Scielo RSS <![CDATA[In die Skriflig ]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2305-085320110002&lang=es vol. 45 num. 2-3 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Redaksioneel</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000200001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>Tjaart van der Walt: <i>Slave of Christ- </i>δο</b><b>ῦλος Χριστο</b><b>ῦ</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000200002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>Hermeneutic premises for reformed exegesis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000200003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hermeneutiek het as wetenskaplike dissipline in sekere opsigte sy bestaansreg verloor. Dit is onder andere veroorsaak deur postmodernistiese denke waarin die waarheid van 'n kontroleerbare bevinding ingeruil is vir die individu se subjektiewe persepsie van waarheid en werklikheid. Dit werk daartoe mee dat die Bybelse hermeneutiek hom in 'n impasse bevind, sodat dit vir die gereformeerde hermeneutiek noodsaaklik geword het om sy vaste punt, die hermeneutiese vertrekpunte waarop die gereformeerde eksegese gegrond is, opnuut te definieer. Hier-die artikel wil dit doen deur n kort bestekopname van die hermeneutiese vertrekpunte van die gereformeerde eksegese te maak en dit vanuit nuwe insigte wat oor die afgelope halfeeu van hermeneutiese besinning na vore gekom het, aan te vul en te verryk.<hr/>Hermeneutics as discipline finds itself in troubled waters. This has been caused, inter alia, by a postmodernistic mindset that has exchanged the truth of a retraceable conclusion for the individual's subjective perception of truth and reality. This has contributed to the fact that biblical hermeneutics finds itself in an impasse, so that it has become necessary for the reformed hermeneutics to redefine its fundamentals: the hermeneutic premises on which reformed exegesis is founded. This article attempts this by way of establishing the state of the art of the hermeneutic premises of reformed exegesis and developing and edifying it, utilising results of the past half century's new insights in hermeneutics. <![CDATA[<b>An ethics of reading the Bible and a hermeneutics of vulnerability</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000200004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Na aanleiding van Van der Walt (2008) se voorstel vir Skrif-benadering as brug tussen Skrifbeskouing en Skrifverklaring, stel die skrywer 'n hermenutiek van weerloosheid voor met die doel om 'n Bybelleesproses te fasiliteer waarvolgens daar nie meer vir mense Bybel gelees word nie, maar mét hulle. So 'n hermeneutiek stel die Bybelleser in staat om te sien wat die effek van 'n bepaalde Skrifverklaring op ander mense is en waarvoor hy of sy verantwoordelikheid moet neem. In die opvolgende bespreking word eerstens gekyk hoe 'n bepaalde soort Bybellees mense weerloos stel en tweedens hoe 'n hermeneutiek van weerloosheid hierdie weerloosstelling in die oopte bring.<hr/>On the basis of Van der Walt's (2008) proposal regarding an approach towards Scripture, the author proposes a hermeneutics of vulnerability that aims to facilitate a Bible reading process "with" people and no longer "for" people. Such a hermeneutic will enable the Bible reader to take into account the effect a particular explanation of Scripture will have on people for which he or she need to take responsibility. In the ensuing discussion, firstly, the author looks at the way people are being made destitute by a particular reading of the Bible, and secondly, discusses how a hermeneutic of vulnerability reveals such a vulnerableness. <![CDATA[<b>Grammatical-historical exegesis: <i>Quid est et quo vadis?</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000200005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hierdie artikel neem die grammaties-historiese metode van Bybelverklaring onder die loep. Die doel is om by wyse van kritiese ondersoek, bepaalde leemtes in die benadering uit te wys en voorstelle te maak met betrekking tot die aanpassing van hierdie metode. Klem word veral gelê op die histories- en leser-gefokusde aspekte wat by die lees van n antieke Bybelteks ter sake is. Die ontwikkeling van die grammaties-historiese metode word teen die agtergrond van die ontwikkeling van Bybelverklaring in die algemeen geplaas. Laastens word voorgestel hoe resultate van ondersoeke na die historiese Jesus n bydrae tot verantwoorde eksegese kan maak.<hr/>This article investigates the grammatical-historical method of biblical interpretation. The aim is to indicate certain problems in the approach through critical investigation and to make suggestions regarding changes to this method. Emphasis is placed on the historical- and reader-focused aspects related to reading an ancient biblical text. The development of the grammatical-historical method is placed against the backdrop of the development of biblical interpretation in general. Lastly, suggestions are made on how the results of the historical-Jesus research can contribute to responsible exegesis. <![CDATA[<b>A workshop for theology, philosophy and other disciplines</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000200006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die voorstel dat 'n werkgroep tussen teoloë, filosowe en ander vakspesialiste op die been gebring word, hang nou saam met die insig dat grondslaekwessies in alle fakulteite en studie-rigtings bestaan. Die skrywer beweeg weg van die onderskeid dat teologie "sakrale geloofswetenskap" en filosofie "sekulêre rasionele diskoers" is. Teologie en filosofie kan nie sonder "geloof" en grondslaekwessies beoefen word nie. Daarom kan bona fides en grondslaekwessies interdissiplinêr deurlopend in 'n werkgroep aandag kry. Vanuit die meerdimensionele opset van wetenskap (empiriese, metodologiese en dimensies van metakwessies) beredeneer die skrywer dat wetenskaplike dissiplines simbioties aan grond-slaekwessies verbind is. Beperkings en voordele van logiese, transendentale en trans-formasionele kritiek word gebruik om opsetlike samewerking tussen betrokke vakgeleerdes te bevorder oor gemeenskaplike sake en oor nodige én onwenslike verskille tussen die dissiplines. Verskeie aannames kom ter sprake, soos dat die eie vakrigting nie alles oor sogenaamde gemeenskaplike kwessies te sê het nie; dat die onderskeie vakgenote by mekaar kan leer; dat Christelike teologie nié 'n Christelike denke in ander dissiplines soos taalwetenskappe en filosofie oorbodig maak nie. Vakspesialiste verarm hulleself indien hulle ontslae wil raak van hulle vak-inherente grondslaekwessies, daaroor swyg of dit aan filosowe afstaan.