from the Second Temple literature or present day literary theory.<hr/>Die bedoeling met hierdie artikel is om 'n benadering te ontwerp om die Nuwe-Testamentiese gebruik van die Ou Testament te verstaan. Dié benadering moet die mees bruikbare insigte van die navorsing oor die Tweede Tempelperiode en die hedendaagse literêre teorie integreer, met die oog daarop om op die mees konstante en effektiewe wyse 'n geldige verklaring van die Bybelse data te gee. In hierdie proses word etlike hermeneutiese vraagstukke onder die loep geneem. Aangesien die fokus van die Nuwe-Testamentiese gebruik van die Ou Testament die persoon en verlossingswerk van Jesus is, is dit nodig dat hierdie fokus by die Christen se verstaan ook teenwoordig is. Dit is so dat ouer en nuwer tekste mekaar interpreteer; dit hou egter nie in dat daar dubbelsinnigheid is oor die outeur se bedoelde enkele betekenis, of 'n skeeftrekking van die oorspronklike betekenis van die ouer teks nie. 'n Leser kom noodwendig na die teks met 'n spesifieke wêreldbeskouing, wat 'n mengsel is van Bybelse en onbybelse perspektiewe. Dit verhoed die leser egter nie om by 'n geldige verstaan van die teks uit te kom wat voldoende oorvleuel met die mees waarskynlike betekenis van die teks soos wat die outeur dit bedoel het en wat logieserwys die meeste van die bybelse data goed en organies verreken nie. Die voorgestelde benadering neem die grammaties-historiese metode as die normatiewe beginpunt vir eksegese, en volg dan die Nuwe Testament self na deur die breër kanoniese konteks te verreken. Eers dan word die literatuur van die Tweede Tempelperiode asook die literêre teorie van die huidige tyd verreken. <![CDATA[<b>The pastoral therapist as companion of a person displaying sexually deviant behaviour: A hermeneutic angle</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532012000200016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Voordat 'n pastorale terapeut 'n persoon met seksueel afwykende gedrag in die vorm van pedofilie, pastoraal bedien, is daar merkers wat in gedagte gehou moet word ten opsigte van die posisionering van die pastorale terapeut. Daar word aangeneem dat pedofilie nie genees kan word nie, maar slegs beheer en bestuur kan word. Pedofilie is nie net 'n saak vir ander wetenskappe nie, maar beslis ook 'n geestelike saak. Die persoon wat kinders molesteer, beleef dikwels 'n geestelike vakuum. As gevolg hiervan is sy geestelike dimensie remmend en destruktief. 'n Pastorale hermeneutiek is hier uiters belangrik. Dit beteken dat die pastorale terapeut die taak het om God se teenwoordigheid en verhaal vir die persoon met afwykende seksualiteit te vertolk, sodat sy behoeftes, lewenservaringe en nood in die lig van God se liefde en genade in sy lewe sal sin maak. Die pastorale terapeut kan die deelnemer help om te ko-konstrueer sonder om deskundige kennis op hom af te dwing. 'n Pastoraal-terapeutiese vertrouensverhouding en onvoorwaardelike aanvaarding moet sigbaar wees om die belangrikste medium van verandering en genesing te bewerkstellig. Wanneer die pastorale terapeut in verbondenheid met Christus self tot nederige diensbaarheid en medemenslikheid gesuiwer word, kom 'n ware pastoraal-terapeutiese verhouding van vertroue en onvoorwaardelike aanvaarding tot stand. Die pastorale terapeut behoort eers sy of haar eie vertrekpunte rakende pedofilie uit te klaar. Hy of sy sal met sy of haar eie seksualiteit, asook die van ander, gemaklik moet wees. Hierdie navorsing kan pastorale terapeute aanmoedig om 'n bydrae te lewer in die bemagtiging van die pedoseksuele persoon op geestelike gebied en sodoende 'n bydrae tot 'n veiliger gemeenskap lewer.