Scielo RSS <![CDATA[In die Skriflig ]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2305-085320080004&lang=pt vol. 42 num. 4 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Redaksioneel</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532008000400001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[<b>Keys for the application of the church order</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532008000400002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Hierdie artikel handel oor die toepassing van 'n Skriftuurlike kerkorde, maardan as 'n benaderingswyse eerder as 'n metode. Reeds in die benaderingswyse kom die verskil na vore tussen kerkordelike handelinge wat op 'n kerkregtelike wyse uit-gevoer word, en die toepassing van wette wat op 'n staats-regtelike wyse uitgeoefen word. In die kerklike regsuitoefening behoort dit dus nie te gaan om oortredings van die kerkorde -soos dit in die burgerlike regsuitoefening wel om oortredings van staatswette en -statute gaan nie. 'n Oortreding van die kerkorde moet dus slegs as 'n oortreding geag word in soverre dit 'n oortreding van die Skrif is. 'n Oortreding van 'n staatswet is op sigself 'n strafbare oortreding. Om die kerkorde op die genoemde wyse in die kerkregering toe te pas, word as benaderingsraamwerk na die Hebreeuse "gokmah" (wysheid) en die Romeinse "aequitas" (billikheid) in die "aedificatio" (opbou) van die gemeente verwys.<hr/>This article deals with the application of a Scriptural church order, but more specifically with the approach of the church order rather than the method of application thereof. Already in the approach of the church order the difference between the application of the church order and the administration of the laws of the state becomes visible. In the application of the church order, the matter should not be about trespasses against the church order as such - as is the case in trespasses against the laws and statutes of the state. Transgression of the church order should only be considered as a transgression when it concerns a transgression of the Scriptures, while a transgression of a law of the state should be considered as a transgression in itself. In order to apply the church order in this fashion, the Hebrew "gokmah" (wisdom) and the Roman "aequitas" (fairness) should be considered in the "aedificatio" (edification) of the congregation. <![CDATA[<b>A theological-ethical judgement of child labour in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532008000400003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Kinderarbeid is wêreldwyd 'n probleem wat die afgelope drie dekades opnuut onder die soeklig gekom het. Alhoewel kinderarbeid in Suid-Afrika nie so 'n ernstige probleem is soos in sommige ander lande nie, vind hier ook onaanvaarbare vorms van kinderarbeid plaas. Die meeste kinderarbeiders word vanweë hulle sosio-ekonomiese omstandighede gedwing om ter wille van oorlewing te werk. Hulle word die geleentheid ontneem om goed opgevoed en opgelei te word sodat hulle as goedtoegeruste volwassenes werk kan verrig waarvoor hulle na behore vergoed sal word. In hierdie artikel word kinderarbeid soos dit in Suid-Afrika voorkom, beoordeel. Die beoordeling vind plaas in die lig van 'n aantal teologies-etiese uitgangspunte oorkinders en arbeid. Hoewel die arbeidsopdrag universeel is (dus ook vir kinders geld), is dit logies dat kinders nie dieselfde arbeid as volwas-senes kan verrig nie. Kinders behoort eerder opgevoed en toegerus te word om hulle vermoëns sodanig te ontwikkel, dat hulle as volwasse werkers hulle vermoëns ten volle kan benut.<hr/>Throughout the world child labour is a problem which has been underespecially close scrutiny forthe past three decades. Although child labour is not such a serious problem in South Africa as is the case in some other countries, unacceptable forms of child labour also occur here. Socio-economic circumstances force most child labourers to work in order to survive. The result is that these children are deprived of a good education and training in order to occupy positions as adults in order to earn a living wage. In this article child labour is judged as it occurs in South Africa. Child labour is judged in the light of theological-ethical utterances on children as well as on labour. Although the demand to labour is universal (and thus also applies to children), it is obvious that they cannot labour in the same way as adults. Children should rather be educated and equipped to develop their abilities in order to utilise it to the maximum as adult workers. <![CDATA[<b>Problems with the Bible in reformed theology: Reflections from a Christian philosophical perspective</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532008000400004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Die aanleiding tot hierdie ondersoek is die huidige spanning in die gereformeerde teologie en kerke in Suid-Afrika. Ten spyte van die feit dat die gesag van die Bybel in die gereformeerde tradisie bely word, is teoloë en kerkleiers tans verdeeld oor hoe die Skrif verstaan en toegepas moet word. Hulle verskil oor hoe God se Woord in die geval van aktuele kwessies, soos byvoorbeeld die vrou in kerklike ampte, of homoseksualiteit toegepas behoort te word. Die skrywer van hierdie verkennning is van mening dat hierdie spanning binne dieselfde kerkgemeenskap veroorsaak word, nie alleen deur verskillende metodes van By-belinterpretasie nie, maar op 'n veel dieper vlak, ook deur verskillende Skrifbeskouings en lewensvisies. In 'n poging om hier-die probleme en die gevolglike botsende standpunte te hanteer, sal in plaas van die gangbare teologiese pogings, hier eerder 'n Christelik-filosofiese benadering gevolg word.