Scielo RSS <![CDATA[In die Skriflig ]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2305-085320100002&lang=es vol. 44 num. 2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Voorwoord</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532010000200001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>To cross ten seas: Calvin on the unity of the church - a contribution to a more responsible ecclesiology</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532010000200002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es As far as ecclesiology is concerned, Calvin experienced a great dilemma during his lifetime. On the one hand, there was the clear teaching of Scripture on the unity of the church of Christ, as confirmed by the great church father Augustine. On the other hand, a separation from the Catholic Church of the sixteenth century was unavoidable. Calvin wrestled intensely with this problem and tried to adhere to biblical teaching on unity. He was disappointed that the Protestant churches distanced themselves from the theme of unity and declared himself willing to cross ten seas in order to recapture this unity. This leaves us with the question to what extent the reformational churches today take the (visible) unity of the church of Christ seriously.<hr/>Ten opsigte van ekklesiologie het Calvyn in sy tyd voor 'n besonder groot dilemma te staan gekom. Enersyds was daar duidelike Skrifgetuienis oor die eenheid van die kerk van Christus, soos onder andere ook deur die groot kerkvader Augustinus beaam is. Andersyds was die breuk met die Katolieke Kerk van die sestiende eeu onvermydelik. Calvyn worstel diepgaande met hierdie problematiek en probeer so ver moontlik vashou aan die Skrifgetuienis oor die eenheid. Hy was teleurgesteld dat die protestantse kerke die tema van die eenheid losgelaat het en hy verklaar hom bereid om tien oseane oor te steek om hierdie eenheid te probeer herwin. Dit alles laat die vraag ontstaan in watter mate die reformatoriese kerke vandag nog erns maak met die (sigbare) eenheid van die kerk van Christus. <![CDATA[<b>Points of departure for the state in the <i>Institutes </i>of Calvin compared with points of departure of the South African <i>Bill of Rights </i>(1996)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532010000200003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In die laaste hoofstuk van sy "Institusie" gee die hervormer Johannes Calvyn (1509-1564) aandag aan die staat en die taak van die staatsowerheid. Calvyn se beskouings is sterk deur die Bybel beïnvloed. Daarom sien hy staatsregering as 'n instelling wat deur God verordineer is. Wat hom betref, moet geregtigheid en billikheid die grense van alle staatswette wees. Die Suid-Afrikaanse "Handves van Regte" word geag die hoogste wet in die land te wees waaraan alle ander staatswette ondergeskik is. Om chaos te voorkom, of te verhoed dat mense die wet verkeerd toepas, vorm die Grondwetlike Hof die finale gesag ten opsigte van die interpretasie van die Grondwet. Dit maak van Suid-Afrika 'n regstaat. Alhoewel Calvyn, soos ook die "Handves", almal regverdig wil behandel, loop sy beskouings met dié van die "Handves" uiteen oor die vraag of die staat 'n dienaar van God is.<hr/>In the last chapter of his "Institutes" the reformer John Calvin (1509-1564) concentrates on points of departure for the state and on the task of the state government. Calvin is strongly influenced by the Bible and sees the state government as being ordained by God to exercise justice in society. For him justice and fairness should be the norm for every law created by the state. The South African "Bill of Rights" is regarded as the highest law in the country. To prevent chaos or people exercising the law wrongly, the Constitution with the "Bill of Rights" in the final instance should be interpreted by the Constitutional Court. This makes South Africa a just state or a society governed by the constitution or law. Although Calvin, like the "Bill of Rights", has a feeling for justice to all, he and the Bill part company on the important issue that the state should be seen as a servant of God. <![CDATA[<b>Theocracy: Views on Calvin and the Confessio Belgica, art. 36 - a contribution to an important debate</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532010000200004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Calvyn word dikwels gesien as 'n voorstander van teokrasie en die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis (NGB), artikel 36 as 'n teokratiese belydenis. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die standpunt van verskillende skrywers oor hierdie beskouing en kom tot die gevolgtrekking dat Calvyn nie 'n teokraat was nie en die NGB art. 36 nie 'n teokratiese belydenis nie. Die vraag word tereg gevra waar Calvyn, die NGB en verskillende lande van Europa (waaronder Switzerland en Nederland) se beskouing oor kerk en owerheid ten tye van die Reformasie dan vandaan kom. Die argument word gevoer dat dit, in reaksie teen die Rooms Katolieke Kerk se teokratiese beskouings soos in die Corpus Iuris Canonici verwoord, 'n teruggrype was na die historiese beskouing oor kerk en owerheid sedert die tyd van Konstantyn. Hierdie beskouing het ook in Suid-Afrika vanaf 1652-1994 gegeld. Die artikel poog ook om aan te toon wat nuut in Calvyn se beskouing oor kerk en owerheid was.