<hr/>The proposal to start a workshop among theologians, philosophers and other specialists is connected to the view that foundational issues exist in every faculty and in every field of study. A distinction between theology as "divinity knowledge" and philosophy as "secular rational discourse" is set aside by explaining that both theology and philosophy are "sciences of faith". Not one single discipline is without its bona fides and its foundational issues. Hence, the suggestion to pay continual attention to foundational issues in theology, philosophy and other concerned disciplines in an interdisciplinary workshop. Using the so-called multidimensional scope of science (empirical, methodological and dimension of meta-issues) the author argues that any scientific discipline is inextricably bound up with foundational issues. Some limitations and some advantages of scientific inquiries like logical critique, transcendental critique, and transforming of elements of truths serve as to deliberately further co-operation between specialists on common fundamental issues, on inadmissible/undesirable differences and on indispensable diversity. Several assumptions are presented, for example one's own specialist field does not have the final word about common issues; that various specialists can learn from one another; Christian theology does not renderChristian scholarship redundant in other scientific disciplines such as languages or philosophy. Special disciplines deteriorate in scientific quality whenever specialists tend to get rid of their inherent foundational issues, tend to keep quiet about them, or pass them on to philosophers. <![CDATA[<b>Texts, co-texts, and con-texts of the empty tomb in the Jesus tradition</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000200007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die artikel is vanuit 'n pragmaties-linguïstieke perspektief geskryf wat 'n onderskeid tref tussen die begrippe "tekste", "ko-tekste" en "kon-tekste". Hierdie onderskeid verskaf die raamwerk van 'n ondersoek na die tradisie van die leë graf van Jesus, soos blyk uit die vroeg-Christelike literatuur. Die doel van die artikel is om aan te toon dat die mite ten grondslag van die leë-graftradisie ontwikkelingsfases deurloop het. Hierdie ontwikkeling word as 'n trajek met vyf skakels voorgestel. In die eerste skakel word die skeppingsmotief metafories na aanleiding van 'n fundamentele narratief gebruik. Dit herinner aan die oortuiging dat God uit niks geskep het ("creatio ex nihilo"). In antropologiese en psigologiese terme manifesteer hierdie herinnering op 'n metaforiese wyse deur onderskeidelik na Israel as 'n verdrukte nasie en na individuele martelaars in Israel se geskiedenis te verwys. Die skakels van die trajek ontvou chronologies: eerstens die neerdaal van 'n lyk in die doderyk ("sheol"); tweedens die objektivering van metafore wat op Israel as groep en op individuele martelaars betrekking het; derdens die Helleniserende invloed van die "teologie" van apoteose/vergoddeliking, onsterflikheid en reïnkarnasie op Semitiese voorstellings; vierdens die bemagtiging van gereg-verdigde sterflike lydendes in hulle deelname aan die nuutgemaakte lewe van opgestane verheerlikte helde; en ten slotte dra al genoemde skakels daartoe by dat die opstandingsgeloof as helend ervaar is binne die kultiese konteks van gelowiges wat in reële of simboliese terme rondom die graf van Jesus vergader.<hr/>An investigation of texts, co-texts and con-texts of the empty tomb in the Jesus tradition provides a "situation-specific common background knowledge" (Auer, 1996:18-19) from which perspective this article is written. The article aims to argue that the myth behind the empty tomb in the Jesus tradition deploys a trajectory of five links. Its origin, the first of the five links, is to be found in the metaphorical use of the motif of recreation analogous to the foundational narrative in Israel's historical memoirs of God's "creatio ex nihilo". The foundational narrative consists of a collective anthropological facet and an indivdual psychological facet. The anthropological facet is manifested in the memoir of the suppression of Israel as a downtrodden nation. The individual facet pertains to the martyred heroes in Israel's history. In this article the five links of the trajectory are conceptualised in five chronological phases represented by specific textual evidence. They are, firstly, the descent of a corpse into the sheol; secondly, the objectifying of metaphorical language about the resurrection of the dead, which refers to either Israel as a "corporate personality" or individuals; thirdly, the Hellenisation of the resurrection belief-pattern which existed in the Semitic, Eastern-Mediterranean world, in the light of the theology of apotheosis/divinisation and ideas about immortality and reincarnation; and fourthly, the empowerment of suffering righteous mortals when participating in the renewed life of resurrected/ascended divine heroes. The fifth phase pertains to the period when the other four phases reached an apogee and resurrection belief served as a kind of coping-healing. The article aims to argue that the hermeneutical significance of the empty tomb in the Jesus tradition is to be found in the third phase. The modes in terms of which Jesus' empty tomb were interpreted by the first "Christ-followers" are to be found in phases four and five. <![CDATA[<b>The authority of Jesus' preaching and the