<hr/>Before a pastoral therapist can counsel a person who displays sexually deviant behaviour in the form of paedophilia, there are certain markers pertaining to the therapist's own positioning that must be observed. It is generally accepted that paedophilia cannot be cured, only controlled and managed. However, paedophilia is not only an issue to be studied by other sciences, it is also a spiritual matter. The person who molests children often harbours a spiritual vacuum within him- or herself. The spiritual vacuum, of which the paedophile may be cognisant or unaware, is the determining factor to which a spiritual dimension that is both restraining and destructive can be attributed. A pastoral hermeneutics is imperative in counselling the paedophile. The pastoral therapist must explain God's presence and story to the person displaying deviant sexuality to enable him or her to make sense of his or her needs, life experiences and destitution in the light of God's love and grace. Without imposing specialist knowledge upon the participant, the pastoral therapist can assist him or her to co-construct. A therapeutic relationship based on trust and unconditional acceptance is crucial. The process of change and healing can only be brought about within the parameters and liberty of such a relationship. The pastoral therapist should firstly consider his or her own views regarding paedophilia. He or she must be comfortable with his or her own sexuality, as well as the sexuality of others. The following article aims to encourage pastoral therapists to contribute to the empowerment of the pedosexual person on a spiritual level, and in doing so, contribute to a safer community. <![CDATA[<b>Appeal to Scripture in the formation of ethical judgments, Part 1: An ethical understanding of women in the Bible</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532012000200017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Na 30 jaar kon die grammaties-historiese metode van Skrifondersoek nie daarin slaag om die etiese probleem van die vrou in die kerklike ampte (en homoseksualiteit) in die GKSA op te los nie. Hierdie metode kan na alle waarskynlikheid nie meer as die enigste verklaringsmetode gebruik word nie en moet deur ander uitgangspunte aangevul word. In hierdie artikel word twee hermeneutiese uitgangspunte bespreek wat saam met die grammaties-historiese metode in die vertolking van die Skrif gebruik kan word. Hierdie hermeneutiese uitgangspunte sal gedemonstreer word in 'n bespreking oor die etiese verstaan van die vrou in die Bybel, spesifiek soos dit op die vrou in kerklike ampte toegepas word. In aansluiting by laasgenoemde twee vertrekpunte word in 'n opvolgartikel 'n verdere drie hermeneutiese vertrekpunte behandel. Die twee hermeneutiese vertrekpunte wat in hierdie artikel behandel word, staan as reëldoelwit en analogie bekend. Die eerste hermeneutiese vertrekpunt gaan uit van die veronderstelling dat die reëldoelwit van 'n teks swaarder weeg as die teks self, terwyl analogie van die veronderstelling uitgaan dat analogie as beredenering 'n aanvaarbare en noodsaaklike vertrekpunt is. Bogenoemde hermeneutiese vertrekpunte (vyf in totaal) is op twee aannames gegrond. Ten eerste word aanvaar dat die Bybel, alhoewel 'n goddelike boek, 'n besliste kreatuurlike kant het wat in die vertolking daarvan in ag geneem moet word. Tweedens word geredeneer dat die Skrif nie 'n teologiese boek is nie, wat beteken dat gelowiges in etiese sake waaroor daar twee verstaansmoontlikhede bestaan, die reg gegun moet word om self die Skrif te vertolk. Daar word tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat 'n etiese verstaan van die vrou daartoe moet lei dat die vrou as gelykwaardig aan die man beskou en behandel moet word, met die gevolg dat die vrou tot alle ampte in die kerk toegelaat moet word.<hr/>After 30 years of using the grammatical-historical method of Bible interpretation, it can be said to have failed to solve the ethical problems in GKSA of women in clerical positions and homosexuality. This method can in all probability not be used as the only explanatory method and must be replenished by other hermeneutical viewpoints. In this article, two hermeneutical points of departure are discussed that can be used together with the grammatical-historical method in interpreting Scripture. These hermeneutical viewpoints will be demonstrated in a discussion of the ethical understanding of women in the Bible, specifically as applied to women in clerical offices. In a subsequent article, three further hermeneutical points of departure will be discussed. The two hermeneutical points of departure discussed in this paper are known as the rule of purpose and analogy. The first hermeneutic point of departure is based on the view that the purpose behind 'n biblical rule outweighs the rule itself whereas analogy assumes that reasoning by analogy is an acceptable and necessary