<hr/>John Calvin is often seen as a supporter of theocracy and the Dutch Confession of Faith (Confessio Belgica) art. 36 as a theocratic confession. This article looks at the views of various authors on this matter and comes to the conclusion that Calvin was not a supporter of a theocracy and the Dutch Confession, art. 36 is not a theocratic confession either. The question is then asked where the views of Calvin, the Dutch Confession and various countries (inter alia Switzerland, and the Netherlands) at the time of the Reformation on the relationship between church and state came from. As an answer to this question the argument is put that, in reaction to the theocracy of the Roman Catholic Church (as can been found in the Corpus Iuris Canonici), it was a returned the historical view on church and state that had been current since the time of Constantine. These views were also applied in South Africa from 1652-1994. An attempt is also made to show what was new in Calvin's views on church and state. <![CDATA[<b>The Confession of Belhar and ecumenism against the backdrop of the Three Forms of Unity</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532010000200005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In hierdie artikel word die Belydenis van Belhar vanuit kerklike en teologiese hoek krities ondersoek. Die besondere vraag wat behandel word, is of hierdie belydenis in die gereformeerde kerklike wêreld naas die Drie Formuliere van Eenheid as 'n vierde (ekumeniese) belydenisskrif aanvaar en bygevoeg behoort te word. Agtereenvolgens word gefokus op die ontstaan en inhoud daarvan, die teologiese en kerklike reaksie in die NG Kerkfamilie, asook die reaksie in die gereformeerde ekumeniese wêreld. Laastens word 'n kritiese evaluering daarvan gemaak en enkele opsies ten opsigte van die plek daarvan in die gereformeerde ekumeniese wêreld met die oog op die toekoms. Die konklusie van die artikel is dat dit ten opsigte van die teologiese en dogmatiese gehalte, inhoud en styl nie met die Drie Formuliere van Eenheid vergelykbaar is nie, geweldig omstrede is, en nie waarde tot die bestaande belydenisskat van die gereformeerde kerke in die wêreld toevoeg nie. Dit bied ook nie 'n aanvulling ten opsigte van beweerde verwaarloosde geloofswaarhede nie.<hr/>This article focuses on the Confession of Belhar and investigates from an ecclesiastical and theological perspective the question whether this confession should be accepted and added as a fourth confession to the existing Three Forms of Unity. The following aspects are addressed: the origin and content of the Confession of Belhar, the ecclesiastical and theological reaction within the family of Dutch Reformed Churches as well as in the reformed ecumenical world. A critical analysis of the content is made and evaluated, and in conclusion attention is given to a few options with regard to the place of the Confession of Belhar in the reformed ecumenical world in the future. A comparison between the Three Forms of Unity and the Confession of Belhar shows a definite difference in quality. The Confession of Belhar is not of a similar standard with regard to the theological and doctrinal content and structure of the Three Forms of Unity, and does not add quality or neglected faith-related value to these existing creeds. <![CDATA[<b>Luther's moral synthesis: Occamism, Christian mysticism and the idea of being</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532010000200006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es To Luther human beings can only come to true redemptive knowledge through the Word and through faith. Although philosophical knowledge in the domain of man's earthly existence cannot provide him with true knowledge in matters of faith, such knowledge is of much importance for man's earthly existence from a moral point of view. By submitting to universal being even unbelievers can gain valuable insights into moral matters. Such moral insights are important for making human co-existence possible in society. Within the broad context of Luther's Occamist views on knowledge, both German mysticism and the Stoic-Ciceronian idea of being contribute towards a synthesis from which Luther's views on morals in matters of faith and philosophy respectively emanate.