<hr/>The motivation for undertaking this investigation is the present tension in the reformed theology and in the reformed churches in South Africa. In spite of the fact that the reformed tradition confesses the authority of the Bible, theologians and church leaders are at the moment divided on how to view and interpret the Scriptures. They disagree about the message ofGod's Word in the case of topical issues, for instance whether women should be allowed in ecclesiastical offices or on what the Bible has to say about homosexuality. The author is of the opinion that these tensions in the same church are caused, not only by different methods of interpreting the Bible but, at a much deeper level, also by the way in which one views the Bible according to different worldviews. In trying to resolve these problems and the resulting conflict of opinion, a Christian philosophical approach will be taken instead of the current theological efforts. <![CDATA[<b>Cancer as a life crisis: Preliminary markers for the pastorate</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532008000400005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Die diagnose van kanker is ingebed in die negatiewe sosiale diskoers van 'n doodsvonnis. Dit het derhalwe 'n eksistensiële krisis tot gevolg in die lewens van persone wat daardeur geaffekteer word. Waar die mediese wetenskap sy optrede laat bepaal deur die tipe kanker wat gediagnoseer is, is die roete wat die pastoraat moet volg nie dadelik duidelik nie. In hierdie artikel word gepoog om voorlopige merkers te identifiseer wat van belang sal wees vir die pastoraat aan persone wat deur kanker geaffekteer is. Deur kanker fenomenologies te beskou en ook in die lig van die bekendste vorme van mediese ingrype, sal sekere sleutelveranderings geponeer word wat vermoedelik deur 'n kankerdiagnose meegebring sal word. Agt geantisipeer-de sleutelveranderings word bespreek, te wete: die verskuiwing van grense, blootstelling aan nuwe verhoudings, gevoelens van verwerping, 'n identiteitskrisis, die radikalisering van kommunikasie, die radikalisering van tyd, skeidings- en doodsangs as-ook geloofsvrae. In die lig van hierdie geantisipeerde veranderings word 'n sestal voorlopige fokusareas vir die pastoraat bespreek. Die teodiseevraag, lydingsvraagstuk, die sonde-siekte-vraagstuk, medies-etiesevraagstukke, sterwensbegeleiding en rousmart asook die eskatologiese bestemming van die gelowige. Hierdie aspekte kom in aanmerking as voorlopige merkers vir die pastoraat aan persone wat deur kanker geaffekteer is.<hr/>The diagnosis of cancer is embedded in the negative social discourse of a death sentence. It therefore creates an existential crisis in the lives of its victims. This article will explore the pastoral implications of a cancer diagnosis. Whereas the medical path becomes clear upon the diagnosis of a particular type of cancer, the pastoral path may not immediately be evident. By viewing cancer phenomologically and in the light of the most common medical treatment, the article will try to establish what key issues (changes) would be brought upon persons affected by cancer. Eight key issues are taken into consideration: the change of short and long-term goals, the exposure to new relationships, feelings of rejection, an identity crisis, a radicalisa-tion of communication, a new perspective on time, death-anxiety and faith issues. In the light of these anticipated key issues, six focus areas are identified as preliminary markers for the pastoral process. The problem of theodicy, suffering, the relationship between sin and illness, ethical issues of a medical nature, end of life counselling and eschatological perspectives are taken into consideration as areas that would be of great value in the pastorate to persons affected by cancer. <![CDATA[<b>On the Bible, Bible reading and ethics: In debate with Gerrie Snyman</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532008000400006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Dit lei geen twyfel nie dat Gerrie Snyman met sy jongste boek navorsing gelewer het wat van eksistensiële worsteling getuig met vrae wat oor die Christelike geloof, die Bybel en Bybelverstaan handel. As voorbeeld van 'n misverstaan van die Bybel verwys hy herhaaldelik na apartheid, die vrou in die amp en homoseksuele persone. Hy bepleit 'n totale herverstaan van die Bybel waarin deeglik rekening