baptism</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000200008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die vraag wat in hierdie artikel ondersoek word, is die verband tussen die gesag van Jesus se prediking en die doop wat deur Hom ingestel is. Die doel is om tot praktyk-teoretiese gevolgtrekkings te kom oor die uitwerking wat die gesag van Jesus se prediking op die doop mag hê. Eers word op die betekenis van die gesag van Jesus se prediking gefokus en vervolgens op die verband tussen die gesag van Jesus se prediking en die doop aan die hand van Matteus 28:18-20. Laastens word enkele praktyk-teoretiese afleidings daaruit vasstel vir die doop. Omdat Jesus se prediking in sy eenheid met sy Vader, sy volmag as Gestuurde en sy selfgetuienis begrond word, het sy prediking volstrekte gesag. Sy prediking bewerk wat dit verkondig en eis van die hoorder geloof. Die feit dat Jesus alle mag het, gee aan Hom die reg om die opdrag tot doop te gee. Die doop dien om Jesus se koningsheerlikheid te openbaar. Deur die doop laat Jesus sy seggenskap oor die lewe van die gedoopte en die doopouers geld en kan Hy ook van hulle onvoorwaardelike gehoorsaamheid eis. Die gesag word deur die prediking uit-geoefen, omdat Jesus sy gesag tot vandag toe deur die prediking voortsit.<hr/>The question investigated in this article is what the relation is between the authority of the preaching of Jesus and the baptism that He instituted. The purpose is to reach practice-theoretical deductions regarding the effect what the authority of Jesus' preaching might have on the baptism. Firstly, the focus is on the meaning of the authority of the preaching of Jesus, and consequently on the relation between the authority of Jesus' preaching and the baptism based on Matthew 28:18-20. Lastly, the emphasis is on determining some practice-theoretical deductions of this for the baptism. Jesus' preaching is founded in his unity with his Father, his mandate as Messenger and his self-testimony. Therefore, his preaching has absolute authority. His preaching works that which it proclaims, and demands faith from the listener. The fact that Jesus has sovereign power, gives Him the right to give the command to baptise. Baptism serves to reveal Christ's divine glory. Through baptism Jesus sets his authority over the life of the baptised and the covenant parents, and as a result He can also demand unconditional obedience from them. His authority is enacted through preaching, because Jesus continues his authority in his preaching, even today. <![CDATA[<b>The foundational statement in Matthew 5:17-20 on the continuing validity of the law</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000200009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The statement of Jesus in Matthew 5:17-20 forms a pivotal point of Matthew's teaching on the law. Yet, some scholars argue that these verses reveal a strong Jewish character, with eclectic layers of traditions that even contradict one another. Matthew is being accused of careless inclusion of this material into his text which led to an inconsistent overall teaching of the law. This article proposes that a careful reading of the different elements of the statement within its context reveals its coherence. The statement forms an inherent part of the Sermon on the Mount and the rest of the Gospel through which Matthew in a pastoral manner addresses concerns of his community regarding their righteousness.<hr/>Jesus se stelling in Matteus 5:17-20 vorm 'n sleutelpunt in Matteus se leer oor die wet. Sommige navorsers meen egter dat hierdie verse 'n sterk Joodse karakter openbaar, met eklektiese lae van tradisies wat mekaar selfs weerspreek. Matteus word daarvan beskuldig dat hy op 'n argelose manier materiaal in sy teks ingevoeg het wat oorkoepelend tot 'n onsame-hangende leer oor die wet lei. Hierdie artikel beredeneer dat, indien die verskillende elemente van die stelling versigtig binne konteks gelees word, die samehang wel duidelik is. Die stelling vorm 'n inherente deel van die Bergrede en die res van die Evangelie waarin Matteus op 'n pastorale manier die kommer van sy gemeenskap oor geregtigheid hanteer. <![CDATA[<b>Jesus' table fellowship with tax collectors and sinners: Aspects of a missional ecclesiology</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000200010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Kerke met 'n geskiedenis van 'n sterk sosio-kulturele teenwoordigheid, moet dikwels aanpas by 'n nuwe gemarginaliseerde bestaan, gestroop van mag en invloed, in 'n toenemend sekulêre samelewing wat gedomineer word deur postmoderne waardes. Baie kerke beskou dit as 'n bedreiging en probeer hulleself beskerm deur die grense tussen hulleself en die omringende gemeenskap te versterk, en die heiligheid van die kerk as rede daarvoor aan te voer. Dit veroorsaak afgesonderde, eksklusiewe geloofsgemeenskappe sonder enige missionêre identiteit, en 'n skeuring tussen ekklesiologie en missiologie. Hierdie artikel stel dat Jesus se tafelgemeenskap met belastinggaarders en sondaars 'n motief daarvoor verskaf om weer 'n missionêre ekklesiologie daar te stel. Jesus het sy identiteit as die Heilige van God gedefinieer deur verwydering van grense en 'n inklusiewe opsoek van die gemarginaliseerdes van die samelewing van sy tyd. Hy het onder hulle 'n nuwe gemeenskap van God se volk gevestig. Net so sal 'n missionêre kerk nie haar heiligheid verstaan as 'n afsonderlike bestaan van die omringende gemeenskap nie, maar die kerk se heiligheid sal eerder as diens aan God se verlossingsdoel manifesteer, en sy sal haarself toewy aan 'n uitnodigende oopstelling en bevrydende betrokke wees in die lewens van ander, op 'n wyse wat gelyksoortig is aan die inkarnasie van die Seun van God. Dit sal 'n bewuste sosiale herposisionering van die kerk na die ontmag-tigde buitenste grense van die samelewing tot gevolg moet hê, as 'n teken van die eskatologiese gemeenskap van Christus wat Hy steeds rondom Homself vergader.