Scielo RSS <![CDATA[In die Skriflig ]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2305-085320110001&lang=es vol. 45 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Redaksioneel</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000100001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>The necessity of explicating metatheoretical assumptions regarding the view on reality in scientific practical theological research</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000100002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hierdie artikel is die tweede resultaat van die navorsingsprojek "Metateoretiese vertrekpunte in Praktiese Teologie". In hierdie projek - soos in die vorige artikel aangedu- word die meta -teoretiese en ander vertrekpunte van 'n groep reformatoriese navorsers in Praktiese Teologie eksplisiet gemaak en die in-valshoeke by die ondersoek van die praksis aangetoon. In hierdie artikel word die noodsaak daarvan vanuit 'n reformatoriese perspektief beredeneer om metateoretiese vertrekpunte uit te spel ten opsigte van die werklikheidsbeskouing. Die prakties-teologiese implikasies van 'n werklikheidsbeskouing, met sy wortels in die sestiende-eeuse protestantse Reformasie, word krities vergelyk met en verantwoord ten opsigte van 'n alternatiewe werklikheidsbeskouing in die kontemporêre konteks wat meer fokus op die horisontale dimensie van handelings wat in die praksis plaasvind. Essensiële karaktertrekke van die sestiende-eeuse reformatoriese visie op die werklikheid blyk die skrifbepaalde lens te wees waardeur gekyk word, asook die teosentriese fokus en die manier waarop menslike handelings voorgestel word as 'n weerspieëling van die "imago Dei". Die noodsaak daarvan om kritiese verantwoording van hierdie wêreldbeskoulike aspekte te doen en om dit opnuut te rig ten opsigte van die uitdagings wat daaraan in die kontemporêre konteks gestel word, word bespreek.<hr/>This article is the second in the research project "Metatheoretical assumptions in Practical Theology". In this project - as indicated in the previous article - a group of reformed theologians is elucidating and discussing their metatheoretical and other perspectives regarding research in Practical Theology. In this article the necessity to explain metatheoretical assumptions concerning a view on reality, is discussed from a reformed perspective. The practical theological implications of a view on reality with its roots in the sixteenth-century protestant Reformation are critically compared with an alternative view on reality in the contemporary context which focuses more on the horizontal dimension of the action events taking place in praxis. This comparison is done with a view to responding to this alternative view in a responsible way. Essential characteristics of the sixteenth-century reformed view on reality seem to be its Scripture-determined vision and theocentric focus as well as the way in which human life and actions are represented as reflections of the "imago Dei". The need to critically reflect on these characteristics and to newly align this view on reality with respect to challenges posed in the contemporary context, is explored. <![CDATA[<b>An investigation into the theological message and preaching of Psalm 117</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000100003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Psalm 117 is tegelykertyd 'n bekende en onbekende psalm. Hierdie psalm is bekend as die kortste in die boek van die Psalms, maar daar is min teologiese refleksie op die psalm. Om die vraag na die teologiese boodskap van die psalm te beantwoord, is die psalm aan 'n eksegetiese ondersoek onderwerp waarin aandag gegee word aan sake soos die omvang van die psalm, tekskritiese kwessies, strukturele kenmerke, die literêre genre, "Sitz im Leben", datering, die gebruik van tradisiemateriaal, ensovoorts. Die eksegetiese detail het tot 'n teologiese gevolgtrekking gelei dat die (verbonds)liefde en trou van Jahwe wat die volk in die verlede ervaar het, die rede is waarom vreemde volke en nasies tot lof aan Jahwe opgeroep word. Die psalm het waarskynlik in die ballingskap ontstaan, reflekteer op die verlede en dien as motivering vir die toekoms wanneer die (verbonds)liefde en trou van Jahwe weer ervaar sal word.<hr/>Psalm 117 is at the same a well-known and an unknown psalm. It is well-known as the shortest psalm in the Psalter, but there actually is remarkable little theological reflection on the psalm. To answer the question about the theological message of the psalm, it is subjected to an exegetical investigation giving attention to matters such as the extent of the psalm, text-critical questions, structural features, literary genre, "Sitz im Leben", dating, the use of traditional material, et cetera. The exegetical details lead to a theological conclusion where it was found that the steadfast love and faithfulness of Yahweh experienced by his people in history serve as the reason why foreign nations are called upon to praise Him. The psalm probably originated in an exilic situation, reflects on the past and motivates people towards a future where Yahweh's love and faithfulness will once again be experienced by his people. <![CDATA[<b>A cry of distress for justice or a vindictive call for vengeance?