<hr/>Vir Luther kan die mens slegs tot ware verlossende kennis kom deur die Woord en geloof. Alhoewel filosofiese kennis op die terrein van die mens se aardse bestaan hom nie in staat stel om tot ware kennis in aangeleenthede betreffende die geloof te kom nie, is sodanige kennis vanuit 'n morele oogpunt beskou van groot belang. Deur die agting vir universele syn kan selfs ongelowiges waardevolle insigte in morele aangeleenthede verwerf. Sodanige morele insigte is belangrik vir die menslike saambestaan in die samelewing. Binne die breë konteks van Ockham se standpunte oor kennis, lewer sowel die Duitse mistiek as die Stoisyns-Ciceroniaanse idee van syn 'n bydrae tot 'n sintese in Luther se morele en filosofiese denke. <![CDATA[<b>A practical-theoretical perspective on the act of making ecclesiastical resolutions: Theory for praxis</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532010000200007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In 'n voorafgaande artikel het die navorsers die problematiese praksis rakende kerklike besluitneming ontvou deur te verwys na 'n gebrekkige verrekening van die manier waarop menslike voorkeure en denkraamwerke (antroponome elemente) besluitnemers, sonder dat hulle altyd daarvan bewus is, kan oorheers in hulle beroep op die leiding deur die Woord en Gees (teonome elemente). In hierdie opvolgartikel word gepoog om veranderingstrategies op praktykteoretiese vlak te besin oor maniere waarop die kompleksiteit van die verhouding tussen Goddelike en menslike elemente (asook die hermeneutiese kompleksiteit wat in Skrifberoep ter sprake kom) in die besluitnemingsproses gevisualiseer kan word. Die doel van die praktykteoretiese merkers sou wees om aan besluitnemers 'n klankbord te gee om te kan onderskei hoe 'n besluit, wat op die oog af teonoom bepaald lyk, tog deur oorheersende antroponome faktore kan radikaliseer in polarisasie. Na die oordeel van die navorsers is die hart van 'n veranderingstrategie waarin gepoog word om disintegrerende gesindhede en standpunte te oorkom, geleë in die versoenende krag van die evangelie van genade in Christus Jesus. Waar mense hulle deur die Gees van Christus laat lei, word besluitneming gewillig onder leiding van die Gees geplaas sonder dat die Skrif misbruik word om die eie standpunt te verabsoluteer of die Skrif te relativeer.<hr/>In a preceding article the researchers unfolded the problematic praxis concerning ecclesiastical resolution-making by referring to insufficient accountability with respect to the way in which human prejudice and desire (anthroponomic elements) can (unconsciously) dominate the mind in calling upon Scripture and guidance of the Spirit (theonomic elements). In this follow-up article we try to propose a strategy for change by developing a praxis theory for ways in which the complexity of the relationship between divine and human elements in the resolution-making process (and especially with respect to the hermeneutical complexity involved in calling upon Scripture) can be visualised. Our purpose with this praxis theoretical exercise will then be to provide people involved in the resolution-making process with beacons with a view to discerning what may on the surface look like a theonomically determined resolution, but what might in fact be resolution that will eventually radicalise in polarisation due to dominating antroponomic elements. The researchers assess the heart of a strategy for reversing the disintegrating factors in the attitudes and viewpoints of resolution makers into integration to lie in the reconciling power of the gospel of grace in Jesus Christ. Where people willingly place themselves under die guidance of the Spirit of Christ the process of resolution-making will be a balanced process without absolutising or relativising Scripture. <![CDATA[<b>An ecclesiological model for the ministry of reconciliation in a socio-political context</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532010000200008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Hierdie navorsingsartikel ondersoek, vanuit 'n gereformeerde perspektief, n moontlike ekklesiologiese model wat geskik is om sosio-politieke versoening in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks te bevorder. Die uitgangspunt is dat gereformeerde teologie per definisie n publieke teologie is, omdat dit onder andere die reformasie van die samelewing in die oog het. Eerstens behandel die artikel die historiese bydrae van die ekklesiologiese model van Kuyper en die bydrae van die reformatoriese filosofie, by name die "Wysbegeerte van die wetsidee". Tweedens fokus die ondersoek op die bybelse konsep "koninkryk van God" en die implikasies daarvan vir die ekklesiologiese model. Met hierdie perspektiewe as uitgangspunt word tot die konklusie gekom dat die geïnstitueerde kerk as die "kragstasie" van die samelewing gesien moet word. Die kerk moet gelowiges toerus om sosio-politieke reformasie van die samelewing te bevorder. Die geïnstitueerde kerk moet ook self by sosio-politieke reformasie betrokke wees deur die prediking van die versoening en die sosio-politieke betekenis daarvan. As gemeenskap van gelowiges moet dit die voorbeeld van versoening wees deur die grense van rassisme, xenofobie, homofobie, seksisme en etnosentrisme te oorkom.