Scielo RSS <![CDATA[In die Skriflig ]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2305-085320100003&lang=en vol. 44 num. 3-4 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Redaksioneel</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532010000300001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>The necessity of reckoning with metatheoretical assumptions in scientific practical-theological research</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532010000300002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Hierdie artikel is die eerste resultaat van die navorsingsprojek "Metateoretiese vertrekpunte in Praktiese Teologie". Die probleem wat ondersoek word, het te make met 'n gebrek aan deursigtigheid met betrekking tot die uitspel van metateoretiese vertrekpunte teen die agtergrond van die pluraliteit in die benaderings tot die navorsing in die vak. Soms verklaar navorsers nie huile teologiese en ander vertrekpunte nie. In hierdie projek word die metateoretiese teologiese en ander vertrekpunte van 'n groep reformatoriese navorsers eksplisiet gemaak en die invalshoeke in die ondersoek van die praksis aangetoon. Die noodsaak om metateoretiese vertrekpunte uit te spel ten opsigte van werklikheidsbeskouing, die hermeneutiese proses wanneer handelings in die praksis verstaan, verklaar en verander word en die beskouing van die aard en taak van weten-skapsbeoefening, word vanuit 'n reformatoriese perspektief behandel.<hr/>This article is the first in the research project "Metatheoretical assumptions in Practical Theology". The research problem has to do with the lack of explicit expression of metatheoretical assumptions against the background of a plurality in scientific approaches to the discipline. Sometimes researchers do not explicity state their theological and other approaches. In this project a group of reformed practical theologians explicitly state their metatheoretical theological and other perspectives and explain their vantage points in researching the praxis. The necessity to explain metatheoretical assumptions pertaining to the assumptions about reality, the hermeneutical process in understanding, explaining and changing actions in praxis, and the nature and task of scientific research, is discussed from a reformed perspective. <![CDATA[<b>The role of the Bible in reformational philosophy: Historical and systematic notes</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532010000300003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In this article the role of the Bible in the elaboration of reformational philosophy, a neo-calvinist school founded in the 1930s by Dooyeweerd and Vollenhoven, is analysed. According to the author of this article, these two authors had somewhat different approaches to this problem, but their intentions were similar and the strategies they devised are compatible and even integrating each other. In practice, one might say that Vollenhoven favoured a more "textual" approach, while Dooyeweerd emphasised the importance of the biblical religious ground motive. The proposals of a more recent thinker in this movement, Jacob Klapwijk, are also explored and the promises and the "perils" of his approach are pointed out. The main purpose is to show that, in this philosophical tradition, the issue of the role of the Bible in philosophy has been tackled with discernment and devotion, stemming from a genuine commitment to the inscripturated Word.<hr/>In hierdie artikel word die rol van die Bybel in die uitbou van die reformatoriese filosofie, 'n neo-calvinistiese beweging wat in die dertigerjare van die vorige eeu deur Dooyeweerd en Vollenhoven begin is, geanaliseer. Volgens die outeur van hierdie artikel, het hierdie twee outeurs verskillende benaderings tot hierdie probleem, maar hulle bedoelings was dieselfde en die strategieë wat hulle uitgedink het, was wel met mekaar versoenbaar en selfs met mekaar integreerbaar. 'n Mens kan sê dat Vollenhoven in die praktyk 'n meer "tekstuele" benadering gevolg het, terwyl Dooyeweerd die belangrikheid van die hooftemas in die bybelse religieuse grondmotief beklemtoon het. Die voorstelle van 'n meer resente denker in hierdie beweging, Jacob Klapwijk, word oorweeg en daar word op die beloftes en gevare van sy benadering gewys. Die hoofdoel is om aan te toon dat in hierdie filosofiese tradisie, die rol van die Bybel in filosofie met toewyding en ernstige ondersoek aangepak is - 'n houding wat uit 'n egte verbintenis aan die skrifgeworde Woord spruit. <![CDATA[<b>Doing trinitarian theology: Primary references to God and imagination</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532010000300004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article explores methodology in trinitarian theology and proposes one possible avenue to the question of how it should be done. The basic argument highlights the multiple functions of references to God in theological discourse. Three of these potential ways are discussed, namely God as Agent, God as Model, and God as Heuristic Principle. The various references are explained with examples taken from Scripture and contemporary trinitarian proposals. A picture emerges of sophisticated rhetorical strategies being employed by theologians. By identifying some of the functions of God-references, the article not only emphasises the imaginative and constructive nature of theological reflection, but also contributes to the question of the possibilities of trinitarian theology and its development.