point of departure. The hermeneutical starting points (five in total) mentioned above are built on two underlying assumptions. Firstly, it is assumed that the Bible, though a divine book, has a definite human side and should be considered in interpretation. Secondly, it is argued that Scripture is not a theological book, which means that believers should be afforded the right to come to their own interpretation of Scripture in ethical matters on which there are two possible interpretations. The conclusion is that an ethical understanding of women in the Bible means that women should be regarded and treated as equal to men, with the result that women should be allowed to all positions within the church. <![CDATA[<b>Appeal to scriptures in the formation of an ethical point of view: An ethical understanding of women in the Bible</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532012000200018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In 'n vorige artikel is beredeneer dat die grarnmaties-historiese metode van Skrifuitleg as kreatuurlike geskrif nie meer voldoende is vir alleengebruik in Skrifvertolking nie en dat dit met ander uitgangspunte aangevul moet word. In aansluiting by twee hermeneutiese uitgangspunte wat in 'n vorige artikel behandel is (Rheeder 2012), word in hierdie artikel 'n verdere drie hermeneutiese vertrekpunte bespreek, naamlik teenkultuur, nie-wetenskaplike skopus en moreel-etiese vertolking. Die teenkulturele vertrekpunt gaan uit van die oortuiging dat outentieke getuienis in die Skrif gevind word in dit wat verskil (afwyk) van die omliggende antieke kultuur, terwyl die nie-wetenskaplike skopus vertrekpunt uit gaan van die standpunt dat wetenskaplike (of empiriese) kennis in die Bybel buite die skopus of bedoeling van die Skrif staan. Die moreel-teologiese vertolking as vertrekpunt van die standpunt uitgaan dat 'n moreel-teologiese beoordeling van liefde die keuse tussen twee konflikterende, maar beide aanvaarbare, interpretasies moet begelei. Daar word tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat 'n etiese verstaan van die posisie van die vrou beteken dat die vrou as gelykwaardig aan die man beskou en so behandel moet word, wat beteken dat die vrou, net soos die man, tot enige amp in die kerk toegelaat mag word.<hr/>In a previous article it was argued that the grammatical-historical method of Bible exposition was no longer sufficient as sole method and should be supplemented with other hermeneutical points of departure. Following the discussion of two hermeneutical points in a previous article (Rheeder 2012), this article will discuss three other hermeneutical points of departure, namely counterculture, non-scientific scope and moral-ethical interpretation. The counter-cultural point of departure is based on the belief that authentic witness in Scripture is found in that which is different (that which deviates) from the surrounding ancient culture, while a non-scientific scope starts from the view that scientific (or empirical) knowledge in the Bible is outside the scope or intent of Scripture. The point of departure of the moral-theological interpretation is the view that a moral-theological evaluation of love should inform the choice between two conflicting but mutually acceptable interpretations. It is concluded that an ethical understanding of women in the Bible means that women should be regarded and treated as equal to men, which leads to the further conclusion that all offices in the church should be open to women. <![CDATA[<b>The four marks of the church in the Confession of Nicea as guidelines in an ecclesiological discours</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532012000200019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Die ondersoek het rondom die vier begrippe in die Geloofsbelydenis van Nicea gesentreer, naamlik eenheid, heiligheid, katolisiteit en apostolisiteit. Die vraag wat nagegaan was, is of hierdie vier merktekens kan dien as riglyne in 'n ekklesiologiese diskoers. In die artikel was eerstens aandag gegee aan die Belydenis van Nicea oor die merktekens van die kerk, daarna was nagevors of die vier merktekens reeds in beginsel in die brief aan die Efesiërs gevind kan word, en laastens is die merktekens kursories openbarings-histories getoets volgens die briewe aan die sewe gemeentes in Openbaring. Die bevindings wat gemaak is kom op die volgende neer: die kerk in die eerste eeue, volgens die merktekens van die kerk, het sy identiteit vanuit haar oorsprong missionêr geïdentifiseer en daarom was die merktekens in hulle gerigtheid op die aktiwiteit (taak) van die kerk steeds missionêr, om uitdrukking te gee aan die missionêre identiteit van die kerk. Die vier merktekens van die kerk, naamlik eenheid, heiligheid, katolisiteit en apostolisiteit, behoort steeds bepalend vir die kerk se missionêr-ekklesiologiese identiteit te wees.