<hr/>This research article examines an ecclesiological model suitable for the promotion of socio-political reconciliation in the South African context from a reformed theological and philosophical pespective. Its point of departure is that reformational theology is per definition a public theology, which is inter alia directed at the renewal of society, and that churches have a positive role to play in this regard. Firstly, the article investigates the historic contribution of Kuyper's ecclesiology and Dooye-weerd's perspective on social life and the philosophy of the idea of Law. Secondly, the article focuses on the biblical concept "Kingdom of God" and its implications for an ecclesiological model. Taking into account the contributions of these two lines of thought, the article concludes that the church should be seen as the "power station" of society. The church should equip believers to promote socio-political transformation in society. Furthermore, the church should be actively engaged in socio-political transformation by preaching the reconciliation in Christ and its implications for society, and by being an example of reconciliation amidst a divided community by overcoming the divisions caused by racism, tribalism, sexism, xenophobia, homophobia and ethnocentrism in its own midst. <![CDATA[<b>The Holy Spirit and preaching in the service</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532010000200009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die vraag wat in hierdie artikel ondersoek word, is hoe die Heilige Gees in die aksie van prediking en die uitwerking daarvan teenwoordig en werksaam is. Die Gees versterk die boodskap en bewerk die sekerheid in die predikers dat die Gees die regte gehoor vir die woorde van die prediking skep. Christus as die brandpunt van die prediking word deur die gemeente in sy ontmoeting met God toegeëien en gehoorsaam. Prediking moet die lyne van die teks via die sentrale inhoud van die Skrif na die mens in die hede deurtrek. Die gemeente moet deur die beoefening van die gawe van die profesie die prediking in die konkrete lewensituasie toepas. Prediking en gebed staan in 'n kousale verhouding tot Skriflesing, want Skriflesing roep prediking en gebed op. Prediking as belydenis wek gebed as aanbidding en die aanbidding wek weer belydenis op. Hierdie kousale en wisselwerkende verhoudings is lewend en kragtig deur die dinamiese werking van God die Heilige Gees, wat gemeenskap tussen God en die gemeente in Christus deur hierdie handelinge bewerk.<hr/>The question investigated in this article is how the Holy Spirit is present and active in the action of preaching, and what the result of this is. The Spirit edifies the message and establishes certainty within the preachers that the Spirit will create the right audience for the words of the message. Christ as the centre of preaching is accepted and obeyed by the congregation in its meeting with the Lord. Preaching should transfer the lines in the text via the content of Scripture to the human being of today. The congregation should apply the sermon to their concrete life situation through the exercising of the gift of prophecy. Preaching and prayer stands in a causal relationship to Scripture reading, because Scripture reading elicits preaching and prayer. Preaching as testimony elicits prayer as worship, and the prayer in turn elicits testimony. This causal and interactive relationship is living and powerful through the dynamic work of God the Holy Spirit, who effects communion between God and the congregation in Jesus Christ through these events. <![CDATA[<b>Salvation: From Pelagius to Joseph Smith</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532010000200010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Elke Christelike kerk glo dat sy n ware kerk is en verkondig dat die mens verlos kan word om ewig te leef. Hierdie verlossingsboodskap is gewoonlik gewortel in die Bybel as openbaringsbron van God. Die Mormone beweer dat Joseph Smith, stigter en eerste president van die Kerk van Jesus Christus van die Heiliges van die Laaste Dae, n goddelike opdrag ontvang het om die kerk te herstel na die kerk soos wat Jesus Christus dit tydens sy lewe op aarde gestig het. In die studie van die Mormoonse verlossingsleer is dit duidelik dat die kerk nie werklik vervals is en herstellend herstig is nie, maar dat die verlossingsleer dogma-histories 'n duidelike lyn van dwaling en weerlegging volg. Die kern van die verlossingsleer van die Mormone is dat die mens die vrye wil het om sy eie verlossing te kies. Hulle is nie die eerstes wat hierdie boodskap verkondig nie. In hierdie artikel word aangetoon hoedat Pelagius reeds die vrye wil van die mens verkondig het. Tydens die Reformasie het die Anabaptiste dieselfde boodskap verkondig en hulle het aanvanklik naas die reformatore bestaan. Gaandeweg het hulle deel van veral die Nederlandse kerke geword, totdat die sinode van Dordrecht hierdie dwaling uitgewys en nie net verwerp het nie, maar ook geantwoord het. Hiermee is die dogma van die vrye wil nie besweer nie, maar dit word weer 150 jaar later deur John Wesley verkondig. Hierdie is ook die boodskap van Wesley en Whitefield tydens hulle evangelisasieveldtogte in die Verenigde state van Amerika aan die begin van die negentiende eeu. Dit is in hierdie tyd dat Joseph Smith se soeke van die regte kerk plaasgevind het en hy die Mormoonse kerk gestig het. Alhoewel daar baie verskil is met die Metodiste Kerk, die kerk waarin hy opgegroei het, is die verlossingsboodskap in wese dieselfde: die mens het die vrye wil om sy saligheid te soek en te verkry.