<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek metodologieë van die triniteitsteologie en stel een moontlike weg voor vir die beoefening daarvan. Die basiese argument beklemtoon hoe die verwysings na God verskillende funksies kan hê gedurende teologiese diskoerse. Drie van hierdie verwysings word bespreek, naamlik God as die Handelende, God as Model, en God as Heuristiese Beginsel. Hierdie verwysings word verduidelik aan die hand van voor-beelde uit die Skrif en in kontemporêre triniteitsvoorstelle. 'n Beeld van gesofistikeerde strategieë wat deur teoloë gebruik word, kristalliseer. Deur van hierdie funksies wat na God verwys, te identifiseer, lig die artikel nie net die verbeeldingsmatige en konstruktiewe aard van teologiese refleksie uit nie, maar dra terselfdertyd ook by tot die vraag na die moontlikhede van triniteitsteologie en die ontwikkeling daarvan. <![CDATA[<b>Translating Romans: Some persistent headaches</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532010000300005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article concentrates on some of the linguistic phenomena in Romans which continuously cause exegetes and translators alike headaches. Attention is given to the δικσι group, oi αγιοι, en Χριστω/κνρίω, hyperbolical contrasts, πνεύµα, όργή and οµοιώµα. Various translations are discussed and possible solutions are offered. It all too often happens that, when facing problems of translation, translators seek refuge in the safe harbour of traditional renderings, even if these only camouflage the real issues. Scientifically it is more responsible to continue wrestling with the text and, through trial and error, eventually make some progress than to resign to this type of false certitude.<hr/>Hierdie artikel konsentreerop 'n aantal linguistiese manifes-tasies in Romeine wat voortdurend aan eksegete en vertalers hoofbrekens besorg. Aandag word aan die δικαι-groep, oi αγιοι, en Χριστω/κνρίω, hiperboliese kontraste, πνενµα, οργή en οµοιώµα gegee. Verskillende vertalings word bespreek en moontlike oplossings aangebied. Wanneer vertalers gekonfronteer word met vertalingsprobleme is hulle geneig om al te gemaklik terug te val in die veiligheid van tradisionele vertalings, selfs al sou laasgenoemde die werklik kontensieuse punte bloot kamoefleer. Om met die teks te bly worstel, selfs al sou dit foutlopies insluit om daardeur mettertyd vordering te maak, is wetenskaplik meer verantwoord as valse sekerheid. <![CDATA[<b>Basic theoretical starting points on the character and foundation of a scriptural based liturgy</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532010000300006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Liturgie is alle religieuse handelings wat deur die gelowige verrig word wanneer God ontmoet word, daar na Hom geluister word, Hy aanbid en verheerlik word en daar in die samekoms en die daaglikse lewe godsdiens beoefen word. Tradisioneel was liturgie tot eredienshandelinge op Sondae in die kerk en die liturgiese volgorde onder die erediens beperk. In die etimologiese ontleding van die begrip "λειτουργία" kan egter tot die gevolgtrekking gekom word dat liturgie 'n dinamiese handeling is wat op Godsverering dui wat vanuit die erediens oorspoel na die daaglikse lewe van die Christen. Ten einde hierdie paradigmaverskuiwing te kan verantwoord, is dit nodig om eerstens basisteoretiese vertrekpunte vir die liturgie neer te lê. Hierdie basisteoretiese vertrekpunte moet teologies begrond wees aangesien liturgie 'n sentrale moment in die mens se godsdiensbeoefening inneem. Terselfdertyd moet hierdie perspektiewe 'n antwoord bied op die vraag hoe liturgie teologies beskou behoort te word. Die skrywers gaan van die standpunt uit dat liturgie in die verbond- en die koninkryksperspektiewe as openbaringslyne in die Skrif gegrond is.