gehou word met onder andere die Bybelskrywer, die konteks van die skrywer, die konteks van die eerste lesers en die konteks van die moderne leser. Die klassieke manier van Bybellees is uitgedien en moet laat vaar word ten gunste van 'n meer kritiese omgang met die Bybel. Die skrywer van hierdie artikel ondersoek die vraag of Snyman hom nie hiermee dalk skuldig maak aan 'n naïewe vorm van rasionalisme en relasionisme nie.2<hr/>Without doubt Gerrie Snyman produced a book which attests to an existential grappling with questions about Christian faith, the Bible and understanding of the Bible. The author refers to apartheid, women in office and homosexual persons as examples of misunderstanding and misuse of the Bible. He advocates a reinterpretation of the Bible in which the authors (of the Bible), the context of the authors, the context of the first and the context of the modern readers be taken into account fully. The classic way of reading the Bible is outdated and should be exchanged for a more critical approach to the Bible. The author of this article investigates the question as to whether Snyman is not guilty of a naïve form of rationalism and relationism. <![CDATA[<b>Stem cell research and therapy: A preliminary theological-ethical evaluation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532008000400007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Stamselnavorsers het al wonderlike en asemrowende terapeutiese suksesse met stamselle bewerk. Mens en dier is deur middel van stamselle van 'n verskeidenheid siektes verlos. Vir baie mense hou die moontlikheid van genesing deur stamselnavorsing en meegaande terapie ontsaglike hoop in. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om hierdie medies-tegnologiese verskynsel in die algemeen teologies-eties te beoordeel. Wat leer die Bybel ons oor die genesing van siek mense? Kan Christus se leer en lewe ons in hierdie verband help? In die beantwoording van die vraag sal ook na die betekenis van die eskatologiese etiek gekyk word. Verskeie argumente vir en teen hierdie tegnologie word behandel. Die groot etiese vraag rondom stamselnavorsing en terapie in die besonder is die noodwendige vernietiging van menslike embrio's. Menslike embrio's word geskenk en soms geskep met die doel om stamselle te oes. Verskeie argumente vir en teen die vernietiging van die embrio word behandel. Die etiese oordeel dat menslike embrio's met die oog op moontlike genesing vernietig mag word, word filosofies en in die lig van die Skrif beoordeel.<hr/>Researchers have already created wonderful and fascinating therapeutic results with stem cells. Human beings and animals have been cured of a variety of ailments through the use of stem cells. For a large number of human beings the possibility of a cure through stem cell research and accompanying therapy has tremendous possibilities. The aim of this article is a theological evaluation of this medico-technological phenomenon in general. What does the Bible teach us about the cure of sick people? Can Christ's teaching and life aid us in this regard? In answering this question the meaning of the escatological ethics will be examined as well. Various arguments for and against this technology are examined. The most important ethical question concerning research and therapy in particular is the unavoidable destruction of human embryos. Human embryos are donated and sometimes created with the aim of harvesting cells. Numerous arguments for and against the destruction of embryos are treated. The ethical argument that human embryos may be destroyed for the purpose of possible cure is evaluated philosophically in the light of the Scripture. <![CDATA[<b>An assessment of the management skills required of ministers in the Reformed Churches of South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532008000400008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt A congregation is not a business, and to manage it as such would be inappropriate. Although the church is primarily invisible and spiritual by nature, in this world it is functioning as an institution which must be managed efficiently and effectively to ensure that everything is done successfully and in good order. A major part of the responsibility to ensure order and effectiveness rests on the shoulders of the minister. The training of aspiring ministers in the Reformed Churches of South Africa does not involve specific training in managing and leading an organisation. This fact might leave them vulnerable, especially in the earlier stages of their careers. Although some people are blessed with natural skills and talents regarding management and leadership, it has been proven that management skills required to manage an organisation successfully can be acquired by means of study and training. An empirical study was performed to determine whether training in management could assist ministers in the execution of their calling. A questionnaire was sent to all the ministers of the Reformed Churches of South Africa regarding the scope of circumstances in a congregation which can be compared with other organisations, as well as the minister's role in managing the situations. The research concludes with a recommendation that consideration should be given to include a course on management in the training syllabus of aspiring ministers. Furthermore, it is suggested that this course be developed specifically taking into account the background and circumstances of the Reformed Churches of South Africa, and should not be generic like the course which is included for Baccalaureus Commercii or Masters of Business Administration (MBA) students.