</b> <b>The martyrs under the altar (Rev. 6:9-11)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000100004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die wesenlike vraag wat in hierdie artikel aan die orde kom, is of die martelaars se noodroep in Openbaring 6:9-11 fokus op die regverdiging van God se oordeel of op die martelaars se selfsugtige wraak. Handel dit dus oor die goddelike beskikking in die gang van die geskiedenis van die Christendom of oor die martelaars se wraakgierige selfbevrediging? Albei standpunte het deur die eeue eksegetiese steun gekry wat weer gelei het tot uiteenlopende en dikwels verwarrende teologiese stand-punte. Die eksegetiese keuses het onvermydelik dogmatiese en etiese implikasies. Dit kan verder gevra word of dit teologies betaamlik is dat mense by God kan smeek om wraak te neem op medeskepsels van God. Bogenoemde eksegetiese kernvraag met sy teologiese implikasies word gerieflikheidshalwe in die meeste eksegetiese analises van Openbaring 6:9-11 verswyg. Nuwer navorsing oor die psigologiese en sosio-kulturele situa-sie van die historiese eerste ontvangers van Openbaring, asook oor martelaarskap in die vroeë kerk, word in hierdie artikel aangewend om 'n nuwe blik te kry op 'n ou eksegetiese probleem. Eksegetiese uitsluitsel word oor genoemde vrae na aanleiding van Openbaring 6:9-11 verkry en die resultaat ontplooi as 'n sleutelmotief en "sakelys" in die ontvouing van die dramatiese narratief en teologiese boodskap in die res van die gang van die dramatiese narratief van Openbaring.<hr/>The essential question to be answered in this article arises from the martyrs' cry in Revelation 6:9-11. Is the cry to be interpreted as a justification of God's judgement or as a cry for vengeance by the suffering martyrs? In other words, is it about God's disposition in the history of Christianity or about the revengeful self-satisfaction of the martyrs? Both these views have been proposed by exegetes and this has led to confusing theological viewpoints. These exegetical preferences determine further dogmatic and ethical implications. The question may also be asked whether it is at all fitting for Christians to urge God to take revenge on their fellows. In almost all the commentaries on Revelation 6:9-11 the exegetes have neglected the theological implications of their exegetical choices concerning these texts. Newer research on the psychological and socio-cultural situation of the first historical receivers of Revelation, as well as the issue of martyrdom in the early church, help an exegete to gain new insights into an old exegetical problem. Decisive exegetical results also serve as key motifs in the unfolding of the dramatic narrative and theological message in the further chapters of Revelation. <![CDATA[<b>Gospel and constitutional imperatives: The right to life</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000100005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In the Republic of South Africa, Christians are called to live out gospel imperatives within the legal framework of the Constitution. Ethical issues about the right to life are considered from the perspectives of selected gospel and constitutional imperatives. Gospel imperatives impose themselves as a consequence of Christian discipleship. These are many and diverse, both explicit and implicit. Christian vocation, discipleship, witness and perseverance, are foundational and integral to the praxis of Christian daily living. These facets of Christian life are illustrated by the selected gospel imperatives, "Follow me" (Matt. 4:19 and synoptic parallels), "Love God, and your neighbour as yourself" (Matt. 22:34-40 and synoptic parallels), and "Take up your cross" (Matt. 10:38 and synoptic parallels). The central theoretical argument of this article is driven from a reformed ethical perspective. Gospel imperatives have priority over constitutional imperatives since gospel imperatives are of divine origin and constitutional imperatives of human origin. Acknowledgement of these priorities informs the Christian ethical perspective on the right to life and on abortion.