<hr/>Liturgy denotes all the religious acts and activities performed by Christians when meeting God, listening to Him, and glorifying Him during the worship service and in life. Traditionally the expression "liturgy" referred to acts and activities performed during the Sunday worship service and primarily denoted the sequence of acts followed during the service. However, an etymological analysis of the concept "λειτουργία" indicates that liturgy is a dynamic action that points to the worshipping of God that flows over from the Sunday worship service into the everyday life of the Christian. In order to justify this paradigm shift, it is in the first instance necessary to formulate basic theoretical perspectives for the liturgy. These basic theoretical perspectives must be founded theologically, because liturgy forms a central component of man's worship service. These perspectives must simultaneously provide an answer to the question as to how liturgy must theologically be viewed. The authors work from the viewpoint that liturgy is founded in the covenant and kingdom's perspectives as lines of revelation. <![CDATA[<b>Reflection on diaconal service in relation to Acts 6:1-7</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532010000300007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Handelinge 6 word tradisioneel beskou as die beskrywing van die ontstaan van die besondere diens van die diaken. Uit Handelinge 6:1-7 word gewoonlik die wese en die taak van diakonale dienswerk afgelei, naamlik dat dit 'n diens is wat die versorging van die armes in die gemeente behartig en die onderlinge meelewing en liefde moet bevorder. In hierdie artikel word Handelinge 6 opnuut ondersoek. Daar word ondersoek ingestel of die gedeelte inderdaad die ontstaan van die diakonale diens beskryf en wat dit sê oor die inhoud en wese van die sewe se dienswerk. Uit die ondersoek word dit duidelik dat Handelinge 6 nie die instelling van 'n nuwe besondere diens (amp) beskryf nie en dat die inhoud en wese van die besondere diakonale diens nie hieruit afgelei kan word nie. Handelinge 6:1-7 beskryf eerderdie dinamiese werking van die Heilige Gees binne 'n gemeente waarin daar weens die vinnige groei probleme ontstaan ten opsigte van die bedieningswerk (διακονία).<hr/>Acts 6 is traditionally considered as the description of the origin of the special service of deaconship. The essence and duty of diaconal service is inferred from Acts 6:1-7; it is the service responsible for the care of the poor and promotion of mutual support and love in the church. This article re-examines Acts 6. It investigates whether this text truly describes diaconal service and what it conveys about the content and essence of the seven's service. This study shows that Acts 6 does not describe the institution of a special service (office) and that the content and essence of the special diaconal service cannot be derived from this text. Acts 6:1-7 is a description of the dynamic work of the Holy Spirit within the church, related to the difficulties that arise with service (StaKovia) due to rapid growth. <![CDATA[<b>A theological-ethical judgement of illegal immigration</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532010000300008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Immigrasie van mense is 'n wêreldwye toenemende verskynsel. Mense immigreer hoofsaaklik om ekonomiese redes na Suid-Afrika. Nie alle immigrante is egter wettig in die land nie. Dit is nie duidelik hoeveel onwettige immigrante in Suid-Afrika is nie. Die Suid-Afrikaanse regering het geen duidelike, doeltreffende beleid oor hoe om die probleem van onwettige immigrante op te los nie. In hierdie artikel word die invloed van onwettige immigrasie op die Suid-Afrikaanse arbeidsterrein ondersoek. Die doel van die studie is om aan rolspelers vanuit die Bybel leiding te gee oor hoe hulle ingesteldheid teenoor die probleem van onwettige immigrantwerkers behoort te wees. In die artikel word die omvang en oorsake van onwettige immigrasie ondersoek. Daarna val die soeklig op die gevolge van onwettige immigrasie op die Suid-Afrikaanse arbeidsterrein en die optrede van die owerheid om die probleem hok te slaan. Dit word gevolg deur die bestudering van 'n aantal tersaaklike bybelse uitsprake. Die invloed van onwettige immigrasie op die Suid-Afrikaanse arbeidsterrein word in die lig van die bybelse uitsprake beoordeel. In die beoordeling word leiding aan verskillende rolspelers gegee oor hoe hulle ingesteldheid teenoor die gestelde probleem behoort te wees.