<hr/>Every Christian church believes that she is a true church and proclaims that man can be saved and has eternal life. This dogma of salvation is usually based on the Bible as the Word of God. Mormons claim that Joseph Smith, founder and first president of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, received a divine message to restore the church that Jesus had started. In studying the plan of salvation the Mormons proclaim it is quite clear that that way of salvation was not restored in their church, but that it followed a pattern of false doctrine that was revealed time and again in history. The core of their preaching of salvation is that man has the free will to choose his own salvation. Mormons are not the first to preach this message. This article will show that Pelagius oistykated the free will of man. In the Reformation the Anabaptists preached the same message, being a third movement next to the reformed and Roman Catholic believes. The Anabaptists became part of the churches of the Netherlands and at the Synod of Dordt the theology of the free will was rejected and answered. The dogma of the free will of man did not end at this Synod: 150 years later John Wesley preached the same message of salvation during his and Whitefield's campaigns at the dawn of the nineteenth century in the USA. During this time Joseph Smith started to seek the true church and founded the Mormon Church. Although his theology differs quite strongly from the Methodist Church in which he grew up, the core of the way of salvation is the same: man has free will in choosing his salvation. <![CDATA[<b>Resensies</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532010000200011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Elke Christelike kerk glo dat sy n ware kerk is en verkondig dat die mens verlos kan word om ewig te leef. Hierdie verlossingsboodskap is gewoonlik gewortel in die Bybel as openbaringsbron van God. Die Mormone beweer dat Joseph Smith, stigter en eerste president van die Kerk van Jesus Christus van die Heiliges van die Laaste Dae, n goddelike opdrag ontvang het om die kerk te herstel na die kerk soos wat Jesus Christus dit tydens sy lewe op aarde gestig het. In die studie van die Mormoonse verlossingsleer is dit duidelik dat die kerk nie werklik vervals is en herstellend herstig is nie, maar dat die verlossingsleer dogma-histories 'n duidelike lyn van dwaling en weerlegging volg. Die kern van die verlossingsleer van die Mormone is dat die mens die vrye wil het om sy eie verlossing te kies. Hulle is nie die eerstes wat hierdie boodskap verkondig nie. In hierdie artikel word aangetoon hoedat Pelagius reeds die vrye wil van die mens verkondig het. Tydens die Reformasie het die Anabaptiste dieselfde boodskap verkondig en hulle het aanvanklik naas die reformatore bestaan. Gaandeweg het hulle deel van veral die Nederlandse kerke geword, totdat die sinode van Dordrecht hierdie dwaling uitgewys en nie net verwerp het nie, maar ook geantwoord het. Hiermee is die dogma van die vrye wil nie besweer nie, maar dit word weer 150 jaar later deur John Wesley verkondig. Hierdie is ook die boodskap van Wesley en Whitefield tydens hulle evangelisasieveldtogte in die Verenigde state van Amerika aan die begin van die negentiende eeu. Dit is in hierdie tyd dat Joseph Smith se soeke van die regte kerk plaasgevind het en hy die Mormoonse kerk gestig het. Alhoewel daar baie verskil is met die Metodiste Kerk, die kerk waarin hy opgegroei het, is die verlossingsboodskap in wese dieselfde: die mens het die vrye wil om sy saligheid te soek en te verkry.<hr/>Every Christian church believes that she is a true church and proclaims that man can be saved and has eternal life. This dogma of salvation is usually based on the Bible as the Word of God. Mormons claim that Joseph Smith, founder and first president of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, received a divine message to restore the church that Jesus had started. In studying the plan of salvation the Mormons proclaim it is quite clear that that way of salvation was not restored in their church, but that it followed a pattern of false doctrine that was revealed time and again in history. The core of their preaching of salvation is that man has the free will to choose his own salvation. Mormons are not the first to preach this message. This article will show that Pelagius oistykated the free will of man. In the Reformation the Anabaptists preached the same message, being a third movement next to the reformed and Roman Catholic believes. The Anabaptists became part of the churches of the Netherlands and at the Synod of Dordt the theology of the free will was rejected and answered. The dogma of the free will of man did not end at this Synod: 150 years later John Wesley preached the same message of salvation during his and Whitefield's campaigns at the dawn of the nineteenth century in the USA. During this time Joseph Smith started to seek the true church and founded the Mormon Church. Although his theology differs quite strongly from the Methodist Church in which he grew up, the core of the way of salvation is the same: man has free will in choosing his salvation.