<hr/>Christian churches with a historically powerful socio-cultural presence often have to adjust to a new marginalised and disempowered existence, stripped of influence in an increasingly secular society dominated by postmodern values. Many churches view this as a threat, and attempt to protect themselves through strengthening of the boundaries between them and the surrounding community, citing the holiness of the church as reason. This results in isolated and exclusive faith communities with no missionary identity, and a split between ecclesiology and missiology. This article proposes that Jesus' table fellowship with tax collectors and sinners provides a motif for restating a missional ecclesiology. Jesus defined his identity as the Holy One of God by removal of boundaries and an inclusive seeking out of the marginalised in the society of his time. He shaped a new community of God's people among them. Likewise, a missional church will understand her holiness not as separation from the world, but as service to God's redemptive purposes, and will devote herself to inviting vulnerability and redemptive entering into the lives of others similar to the incarnation of the Son of God. This will result in the conscious social relocation of the church to the disempowered margins of society, as a sign of the eschatological community of Christ that He continues to gather around Himself in the present. <![CDATA[<b>The Gospel of John's perception of ethical behaviour</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000200011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Johannine ethics have proven to be a problematic and challenging area of research. In this article the way in which the author of the Gospel of John defines ethical actions are explored. What does he describe as the works of God and what is really good, according to him? The conclusion is that the analytical categories for treating the ethics in the Gospel of John should be broadened.<hr/>Johannese etiek is 'n problematiese en uitdagende onder-soekveld. In hierdie artikel word die manier waarop die outeur van Johannes etiese aksies definieer, ondersoek. Wat sien hy as die werke van God en wat is, volgens hom, werklik goed? Die konklusie is dat die analitiese kategorieë verbreed moet word waarvolgens etiek in die Evangelie van Johannes hanteer moet word. <![CDATA[<b>A text-centred rhetorical analysis of 1 Corinthians 4</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000200012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die tradisionele benadering tot die retoriese analise van Paulus se briewe is die gebruikmaking van kategorieë, ontleen aan die Grieks-Romeinse retoriese sisteem, om sin van sy oorreding-strategie te maak. Die probleem met die benadering is dat hierdie kategorieë vir die maak van toesprake bedoel was en nie vir die analise van briewe nie. Ten einde die probleem te hanteer, het geleerdes alternatiewe benaderings tot die analise van Paulus se briewe ontwikkel, waaronder die sogenaamde teksgesentreerde benadering. Met die analisering van 1 Korintiërs 4 deur 'n teksgesentreerde benadering, beoog ek om addisionele bewyse te bied dat dit onnodig is om antieke retoriese kategorieë van buite op die hoofstuk af te dwing ten einde sin te maak van Paulus se retoriese strategie. Dit kan betreklik akkuraat uit die teks self gerekonstrueer word, mits die hoofstuk sistematies en deeglik bestudeer word.<hr/>The traditional approach in rhetorical analyses of Paul's letters is to apply categories derived from the Greek-Roman rhetorical system to make sense of his persuasive strategy. The problem with this approach is that the categories were intended for the production of speeches and not for the analysis of letters. In order to address the problem, scholars have developed alternative approaches to the analysis of his letters - one of them is the so-called text-centred approach. By analysing 1 Corinthians 4 through a text-centred approach, I intend to provide additional evidence that it is unnecessary to force ancient rhetorical categories (from outside) on the chapter to make sense of Paul's persuasive strategy. It can be reconstructed fairly accurately from the text itself, provided that the chapter is studied carefully and systematically. <![CDATA[<b>A blueprint for the future, Ephesians 1:9-10</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000200013&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Het doel van dit artikel is om een explicatie te geven van de zeer omstreden frase "anakephalaisasthai ta panta" in Efeziërs 1:10. Vanaf het begin van de geschiedenis van de exegese worden we met een zeer uiteenlopende reeks verklaringen van deze frase geconfronteerd. Om deze frase correct te verstaan, is een nauwkeurige exegese van elk onderdeel van deze frase noodzakelijk. Daar benevens moet onderzocht worden wat de plaats van deze frase is in het rede beleid van de hele brief. Daarbij moet de onmiddellijke context waarin de frase geplaatst is ook aan een nauwkeurig onderzoek onderworpen worden. Tenslotte moet er een antwoord gegeven worden op de vraag of het geen Paulus hier leert ook voor de moderne mens van deze tijd even actueel is als in de dagen van de apostel.<hr/>The aim of this article is to give an explanation of the phrase "anakephalaisasthai ta panta" in Ephesians 1:10. To understand this phrase correctly it is necessary to examine every word of this phrase in order to come to a clearer understanding of the whole phrase. The place of this particular phrase within the thought process of the whole epistle, as well as in the immediate context, will be explored to come to a correct perception of the object under research. Finally an answer will be given to the question whether the teaching of Paul is as vital today as it was in Paul's own day. <![CDATA[<b>Does Philemon still have meaning for Christians today?