<hr/>The immigration of people is a growing global phenomenon. People immigrate to South Africa mainly foreconomic purposes. Not all immigrants are, however, legally in the country. It is not certain how many illegal immigrants are in the country. The South African government does not have a clear, effective policy on how to solve the problem of illegal immigration. In this article the influence of illegal immigration on the South African labour sphere is analysed. The aim of the article is to give guidance from the Bible to role players on how their disposition should be concerning the problem of illegal immigrant workers. In the article the extent and causes of illegal immigration are investigated. This is followed by probing into the effects of illegal immigration on the South African labour sphere and the action taken by the authorities to solve the problem. The influence of illegal immigration on labour in South Africa is judged according to biblical principals. In the assessment guidance is given as to what the disposition of different role players should be concerning the set problem. <![CDATA[<b>A qualitative investigation into the so-called ministry of deliverance</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532010000300009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Since the publication of the book "The occult debate" (Janse van Rensburg, 1999) it has become clear that epistemological views on occultism within the reformed tradition have drastically diverged. During the General Synod of the Dutch Reformed Church in 2007, the report of the Algemene Taakspan vir Leer en Aktuele Sake (ATLAS) on a ministry of deliverance denied the existence of the devil and claimed that it would be unscientific to embark on an empirical research in this regard, because of the impossibility to verify information gathered in this manner. However, it is the hypothesis of this article that qualitative information could assist in attaining a clearer understanding of the need for a ministry of deliverance. In this article the methodology of the qualitative research is explained and the narratives of participants are revealed. Thereafter the responses of the participants are evaluated.<hr/>Sedert die publikasie van die boek "The occult debate" (Janse van Rensburg, 1999) is dit duidelik dat daar uiteenlopende beskouings oor okkultisme in gereformeerde kringe bestaan. Gedurende die Algemene Sinode van die NG Kerk in 2007 het die verslag van die Algemene Taakspan vir Leer en Aktuele Sake (ATLAS) beweer dat die duiwel as persoon nie bestaan nie en dat daar geen ruimte vir 'n bediening van bevryding is nie. Daar is verder beweer dat enige kwalitatiewe navorsing hieroor onbetroubaar en dus onwetenskaplik sou wees. Dit is egter die hipotese van hierdie artikel dat kwalitatiewe navorsing 'n betekenisvolle bydrae kan lewer om meer lig op 'n bediening van bevryding te werp. In hierdie artikel word die metode van kwalitatiewe navorsing wat gebruik word, beskryf en die narratiewe van deelnemers word aan die orde gestel. Laastens word die response van deelnemers geëvalueer. <![CDATA[<b>Bible reading in Africa: The shaping of a reformed perspective</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532010000300010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In this article I try to develop a reformed perspective on Bible reading in Africa by ordinary readers. I explore the concept of ordinary readers in the context of recent hermeneutical discussions, and of the differences between their mode of reading and that of biblical scholars against the background of the reality of the oral or semi-literate cultures of Africa. A reformed perspective, with its emphasis on the church as locus for Bible reading under the operation of the Holy Spirit, opens up a way forward out of the dilemma between ordinary and professional Bible reading. A reformed perspective can also clear the way for a gender-sensitive reading of the Bible in a continent where most Bible readers are women. This requires from those who read the Bible together an attitude of humility.<hr/>In hierdie artikel sal ek 'n gereformeerde perspektief probeer ontwikkel op Bybellees in Afrika deur gewone lesers. Ek bespreek die konsep van gewone lesers in die konteks van die jongste hermeneutiese diskussies, en van die verskille in die manier van Bybellees tussen gewone lesers en Bybelweten-skaplikes teen die agtergrond van die werklikheid van die mondelinge of halfgeletterde kulture van Afrika. 'n Gereformeerde perspektief, met sy nadruk op die kerk as die lokus van Bybel-lees, onder die werking van die Heilige Gees, maak die pad oop vorentoe weg van die dilemma tussen gewone en vakmatige lesers. 'n Gereformeerde perspektief kan ook die pad oopmaak vir 'n geslagsvriendelike lees van die Bybel op 'n kontinent waar die meeste Bybellesers vroue is. Dit vra van diegene wat die Bybel saam lees 'n houding van ootmoed. <![CDATA[<b>Pastoral care and the agony of female singleness in the African Christian context</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532010000300011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In our society the norm is that every adult should get married one day. This could imply that unmarried people do not feel welcome either in the community or the church. They may feel neglected or even like outcasts. It is a pity that the church, which also finds itself within the community, is composed of people who still continue to have the kind of attitude that excludes singles, even inside church circles. While churches run programmes that have a strong emphasis on marriage and family life, nothing is being done to address singleness and its related problems. As a result, singles often regard themselves as unimportant and worthless. This article is aimed at uncovering the role of the church through its leadership (pastors in particular) to assist and help to redeem the damaged image and self-esteem that singles may have in their respective communities and churches. The article focuses on singles in the African church and society. It is crucial that a church programme of care and counselling be structured in order to minister to persons who are separated, divorced, widowed or never married for whatever reason.