<hr/>In die Republiek van Suid-Afrika word Christene uitgedaag om evangeliese imperatiewe binne die regskundige raamwerk van die Grondwet uit te leef. Etiese uitvloeisels met betrekking tot die reg op lewe word vanuit die oogpunte van gekose evan-geliese en grondwetlike imperatiewe beskou. Evangeliese imperatiewe word gestel as gevolg van Christelike dissipelskap. Daar is vele en verskeie, uitdruklike en onuitgesproke imperatiewe. Die Christelike roeping, dissipelskap, getuienis en volharding, is fundameteel en integraal tot die beoefening van die daaglikse bestaan van die Christen. Hierdie onderdele van die Christelike lewe word toegelig deur die gekose evangeliese imperatiewe: "Volg my" (Matt. 14:19 en sinoptiese vergely-kings), "bemin God en u naaste soos uself" (Matt. 22:34-40 en sinoptiese vergelykings), en "Neem u kruis op" (Matt. 10:38 en sinoptiese vergelykings). Die sentrale teoretiese betoog van hierdie artikel is, gesien vanuit 'n gereformeerde etiese oogpunt, dat evangeliese imperatiewe voorrang bo grondwetlike imperatiewe geniet, aangesien evangeliese imperatiewe 'n goddelike grondslag het, terwyl grondwetlike imperatiewe 'n menslike oorsprong het. Erkenning van hierdie voorang belig die Christelik-etiese perspektief op die reg tot lewe en aborsie. <![CDATA[<b>A supplementary formulary focused on the relation between Passover and Holy Communion</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000100006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Kan 'n aanvullende formulier wat veral fokus op die verhouding tussen Pasga en die nagmaal deelname aan nagmaalsvierings verryk? Nadat die verloop van die Pasga asook die twee momente waarby Jesus by die instelling van die nagmaal aangesluit het, nagegaan is, is bevind dat die volgende aspekte minstens die betekenis en belewing van die viering kan aanvul. By die eet van die brood (Pasga: die brood van smarte) dink en beleef die deelnemer aan die nagmaal die smart van die slawerny van die sonde en gee doelbewus hierdie skuld aan Christus af en ontvang regstreeks die versekering van vergewing van sonde. By die drink van die beker van danksegging beleef die gelowige dat die feesvreugde van verlossing en versoening, dus 'n nuwe begin, 'n deurbraak. Dit vra dat die lewe gesuiwer moet word van die ou sondige gewoontes (die ou suurdeeg) as die resultaat en uitwerking van die viering van die nagmaal. Die nagmaal moet, weens sy unieke eskatologiese perspektief (in teenstelling met die Pasga) die uitwerking hê dat die dood van Christus in die daaglikse lewe verkondig word totdat Hy kom. 'n Voorbeeld van so 'n moontlike aanvullende formulier word ingesluit.<hr/>Can a supplementary formulary that especially focuses on the relation between Passover and Holy Communion enrich the celebration of Holy Communion? After an investigation into the course of events during Passover and the two moments Jesus links up with during the institution of Holy Communion, the researcher found that the following aspects can at least add to the meaning and experience of the celebration. During the eating of the bread (at Passover: the bread of sorrow), the participant is guided to think of and experience the sorrow of slavery to sin and to consciously surrender this guilt to Christ. The believer directly receives the assurance of the forgiveness of sins. During the drinking of the cup of thanksgiving the believer experiences the festive joy of redemption and reconciliation, and consequently feels a new beginning breaking through. This urges the believer to purify his/her life from the old sinful habits (the old yeast) as the result and consequence of the celebration of the Communion. The Communion should, due to its unique eschatological perspective (in contradiction to Passover) have the effect that the death of Christ is proclaimed in the daily life of the believer until He comes. An example of such a possible supplementary formulary is included. <![CDATA[<b>Calvin as "practical theologian": The contribution of a theodramatic paradigm</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000100007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Om te vra na die rol en plek van 'n spesifieke dissipline (in hierdie geval Praktiese Teologie), moet 'n mens 'n goeie idee hê waar jy vandaan kom. Hierdie artikel poog om die vraag na die rol van Praktiese Teologie binne die veld van teologie te beantwoord in gesprek met sekere perspektiewe van die sestiende-eeuse hervormer, Johannes Calvyn. Daar word geargumenteer dat Calvyn in 'n eeu geleef het wat deur geleerdes gereken word as een van die goue periodes waarin die wêreld van kuns en teater hoogty gevier het. Calvyn se eeu is veral gekenmerk deur 'n dramatiese visie op die menslike bestaan en hierdie visie het ook 'n impak op sy denke gehad. Teen hierdie agtergrond tree hierdie artikel in gesprek ten opsigte van die rol en plek van praktiese teologie deur 'n teodramatiese benadering voor te stel. Dit is 'n benadering waarin die gedagte van 'n "herdramatisering" van die wêreld voorgestaan word.