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000200014&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hierdie artikel wil aantoon dat dit in Filemon ten diepste gaan om ortopraksis, by name die onderlinge gemeenskap van gelowiges in die kerk, met as onderbou die aspekte van onderlinge liefde en respek, gasvryheid en missionêre betrokkenheid. Die brief is uitsluitlik 'n menslike dokument. Dit handel oor die menslike vraagstuk van hoe 'n Christen sy ontloopte slaaf wat ondertussen ook 'n Christen geword het, behoort te behandel. Eienaar en slaaf het immers broers in Christus geword. Paulus rig daarom 'n versoek dat Filemon aan die slaaf, Onesimus, wat nou na sy baas teruggestuur word, dieselfde gasvryheid sal betoon as wat hy aan Paulus sou betoon indien dit hy was wat Filemon kom besoek het. Die versoek word gerig in die liggaam van die brief wat formeel as 'n antieke versoekskrif gekonsipieer is met die gepaardgaande formele eienskappe daarvan. Wat die betekenis van die brief vir die kerk in die moderne samelewing betref, is die uitdaging dat nie gepoog moet word om etiese kwessies deur 'n stryery oor die interpretasie van losstaande tekste op te los nie, maar dat eerder op die boodskap van 'n boek as 'n geheel gekonsentreer sal word. Dit geld ook vir elke ander Bybelboek.<hr/>The article purports to show that the main thrust of Philemon lies with orthopraxis, in casu the mutual fellowship of believers in the church, underscored by mutual love and respect, hospitality and missionary enterprise. The letter to Philemon is a very human document, dealing with the very human question of how a Christian should treat his runaway slave who has recently converted to Christianity. Owner and slave have become brothers in Christ. Paul, therefore, makes a request that Philemon should show the same hospitality to Onesimus, who is being sent back to his master, that he would show to Paul himself should he come to visit. The request is made in the body of the letter which is formally framed as an ancient petition, showing the typical features of the form. As to the contextual meaning of the text in a modern church situation, the challenge of this letter (but also that of every book of the Bible), is to stop trying to solve ethical questions by bickering over the interpretation of proof texts and rather concentrate on the message of the book as a whole. This should result in completely new answers to old and seemingly insoluble questions. <![CDATA[<b>Corresponding guidance by the RCSA's ministers of the Word: A study of the guidance provided by Peter, Paul and James on four occasions</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000200015&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Verskille tussen predikante in die GKSA in die leiding wat hulle uit die Woord gee, het die afgelope aantal jare sterk op die voorgrond getree. Dit is duidelik dat hierdie verskille onder dié wat as geroepenes voor moet loop, nie die welvaart van die kerk dien nie. In hierdie artikel word riglyne aan voorgangers -in casu vir predikante van die GKSA - aangedui om ooreenstemmende leiding te bewerkstellig. Hierdie riglyne word aangebied na die bestudering van die leiding wat Petrus, Paulus en Jakobus by vier byeenkomste gegee het waar die vraagstuk van die Christene uit die nie-Joodse nasies hanteer is. In die artikel word gekonsentreer op die onderlinge verhouding van die drie voorgangers met mekaar in die leiding wat hulle gegee het, asook moontlike riglyne wat dit vir hedendaagse voorgangers mag bied om ooreenstemmende leiding te bewerkstellig.<hr/>Differences between RCSA ministers in terms of their guidance from the Word of God have become increasingly apparent in recent years. It is clear that these differences among those who are called to lead are not in the best interest of the church. The present article sets out guidelines for church leaders - in casu, for ministers of the RCSA - to achieve non-conflicting guidance. These guidelines are presented after studying the guidance provided by Peter, Paul and James on four occasions when dealing with the matter of the Christians from the non-Jewish nations. The article focuses on the interrelationship between the three church leaders regarding the guidance that they offered, as well as guidelines that could be derived from their conduct to enable present-day church leaders to achieve non-conflicting guidance. <![CDATA[<b>How can God allow it?</b> <b>A bibliological enrichment of the theodicy issue from a comparison between the Book of Revelation and 4 Ezra</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000200016&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es By die verstaan en beskrywing van die verhouding tussen God en die mens, kom die prominente teodiseevraagstuk telkens na vore. Die hart van die problematiek is die eeue oue worsteling om as gelowige die goddelike voorsienigheid in verband te bring met menslike lyding en teenspoed. Op hierdie vraagstuk het filosowe en teoloë uiteenlopende kommentaar gelewer. Enkele kommentare word genoem. Goed en kwaad kan in 'n dualistiese, harmoniese, pluralistiese of teleologiese verhouding verstaan word. Volgens reformatoriese besinning setel die verstaan van teodisee eerder in die soteriologiese en eskatologiese. Dit word bevestig deur die Ou Testament, intertestamentêre geskrifte en die Nuwe Testament. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om ook die aandag op die apokriewe geskrif, 4 Esra te vestig. Volgens die ontvouing van die apokaliptiese narratief van 4 Esra kom verrassende insigte oor die teodiseevraagstuk na vore.