<hr/>'n Gemeente is nie 'n sake-onderneming nie, en om dit as sodanig te probeer bestuur, sou verkeerd wees. Die kerk is primêr onsigbaar en geestelik van aard; tog funksioneer dit as 'n instituut in hierdie wêreld en moet dit doeltreffend bestuur word ten einde alles ordelik en suksesvol te laat verloop. 'n Groot verantwoordelikheid rus op die predikant van die gemeente om te sorg dat hierdie orde en doeltreffendheid verwesenlik word. Die opleiding van predikante in die Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika sluit nie spesifiek opleiding rakende die bestuur van 'n organisasie in nie. Hierdie feit kan hulle dalk in 'n kwesbare posisie plaas, veral in die vroeë stadium van hulle beroep. Alhoewel sommige mense met natuurlike vaardighede en talente rakende bestuur en leierskap geseën is, is reeds bewys dat die vaardighede wat vereis word om 'n organisasie suksesvol te bestuur, deur middel van studie en opleiding aangeleer kan word. 'n Empiriese studie is gedoen ten einde vas te stel of opleiding in bestuursvaardighede predikante sal help in die uitvoering van hulle roeping. Vraelyste is aan al die predikante van die Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika gestuur om inligting te bekom oor die omvang van die omstandighede in 'n gemeente wat vergelykbaar is met ander organisasies, asook die predikant se rol in die hantering van die situasies. Die onderhawige navorsing sluit af met 'n aanbeveling dat oorweging daaraan geskenk behoort te word om 'n kursus in ondernemingsbestuur by die opleiding van predikante in te sluit. Die kursus moet ontwerp word om spesifiek die omstandighede en behoeftes van die Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika in ag te neem. Dit hoef nie noodwendig ooreen te stem met die kursus in ondernemingsbestuur wat by die opleidingskurrikulum van studente vir Baccalaureus Commercii of MBA ingesluit is nie. <![CDATA[<b>Hoe moet 'n Gereformeerde teoloog met die Bybel omgaan?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532008000400009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt A congregation is not a business, and to manage it as such would be inappropriate. Although the church is primarily invisible and spiritual by nature, in this world it is functioning as an institution which must be managed efficiently and effectively to ensure that everything is done successfully and in good order. A major part of the responsibility to ensure order and effectiveness rests on the shoulders of the minister. The training of aspiring ministers in the Reformed Churches of South Africa does not involve specific training in managing and leading an organisation. This fact might leave them vulnerable, especially in the earlier stages of their careers. Although some people are blessed with natural skills and talents regarding management and leadership, it has been proven that management skills required to manage an organisation successfully can be acquired by means of study and training. An empirical study was performed to determine whether training in management could assist ministers in the execution of their calling. A questionnaire was sent to all the ministers of the Reformed Churches of South Africa regarding the scope of circumstances in a congregation which can be compared with other organisations, as well as the minister's role in managing the situations. The research concludes with a recommendation that consideration should be given to include a course on management in the training syllabus of aspiring ministers. Furthermore, it is suggested that this course be developed specifically taking into account the background and circumstances of the Reformed Churches of South Africa, and should not be generic like the course which is included for Baccalaureus Commercii or Masters of Business Administration (MBA) students.<hr/>'n Gemeente is nie 'n sake-onderneming nie, en om dit as sodanig te probeer bestuur, sou verkeerd wees. Die kerk is primêr onsigbaar en geestelik van aard; tog funksioneer dit as 'n instituut in hierdie wêreld en moet dit doeltreffend bestuur word ten einde alles ordelik en suksesvol te laat verloop. 