<hr/>In order to ask the question about the role and place of a specific discipline (in this case Practical Theology), one must realise where one comes from. This article seeks to answer the question about the role of Practical Theology within the field of theology in conversation with some perspectives offered by the sixteenth-century reformer, John Calvin. It is argued that Calvin lived in a century that scholars regard as one of the golden periods in which the world of the arts and theatre flourished. Hence Calvin's age was characterised by a dramatic vision of human existence and such a vision also had an impact on his own theological thinking. Against this backdrop, the article engages the question of the role and place of practical theology by proposing a theodramatic approach in which the possibilities that the notion of "re-dramatisation" holds, come to the fore. <![CDATA[<b><i>Praxis pietatis:</i></b><b> Reflections on aspects of the spirituality of Augustine</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000100008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Veral sedert die opkoms van die postmodernisme teen die einde van die twintigste eeu - met sy skerp kritiek teen die koue rasionalisme van die modernisme - word in die teologie al hoe meer aandag gegee aan wat genoem word spiritualiteit en "praxis pietatis", ook binne die gereformeerde tradisie. In hierdie artikel ondersoek die outeur die bydrae van die groot kerkvader uit Noord Afrika, Augustinus, in hierdie verband, juis omdat die gereformeerde tradisie (via Calvyn) so 'n sterk aansluiting vind by die teologie van Augustinus. Dit is boeiend om na te gaan hoe Augustinus gepoog het om die pole van rasionaliteit en spiritualiteit, aksie en kontemplasie in hom as persoon te verenig en tot 'n sintese te bring. A. von Harnack het Augustinus nie verniet as "die eerste moderne mens" beskryf nie.<hr/>Especially since the rise of postmodernism by the end of the twentieth century - with its sharp criticism on the frigidity of the rationalism of modernism - theology is much more concerned with what is called spirituality and "praxis pietatis", also within reformed circles. In this article the author investigates the contribution of the great church father from North Africa, Augustine, particularly because the reformed tradition (via Calvin) feels such a strong affinity with the theology of Augustine. It is intriguing to investigate how Augustine tried to unite in his person the polar opposites of rationality and spirituality, contemplation and action and to bring them into a synthesis. Not for nothing was Augustine described by A. von Harnack as "the first modern man. "² <![CDATA[<b>A discourse on eschatology and promissiotherapy with women after the loss of a husband</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000100009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die metafoor "diskoers" word in hierdie navorsing verkies aangesien dit resoneer met die narratiewe benadering. Die ondersoek is prakties-teologies begrond en vanuit postmoderniteit as paradigma nagevors met sosiaal-konstruksionisme as epistemologiese vertrekpunt. Die navorsing is binne die narratief-hermeneutiese navorsingsbenadering geplaas en beginsels onderliggend aan deelnemende aksie-navorsing is as deel van kwalitatiewe navorsingsmetodiek gebruik. Die ondersoek is deur die gebruik van meganismes van die narratiewe benadering geïnformeer. Tydens die pastoraal-terapeutiese gesprekvoering het vroue hulle verhale gekonstrueer en hulle diskoerse oor die hemel word in verbatimuittreksels aangehaal. Die moontlikheid om die belewenis van rou te verstaan en te interpreteer sowel as om hoop en vertroosting met behulp van eskatologie en promissioterapie te fasiliteer, word ondersoek. Eskatologie beklemtoon die Christelike aspek en handel met die eintlike en nie slegs met die uiteindelike nie. Promissioterapie handel met die beloftes wat gemoeid is met die begin en die einde, met ander woorde, die eskatologie. In hierdie bespreking word die vroue se siening van die lewe hierna en die rol wat dit kan speel om hoop en vertroosting te bied, toegelig.<hr/>The central metaphor "discourse" is used in this research because it links with the narrative approach. This discourse is founded in practical theology and researched from postmodernity as paradigm and social constructionism as epistemological point of departure. The research is placed within the narrative hermeneutic approach and principles underlying participatory action research, as part of qualitative research methodology, are portrayed. The discourse is informed by using mechanisms of the narrative approach. Women, affected by the loss of a husband, constructed their stories during the pastoral therapeutic dialogue and their discourses on heaven are portrayed in verbatim conversations. The prospect of eschatology and promissiotherapy, to understand and interpret the experience of mourning and to facilitate hope and consolation, is explored. The concept eschatology emphasises the Christian aspect and deals with the actual and not just the ultimate. Promissiotherapy deals with the promises that are concerned with the beginning and the end or, in other words, the eschatology. The prospect of eschatology and promissiotherapy, to understand and interpret the experience of mourning and to facilitate hope and consolation, is explored. In this discussion the women's portrayal of life hereafter and the role it can play to offer