<hr/>In the process of understanding and defining the relationship between God and man, the theodicy issue frequently floats to the surface. A long strand in the history of philosophy and theology has addressed itself to the task of reconciling God's omnipotence and benevolence with human suffering and the existence of evil. Some of the philosophical and theological views are represented in this article. According to reformed scholarly presentation, theodicy should seriously take into account the soteriological and eschatological hermeneutical views. This is confirmed by the Old Testament, intertestamental literature and the New Testament. The purpose of this article is to draw attention to the apocryphal 4 Ezra which puts surprising views about theodicy on the table. <![CDATA[<b>Pastoral guidance of the adopted child with regard to the Fatherhood of God</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000200017&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In hierdie artikel word die betekenis van die Vaderskap van God by aangenome kinders ondersoek en ook hoe hulle pastoraal daarin begelei kan word. Die voortgaande debat oor aangenome kinders en spesifieke kwessies by aangenome kinders soos identiteit, verwerping en verlies word bespreek. Verder word die vaderbeeld wat aangenome kinders van onderskeidelik die biologiese vader en die aanneemvader het, ondersoek, gevolg deur 'n bespreking van hoe die aangenome kind se beeld van God moontlik beïnvloed kan word deur die beeld van 'n aardse vader. Riglyne vir pastorale begeleiding tot 'n gesonde opvatting oor die Vaderskap van God en die vorming van identiteit, asook die hantering van verwerping en verlies, word gegee. Die artikel sluit af met enkele gevolgtrekkings.<hr/>In this article the significance of the Fatherhood of God for adopted children and the way they may be guided pastorally, is researched. The ongoing debate regarding adopted children and specific issues with them, like identity, rejection and loss, will be discussed. The father-image adopted children have of the biological and the adoptive father is respectively investigated, followed by a discussion of how the adopted child's image of God may be influenced by the image of an earthly father. Guidelines for the pastoral guidance regarding the Fatherhood of God and the forming of identity, as well as dealing with rejection and loss, are given. The article ends with some conclusions. <![CDATA[<b>The human dignity of the human embryo: The debate thus far</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000200018&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hierdie artikel fokus op sommige onlangse argumente in verband met die etiek van stamselnavorsing soos dit beredeneer word in die artikels in die publikasie van Gruen et al. (2007), "Stem cell research: the ethical issues". Rakende die gebruik van menslike embrio's in stamselnavorsing, behandel hierdie artikels die potensiaal van die menslike embrio, die morele status (menswaardigheid) van die embrio, die skepping van chimeras, die verkoop van oösiete en ander etiese kwessies in die moderne bioetiek. Ten slotte wys die artikel op die belang-rikste etiese sake waaraan 'n Christelike etiek, uitgaande van 'n deontologiese etiese teoríe, aandag behoort te gee om 'n bydrae tot die kontemporêre bio-etiese debat te lewer.<hr/>This article examines some recent arguments regarding the ethics of stem cell research as they are discussed in the various essays in the publication of Gruen et al. (2007), "Stem cell research: the ethical issues". Regarding the use of human embryos in stem cell research, these essays discuss among other things the potential of the human embryo, the moral status (human dignity) of the human embryo, the creation of chimeras, the sale of ocytes and other ethical issues in modern bioethics. Eventually the article draws attention to the main ethical problems at stake to be dealt with by Christian ethics using a deontological ethical theory. Christian ethics should focus on these problems in the on-going ethical debate regarding stem cell research. <![CDATA[<b>The <i>imago Dei</i> in protological, Christological and eschatological perspective</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000200019&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hierdie artikel bespreek die belang van die konsep van die "imago Dei" vir teologiese antropologie. Die sentrale teoretiese argument van die artikel is dat Genesis 1 doelbewus 'n "oop" betekenis aan die "imago Dei" gee, sodat dit verder deur teologiese besinning ingevul kan word. Die "imago Dei" kan daarom nie alleenlik vanuit 'n protologiese perspektief verstaan word nie. Die Christologiese en eskatologiese inhoud wat die Nuwe Testament aan hierdie konsep gee, is bepalend vir die verstaan van die begrip en is belangrik vir die uiteindelike uitbou van 'n teologiese antropologie.<hr/>This article discusses the significance of the concept of the "imago Dei" for theological anthropology. Genesis 1 deliberately gives the concept an "open" meaning to make further theological reflection on the nature thereof possible. A purely pro-tological understanding of the concept is therefore insufficient. The New Testament provides the "imago Dei" with a Christolo-gical and eschatological understanding that is essential for a correct understanding of the concept as well as for the development of a theological anthropology. <![CDATA[<b>Intelligence on three levels as core requirement for the pastor</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000200020&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In hierdie artikel word op die vereiste gefokus dat die bedienaar op 'n verstandelik-, emosioneel- en sosiaal-intelligente wyse moet kan optree en handel. Intellektuele intelligensie word aan die begin van die artikel metateoreties bespreek. Die funksionering van die brein word omlyn in sover dit raakvlakke met verstandelike intelligensie het, in besonder die breinfunksies van die neokorteks, die subkorteks en die amigdala. Onder basis-teoretiese aspekte word die volgende vereistes uit die pastorale briewe betrek: die vereistes dat die bedienaar bevoegd moet wees om die gemeente uit God se Woord te onderrig en die vereiste dat hy die vermoë moet hê om op 'n verstandige wyse te handel. Vervolgens word metateoretiese aspekte van emosionele intelligensie aangedui, waaronder 'n goeie selfbewussyn, 'n helder beskouing van die eie vermoëns, gefundeerde selfvertroue, selfbeheer, om met doelwitte te kan werk, die hantering van die eie emosionele letsels, en insig in en hantering van die eie emosies. Hierdie vereistes word in die bespreking betrek juis omdat dit deel van die pastor se bedieningswyse raak. As basisteoretiese perspektiewe op emosionele intelligensie is veral die aspekte van empatie en die geborgenheid van die bedienaar betrek. Ten opsigte van sosiale intelligensie is metateoreties gestel dat dit 'n kernvereiste is om 'n ander se situasie te kan verstaan, aan te voel en op die ander persoon se gevoelens te kan inspeel. Die proses van verhoudingsvorming en die betoon van empatie is op basisteoretiese wyse nagegaan en nader omskryf. Ten slotte is praktykteoretiese riglyne gebied vir die moontlike implementering van verstandelike, emosionele en sosiale intelligensie in die werk en toerusting van 'n dienskneg van God.