<hr/>The research centred around the four concepts in the Confession of Nicea namely unity, holiness, catholicity and apostolicity. The question investigated was whether these four marks could serve as guidelines for an ecclesiological discourse. In this article attention was firstly paid to the Confession of Nicea about the marks of the church, next it was looked into whether these marks could in principle be traced in the letter to the Ephesians. Lastly, the the marks were tested in a revelation-historically, cursory manner and in accordance with the letters to the seven congregations in Revelations. The conclusions reached amounted to the following: during the earliest centuries and/or ages the church identified, in accordance with the marks of the church, its identity as being missionary. That is why the marks in their alignment to the activities of the church, are still missionary, to give expression to the missionary identity of the church. The four marks of the church namely unity, holiness, catholicity and apostolicity should still be determining the missionary ecclesiological identity of the church. <![CDATA[<b>Non-real questions in 1 Corinthians 5-6</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532012000200020&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In tradisionele grarnmatikas en kommentare word gewoonlik net onderskei tussen egte en retoriese vrae. In hierdie artikel word nie-egte vrae geklassifiseer aan die hand van 'n model wat ontwikkel is uit die taalhandelingsteorie. In plaas van alle nie-egte vrae as retoriese vrae te beskou (soos die meeste kommentators doen), maak die model voorsiening vir ses hoof- en verskeie subkategorieë van nie-egte vrae. Die model word kortliks opgesom, gevolg deur 'n sistematiese ondersoek van al die vrae in 1 Korintiërs 5-6. Die slotsom is dat die voorgestelde model nuttig is vir die onderskeiding van verskillende soorte nie-egte vrae binne 'n wetenskaplike raamwerk en vir die bepaling van hulle kommunikatiewe funksies. Op dié wyse word 'n bydrae gelewer tot die vertaling en eksegese van die betrokke gedeeltes. Die model behoort navorsing oor die rol van nie-egte vrae in al Paulus se briewe te stimuleer.<hr/>In this article, questions previously distinguished in traditional grammars and commentaries as mainly real or rhetorical, are classified in terms of a model developed from speech act theory. Instead of classifying all non-real questions as rhetorical questions (as commentators tend to do), the model makes provision for six main and various sub-categories of non-real questions. The model is briefly summarised, followed by a systematic investigation of all the questions in 1 Corinthians 5-6. The conclusion is that the proposed model is useful for distinguishing various types of non-real questions within a scientific framework and for determining their communicative functions, thereby contributing to the translation and exegesis of the passages involved. The model could stimulate research on the role of non-real questions in all Paul's letters. <![CDATA[<b>The functionality of the martyrs' accounts in Victor of Vita's <i>Historia Persecutionis (HP)</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532012000200021&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Victor van Vita het geglo dat die Vandale se vervolging van die Christene in Noord-Afrika (429-489 n.C.) 