'n Groot verantwoordelikheid rus op die predikant van die gemeente om te sorg dat hierdie orde en doeltreffendheid verwesenlik word. Die opleiding van predikante in die Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika sluit nie spesifiek opleiding rakende die bestuur van 'n organisasie in nie. Hierdie feit kan hulle dalk in 'n kwesbare posisie plaas, veral in die vroeë stadium van hulle beroep. Alhoewel sommige mense met natuurlike vaardighede en talente rakende bestuur en leierskap geseën is, is reeds bewys dat die vaardighede wat vereis word om 'n organisasie suksesvol te bestuur, deur middel van studie en opleiding aangeleer kan word. 'n Empiriese studie is gedoen ten einde vas te stel of opleiding in bestuursvaardighede predikante sal help in die uitvoering van hulle roeping. Vraelyste is aan al die predikante van die Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika gestuur om inligting te bekom oor die omvang van die omstandighede in 'n gemeente wat vergelykbaar is met ander organisasies, asook die predikant se rol in die hantering van die situasies. Die onderhawige navorsing sluit af met 'n aanbeveling dat oorweging daaraan geskenk behoort te word om 'n kursus in ondernemingsbestuur by die opleiding van predikante in te sluit. Die kursus moet ontwerp word om spesifiek die omstandighede en behoeftes van die Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika in ag te neem. Dit hoef nie noodwendig ooreen te stem met die kursus in ondernemingsbestuur wat by die opleidingskurrikulum van studente vir Baccalaureus Commercii of MBA ingesluit is nie. <![CDATA[<b> Reviews</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532008000400010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt A congregation is not a business, and to manage it as such would be inappropriate. Although the church is primarily invisible and spiritual by nature, in this world it is functioning as an institution which must be managed efficiently and effectively to ensure that everything is done successfully and in good order. A major part of the responsibility to ensure order and effectiveness rests on the shoulders of the minister. The training of aspiring ministers in the Reformed Churches of South Africa does not involve specific training in managing and leading an organisation. This fact might leave them vulnerable, especially in the earlier stages of their careers. Although some people are blessed with natural skills and talents regarding management and leadership, it has been proven that management skills required to manage an organisation successfully can be acquired by means of study and training. An empirical study was performed to determine whether training in management could assist ministers in the execution of their calling. A questionnaire was sent to all the ministers of the Reformed Churches of South Africa regarding the scope of circumstances in a congregation which can be compared with other organisations, as well as the minister's role in managing the situations. The research concludes with a recommendation that consideration should be given to include a course on management in the training syllabus of aspiring ministers. Furthermore, it is suggested that this course be developed specifically taking into account the background and circumstances of the Reformed Churches of South Africa, and should not be generic like the course which is included for Baccalaureus Commercii or Masters of Business Administration (MBA) students.<hr/>'n Gemeente is nie 'n sake-onderneming nie, en om dit as sodanig te probeer bestuur, sou verkeerd wees. Die kerk is primêr onsigbaar en geestelik van aard; tog funksioneer dit as 'n instituut in hierdie wêreld en moet dit doeltreffend bestuur word ten einde alles ordelik en suksesvol te laat verloop. 'n Groot verantwoordelikheid rus op die predikant van die gemeente om te sorg dat hierdie orde en doeltreffendheid verwesenlik word. Die opleiding van predikante in die Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika sluit nie spesifiek opleiding rakende die bestuur van 'n organisasie in nie. Hierdie feit kan hulle dalk in 'n kwesbare posisie plaas, veral in die vroeë stadium van hulle beroep. Alhoewel sommige mense met natuurlike vaardighede en talente rakende bestuur en leierskap geseën is, is reeds bewys dat die vaardighede wat vereis word om 'n organisasie suksesvol te bestuur, deur middel van studie en opleiding aangeleer kan word. 'n Empiriese studie is gedoen ten einde vas te stel of opleiding in bestuursvaardighede predikante sal help in die uitvoering van hulle roeping. Vraelyste is aan al die predikante van die Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika gestuur om inligting te bekom oor die omvang van die omstandighede in 'n gemeente wat vergelykbaar is met ander organisasies, asook die predikant se rol in die hantering van die situasies. Die onderhawige navorsing sluit af met 'n aanbeveling dat oorweging daaraan geskenk behoort te word om 'n kursus in ondernemingsbestuur by die opleiding van predikante in te sluit. Die kursus moet ontwerp word om spesifiek die omstandighede en behoeftes van die Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika in ag te neem. Dit hoef nie noodwendig ooreen te stem met die kursus in ondernemingsbestuur wat by die opleidingskurrikulum van studente vir Baccalaureus Commercii of MBA ingesluit is nie.