<hr/>In ons samelewing is die norm dat alle volwassenes uiteindelik sal trou. Die gevolg hiervan is dat ongetroude mense dikwels in sowel die gemeenskap as die kerk onwelkom voel. Hulle mag dalk verwaarloos en selfs verstote voel. Dit is jammer dat die kerk, wat ditself midde-in 'n gemeenskap bevind, nog steeds uit mense bestaan met 'n houding wat enkellopendes uitgesluit laat voel, selfs binne kerklike kringe. Alhoewel kerke programme aanbied waarin sterk klem gelê word op die huwelik en die gesinslewe, word niks gedoen om enkellopendes en hulle probleme te hanteernie. Gevolglik beskou enkellopendes hulleself dikwels as onbelangrik en waardeloos. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om die rol van die kerk te ontdek deur sy leierskap (veral predikante en pastore) en by te staan in sy rol om enkellopendes by te staan in die herstel van 'n seergemaakte selfbeeld wat hulle moontlik in hulle gemeenskappe en die kerk opgedoen het. Die artikel fokus op enkellopendes binne die Afrika-kerke en -gemeenskappe. Dit is van kardinale belang dat 'n kerkprogram geïmplementeer moet word vir die versorging en berading van afgesonderdes, weduwees en wewenaars, asook mense wat nooit getroud is nie, om watter rede ook al. <![CDATA[<b>Living wisely in a modern world</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532010000300012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en People all over the world today have to compete for their daily bread and struggle to make ends meet. This represents the arena where humans battle to cope with the complexities of daily life. At the same time they try to find meaning in life and guidelines to live life well. It is here, in ordinary real life, where wisdom and folly compete for human loyalties and where the divine and the human meet (O'Connor, 1993:14). It is here where Proverbs 3 gives us diverse guidelines on how to live wisely in a modern world.<hr/>Die meeste mense leef met die las van daaglikse pligte, om kos op die tafel te hou, rekenings te betaal en om getrou aan al die vereistes van werk en liefde te voldoen. Regoordie wêreld sukkel mense om genoeg te verdien om te kan oorleef. Hierdie stryd verteenwoordig die arena waarin die mensdom veg om die kompleksiteite van hulle daaglikse lewe te kan hanteer. Terselfdertyd poog die mens om betekenis en sin in die lewe te vind en om riglyne daar te stel waarvolgens hulle goed kan lewe. Dit is hier, in die gewone alledaagse lewe, waar wysheid en dwaasheid wedywer om die mens se lojaliteit te wen. Dit is hier waar die bonatuurlike en die menslike ontmoet (O'Connor, 1993:14). Spreuke 3 gee talle riglyne waarvolgens die mens met wysheid in 'n moderne era kan lewe. <![CDATA[<b>"To read the Bible <i>sensitively </i>and in its <i>richness"</i> - in conversation with Amie van Wyk</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532010000300013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In antwoord op Prof. J.H. van Wyk se resensie op Gerrie Snyman se boek "Om die Bybel anders te lees: 'n etiek van Bybellees" (2007) herlei die skrywer die kritiek na die saak van kontekstualiteit wat genoodsaak word die moment wanneer die menslike aspek in die Bybelleesproses te berde kom. Konteks word teenoor 'n objektivistiese benadering gestel. Die artikel kyk verder na aspekte van rasionaliteit, Pneumatologie, Christologie en die teologiese regverdiging van apartheid saam met die teologiese motivering om die vroue in die GKSA uit die amp van ouderling en predikant te weer as toetssteen vir 'n ander manier van Bybellees.<hr/>In response to Prof. J.H. van Wyk's review of Gerrie Snyman's book "Om die Bybel anders te lees: 'n etiek van Bybellees" (2007) the authorproposes that the issue is contextuality, neccesitated the moment the human aspect rears its head in the process of reading the Bible. Contextuality is juxtaposed with an objectivist approach. The article also inquires into aspects of rationality, Pneumatology, Christology and the theological justification of apartheid together with the theological justification of keeping women in the RCSA from the offices of elder and minister as a test case for reading the Bible differently.