<hr/>In this article the requirement that a pastor should act and behave in an intellectually, emotionally and socially intelligent way is focused on. At the outset of the article intellectual intelligence is discussed metatheoretically. The functioning of the brain, especially of the neocortex, the sub-cortex and the amygdala is outlined as far as intellectual intelligence is concerned. Basis-theoretically relevant requirements for being intellectually intelligent are then investigated, in particular relevant requirements for the sound equipment of the pastor as stated in the pastoral epistles. In this respect the following aspects are scrutinised: the requirement that the pastor should have the competence to instruct the congregation from God's Word, and the requirement that the pastor should have the ability to equip his congregation in an intellectually sound way. In the ensuing part of the article metatheoretical viewpoints on emotional intelligence are outlined. Aspects like the following are indicated and mentioned as these should form part of the pastor's equipment: the value of a sound self-awareness, a clear perspective on own competencies, a founded self-confidence, self-control, the ability to minister with certain aims in mind, to handle own emotional wounds, and in the last instance, the requirement of insight and how to cope with own emotions. The requirement that the pastor should exercise self-control and the conviction of being called by and cared for by his Sender, God, are included as basis-theoretical material. As far as social intelligence is concerned, the following elements are taken into consideration on meta-theoretical level: the ability to have an understanding for the situation of someone else and the competence to tune into the feelings of another person. Aspects of the requirement to create relationships, and issues of empathy are investigated and described basis-theoretically. In conclusion practice-theoretical guidelines are formulated for a possible implementation of intellectual, emotional and social intelligence in the ministry of a servant of God. <![CDATA[<b>From Calvinism to existentialism: A theological discussion with André P. Brink with reference to his memoirs</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000200021&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die outeur probeer in hierdie artikel om 'n teologiese gesprek met die welbekende en wêreldberoemde skrywer André P. Brink te ontwikkel oor die temas van Calvinisme en eksistensialisme. Die groot vraag is waarom Brink, wat in 'n Suid-Afrikaanse Calvinistiese milieu opgegroei het, wat versterk is deur sy studies aan die Potchefstroomse Universiteit vir Christelike Hoër Onderwys, sy rug op die Calvinisme gekeer en die eksistensialisme aanvaar het tydens sy studie in Parys. Waarom is Potchefstroom ingeruil vir Parys? Waarom is Christus vervang met Camus? Het Brink 'n deeglike vergelyking gemaak tussen Calvinisme en eksistensialisme of was sy besluit oorhaastig? Hierdie is die boeiende vraag wat die skrywer in hierdie ondersoek probeer ontrafel.<hr/>In this article the author attempts to develop a theological discussion with the well-known and world-famous writer André P. Brink, on the topics of Calvinism and existentialism. The question at stake is why Brink, who grew up in a South African Calvinist milieu, which was reinforced by his studies at the Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education, turned his back on Calvinism and wholeheartedly embraced existentialism during his study in Paris. Why was Potchefstroom exchanged for Paris? Why was Christ replaced by Camus? Did Brink thoroughly compare Calvinism with existentialism or was his decision taken precipitately? This is the fascinating question which the author tries to unravel in this investigation. <![CDATA[<b>The messianic interpretation of the psalms in a number of Antiochene and East Syriac psalm commentaries</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000200022&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die Antiocheense eksegete het die psalms geïnterpreteer teen die agtergrond van die geskiedenis van Israel. Hulle het vir elke psalm 'n historiese agtergrond gerekonstrueer. Dit was in reaksie op die allegoriese interpretasie van die Aleksandrynse skool, wat die psalms allegories verklaar het en dikwels 'n Nuwe-Testamentiese interpretasie in die psalms ingelees het. Hierdie artikel let op die messiaanse interpretasie van twee psalms, naamlik Psalm 2 en 110, asook op een psalm wat dik-wels messiaans geïnterpreteer is, maar waar die messiaanse interpretasie deur die Antiocheense eksegete verwerp is, naamlik Psalm 22. Die interpretasie van die psalms in die kommentare van Diodorus van Tarsus, Theodorus van Mopsuestia en Isô dâdh van Merv word bestudeer, sowel as die kommentaar van Denha-Gregorius, 'n verkorte Siriese weergawe van die kommentaar van Theodorus. Die kommentaar van Diodorus en Theodorus op Psalm 110 is egter nie meer beskikbaar nie. Die interpretasie van hierdie psalm word bespreek aan die hand van die Siriese kommentaar deur Vandenhoff en in die kommentaar van Isô dâdh van Merv, wat albei by die Antiocheense tradisie aangesluit het. Die historiese plasing van die verskillende psalms word in die kommentare as 'n hermeneutiese sleutel hanteer, vir sowel die messiaanse psalms as die nie-messiaanse psalms. Al die besonderhede van die psalms word deur middel van hierdie sleutel verklaar. Theodorus het ten nouste by Diodorus aangesluit en op sy werk uitgebrei. Denha-Gregorius is 'n verkorte weergawe van Theodorus, aangevul met gegewens vanuit 'n Siriese hoek. Isô dâdh van Merv het Theodorus as sy vernaamste bron gebruik, maar ook vanuit 'n Siriese hoek aangevul.