'n straf van God was. Die Christene in Noord-Afrika was volgens hom immoreel en het losbandige lewens gelei. Lyding of marteling is hiervolgens 'n natuurlike resultaat van die mens se sonde. Victor verklaar in Pauliniese konteks dat die sondige liggaam deur middel van marteling vernietig word en dat die mens nie meer slaaf van die sonde sal wees nie. Victor wil dus die persepsie by die leser tuisbring dat marteling 'n goddelike en verlossende kwaliteit behels. Die uitbeelding van die martelaars se leefwyse moet die leser aanspoor om hulle dade na te streef. Hieromtrent bied die martelaarverhale 'n vierledige funksie vir die handhawing van morele waardes in die burgerlike samelewing. Dié funksies vergestalt die etiese, eksemplariese, filosofiese en aansporende dimensies van die martelaarsverhale in die Historia Persecutionis. Op grond hiervan is die martelaarsverhale in die Historia Persecutionis nie net as 'n literêre werk nie, maar dra dit ook by tot onderrig in die sedeleer.<hr/>Victor of Vita believed that the Vandal persecution of the Christians in North Africa (429-489 AD) was a visitation of God to punish them for their immoral and dissolute life. In this context, suffering and torture are the logical results of profligacy which Victor explains in Paulinian terms as a means of destroying the human body and thus releasing mankind from bondage to sin. Victor therefore advances arguments to convince the reader that torture contains both divine and redeeming qualities. The life of the martyr is portrayed as an encouragement so that the reader may emulate this conduct. The martyr narratives provide four measures for the preservation of moral values in civil society. They embody the ethical, exemplary, philosophical and stimulant dimensions of the martyr narratives in the Historia Persecutionis. On this premise, the martyr narratives in the Historia Persecutionis are not to be seen only as a literary work, but also as a contribution to ethics. <![CDATA[<b>A remarkable story! M.C. Vos (1759-1825) in the light of his times</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532012000200022&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article established the role of the Rev. M.C. Vos (1759-1825) as an internationally oriented Pietistic minister who encouraged mission work amongst the slaves and non-Europeans in the Cape Colony. It clears up several misunderstandings about Vos's genealogy and argues that there is no genealogical warrant to treat Vos as something else than a White, European minister and writer. His cultural setting and ancestry was that of a colonial Dutchman, although it may have been Euro-Asian to some small extent. If so, this could have predisposed him naturally to look kindly on the lot of Bengal and Malayan slaves. The real motivating factor for Vos's missionary endeavours was not racial, but spiritual. The promotion of the Gospel and knowledge of the Scriptures was foremost in the mind of this Dutch Reformed minister. This article argues that the Bible and divine guidance had a remarkable influence on the life and actions of M.C. Vos, to the extent that even his autobiography is marked by Biblical language. Vos is placed within the historical perspective of his times, which assists a balanced interpretation of this remarkable person and his convictions.<hr/>Hierdie artikel het die historiese rol van Ds. M.C. Vos (1759-1825) vasgestel as 'n internasionale Piëtistiese wat sending bedryf het onder die slawe en nie-Europeërs aan die Kaap. Dit helder misverstande op wat ontstaan het oor die genealogie van Vos en stel dat daar geen genealogiese rede is om Vos te beskou as 'n predikant en skrywer van nie-Europese afkoms nie. Sy kultuur en voorgeslag was dié van 'n Nederlandse kolonis, hoewel daar enige Euro-Asiatiese elemente in sy genealogie mag wees. Indien dit die geval is, dan het dit bygedra tot sy natuurlike simpatie vir die lot van die Bengaalse en Maleise slawe. Hierdie artikel toon egter aan dat die motivering vir die sendingarbeid van Vos nie op rassistiese gronde berus het nie, maar op die Woord van God. Die verkondiging van die Evangelie en die bevordering van die kennis van die Skrif was die beweegrede van die Nederduits Gereformeerde predikant. Hierdie artikel toon aan dat die Bybel en buitengewone Goddelike leiding 'n merkwaardige invloed uitgeoefen het op die lewe en dade van M.C. Vos, selfs sodanig dat sy lewensbeskrywing deurspek is met Bybelse taalgebruik. Vos word in historiese perspektief geplaas om sy merkwaardige persoon te verstaan in die lig van sy tyd en oortuigings.