hope and consolation are illustrated. <![CDATA[<b>Pastoral challenges and responses to fear of avenging spirits <i>(ngozi)</i> in Africa: A biblical evaluation and response - a case of the Shona people</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000100010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Avenging spirits, commonly known as "ngozi", are one of the most feared and mysterious spiritual manifestations among African people - particularly the Shona people of Zimbabwe. To address the fears of Christians in such contexts, a contextually relevant pastoral ministry should first of all be designed. Such a ministerial design should proceed from a thorough understanding of the contextual reality of the spiritual world (of "ngozi"). Secondly, it should formulate a biblical response to the phenomenon in order to be informed by a sound biblical premise. Thirdly, its design should utilise the natural potential of community church people. Cognisant of these realities and challenges in African churches, this article grapples with the subject of the fear of avenging spirits in congregations, using the case study of the Shona people of Zimbabwe, and how a pastoral ministry could be designed to address the situation. In doing so, the article discusses the phenomenon of avenging spirits, it provides a systematic biblical response and evaluation of "ngozi" and it proposes a contextually relevant and biblically-informed pastoral ministry to people under consideration.<hr/>Bonatuurlike verskynsels, algemeen bekend as "ngozi" is van die mees gevreesde en raaiselagtigste verskynsels onder die inwoners van Afrika, in besonder onder die Shonasprekende gemeenskap in Zimbabwe. Eerstens word 'n relevante, kontekstuele, pastorale bediening voorgestel om die vrese van gelowiges in hierdie tipe omstandighede te hanteer. Sodanige bedieningsontwerp behoort voort te spruit uit 'n goeie begrip van die kontekstuele realiteit van die spirituele wêreld (van "ngozi"). Tweedens moet 'n bybelsgefundeerde antwoord vir hierdie verskynsel gegee word. Derdens moet die plaaslike gemeenskap bemagtig word. Met inagneming van die uitdagings in Afrikagemeentes, word in hierdie artikel geworstel met die gelowiges se vrese vir bose geeste. Die Shonasprekende gemeenskap in Zimbabwe word as voorbeeld gebruik van hoe 'n geskikte pastorale model toegepas kan word. Die artikel handel oor die bose geesteverskynsel, verskaf 'n sistematiese, bybelse evaluering van "ngozi" en stel 'n kontekstueel-relevante en bybelsgefundeerde, pastorale model vir die Shonagemeenskap in Zimbabwe voor. <![CDATA[<b>Reviews</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532011000100011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Avenging spirits, commonly known as "ngozi", are one of the most feared and mysterious spiritual manifestations among African people - particularly the Shona people of Zimbabwe. To address the fears of Christians in such contexts, a contextually relevant pastoral ministry should first of all be designed. Such a ministerial design should proceed from a thorough understanding of the contextual reality of the spiritual world (of "ngozi"). Secondly, it should formulate a biblical response to the phenomenon in order to be informed by a sound biblical premise. Thirdly, its design should utilise the natural potential of community church people. Cognisant of these realities and challenges in African churches, this article grapples with the subject of the fear of avenging spirits in congregations, using the case study of the Shona people of Zimbabwe, and how a pastoral ministry could be designed to address the situation. In doing so, the article discusses the phenomenon of avenging spirits, it provides a systematic biblical response and evaluation of "ngozi" and it proposes a contextually relevant and biblically-informed pastoral ministry to people under consideration.<hr/>Bonatuurlike verskynsels, algemeen bekend as "ngozi" is van die mees gevreesde en raaiselagtigste verskynsels onder die inwoners van Afrika, in besonder onder die Shonasprekende gemeenskap in Zimbabwe. Eerstens word 'n relevante, kontekstuele, pastorale bediening voorgestel om die vrese van gelowiges in hierdie tipe omstandighede te hanteer. Sodanige bedieningsontwerp behoort voort te spruit uit 'n goeie begrip van die kontekstuele realiteit van die spirituele wêreld (van "ngozi"). Tweedens moet 'n bybelsgefundeerde antwoord vir hierdie verskynsel gegee word. Derdens moet die plaaslike gemeenskap bemagtig word. Met inagneming van die uitdagings in Afrikagemeentes, word in hierdie artikel geworstel met die gelowiges se vrese vir bose geeste. Die Shonasprekende gemeenskap in Zimbabwe word as voorbeeld gebruik van hoe 'n geskikte pastorale model toegepas kan word. Die artikel handel oor die bose geesteverskynsel, verskaf 'n sistematiese, bybelse evaluering van "ngozi" en stel 'n kontekstueel-relevante en bybelsgefundeerde, pastorale model vir die Shonagemeenskap in Zimbabwe voor.