<hr/>The Antiochene exegetes interpreted the psalms against the backdrop of the history of Israel. They reconstructed a historical setting for each psalm. They reacted against the allegorical interpretation of the Alexandrian School that frequently interpreted the psalms from the context of the New Testament. This article investigates the messianic interpretation of Psalms 2 and 110, as well as the interpretation of Psalm 22, frequently regarded as messianic in non-Antiochene circles. The interpretation of these psalms in the commentaries of Diodore of Tarsus, Theodore of Mopsuestia and Isô dâdh of Merv will be discussed, as well as the commentary of Denha-Gregorius, an abbreviated Syriac version of the commentary of Theodore. The commentaries of Diodore and Theodore on Psalm 110 are not available. The interpretation of this psalm in the Syriac commentary discussed by Vandenhoff and the commentary of Isô dâdh of Merv, both following Antiochene exegesis, will be used for this psalm. The historical setting of the psalms is used as hermeneutical key for the interpretation of all these psalms. All the detail in a psalm is interpreted against this background, whether messianic or not. Theodore followed Diodore and expanded on him. Denha-Gregorius is an abbreviated version of Theodore, supplemented with data from the Syriac. Isô dâdh of Merv used Theodore as his primary source, but with the same kind of supplementary data from the Syriac. <![CDATA[<b>Origen's theological and mystical approach to the Scriptures in the introduction to his commentary on John's Gospel</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000200023&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es This article explores Origen's approach to interpreting John's Gospel as can be seen in the introduction to his commentary. It deals with the points which were usually discussed in the introductions to Aristotle and Plato. It was this educational aim of the philosophical tradition that was Origen's chief concern in commenting on the Scriptures; an aim which was not seen as merely becoming skilled or well-informed. Rather, it was about developing in virtue, in wisdom, in conversion to the Good (Plato); or as Origen understood it, development in love for God. Origen perceived the development of love for God in three basic steps: moral purification, by which the person is enabled to appreciate moral values; enlightenment, by which the person recognises God as the supreme and absolute value; and finally, union with God in love, which is never fully achieved in this life. The New Testament together with the Old Testament (understood in the light of the New Testament), reveals the power of the Gospel "in mirror darkly" while the "eternal gospel" will be the full revelation of it at the eschaton. John's Gospel is the clearest expression of the divine Logos; but no one can understand the text fully as expression of the Logos unless one becomes like John - who was intimately related to the Logos, as the Logos is related to the Father (John 13:23, 25; 1:18).<hr/>Die artikel ondersoek die wyse waarop Origenes die Johannes-evangelie benader soos dit tot uitdrukking kom in die inleiding van sy kommentaar. Hier bespreek hy dieselfde vrae wat gewoonlik in die inleidings tot die werke van Aristoteles of Plato behandel word. Hierdie opvoedkundige bedoeling van die filosofie was die sentrale oorweging vir Origenes in sy kommentaar op die Skrif. Dit gaan nie bloot om ingelig of geskoold te wees nie, maar om te groei en te ontwikkel in wysheid en deugsaamheid, jou tot die Goeie (Plato) te bekeer, of soos Origenes dit beskou het, om liefde vir God te ontwikkel. Origenes beskou die groei in die liefde vir God as bestaande uit drie stappe: eers kom die morele suiwering wat die persoon in staat stel om morele waardes op prys te stel; dan kom die verligting waardeur die persoon God as die allerhoogste en absolute waarde herken; en uiteindelik, die vereniging met God in die liefde wat nie in hierdie lewe ten volle tot vervulling kom nie. Die Nuwe Testament, asook die Ou Testament (verstaan in die lig van die Nuwe Testament), maak die Evangelie "deur 'n spieël in 'n raaisel" bekend, maar die "ewige evangelie" sal in die eschaton tot volle openbaring kom. Die Johannesevangelie is die mees duidelike openbaring van die goddelike Logos, maar 'n mens verstaan die teks as openbaring van die Logos slegs in die mate waarin jy soos Johannes word, wie intiem met die Logos verenig was soos die Logos met die Vader verenig is (Joh. 13:23, 25; 1:18). <![CDATA[<b>Traditions of martyrdom in the Ignatian Letters</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000200024&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The letters of Ignatius represent one of the key texts for the emergence of martyrdom during the second century ad in Christianity. This article is concerned with the question whether Ignatius contributed to a "theology of martyrdom" or whether he rather relied on previous traditions. The author argues, by undertaking an analysis of certain pragmatics and semantics, that the motif of martyrdom is solely used to buttress Ignatius' claim for authority among his intended addressees by referring to an understanding of martyrdom that has its roots in the New Testament. An identification of the author of the letters with a historical martyr is regarded as unlikely.<hr/>Die Ignatiusbriewe verteenwoordig een van die sleuteltekste vir die opkoms van martelaarskap in die Christendom in die tweede eeu n.C. Hierdie artikel wil vasstel of Ignatius bygedra het tot 'n "teologie van martelaarskap", en of hy bloot steun op vorige tradisies. Die outeur se argument, gebou op die ontleding van pragmatiek- en semantiekfasette, kom daarop neer dat Ignatius die martelaarskapsmotief gebruik om sy aanspraak op gesag onder sy geadresseerdes te versterk deur te verwys na 'n verstaan van martelaarskap waarvan die wortels op die Nuwe Testament teruggaan. Dit lyk onwaarskynlik dat die outeur van die briewe self 'n historiese martelaar was.