Scielo RSS <![CDATA[In die Skriflig ]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2305-085320080003&lang=es vol. 42 num. 3 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Redaksioneel</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532008000300001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>Is a church order, according to it's nature, not contrary to the work of the Holy Spirit?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532008000300002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die vraag is of 'n kerkorde as anti-geestelik gesien moet word. Lei 'n kerkorde, teen die werk van die Heilige Gees in, tot verstarring van die kerk? Deur hierdie vraag is die kontroversie tussen die geestelike lewe van die kerk en die institusionele ordening daarvan as 'n aktualiteit in die hedendaagse kerklike lewe aan die orde gestel. Die verwerping van die institusionele karakter van die kerk het 'n lang geskiedenis. Om die ware aard en die Skriftuurlike funksionering van 'n kerkorde te begryp, moet perspektief verkry word op die nuwe orde wat deur Christus gegee is deur sy Heilige Gees. Die nuwe orde moet gesien word as die lewenswyse wat deur Christus vir God se volk daargestel is op grond van die versoening. In hierdie konteks moet 'n kerkorde geag word as die beweging van die gelowige na die Woord, wat deur die Gees plaasvind, by wyse van bepaalde middele. In hierdie sin kan die kerkorde selfs beskou word as 'n modus quo waardeur Christus die kerk by wyse van sy Gees regeer en waardeur Hy die nuwe orde onderhou wat Hy vir God se kinders daargestel het. So gesien, is die kerkorde nie 'n mensgemaakte las vir die kerk nie, verder is dit ook nie 'n anti-geestelike instrument waardeur die kerk in 'n bestaan van doodse formalisme gedompel word nie. Inteendeel, 'n Skrif-gefundeerde kerkorde is 'n waardevolle instrument waardeur die regering van Christus, deur die Heilige Gees, in die kerk sigbaarbehoort te word. 'n Skrifgefundeerde kerkorde is in wese 'n korreksie op die skeiding tussen die Heilige Gees en die Woord van God. Daarom moet 'n Skrifgefundeerde kerkorde in ooreenstemming met die nuwe lewensorde in Christus as onontbeerlik vir kerkwees in hierdie wêreld geag word.<hr/>The question is whether a church order should be seen as anti-Spiritual. Does a church order, in contrary to the work of the Holy Spirit, lead to rigidity of the church? By this question the controversy of the spiritual life of the church versus the institutional ordination of it has been raised as a real actuality in modern church life. The rejection of the institutional character of the church has a long history. To understand the true nature and the true Scriptural functioning of a church order one needs to get perspective on the new order which was given by Christ by means of his Holy Spirit. The new order must be seen as the way of life that was created by Christ on the profound ground of the expiation. In this context a church order must be understood as existing in the movement from the believer to the Word which occurs in the leading of the Spirit through ordained means. Seen in this sense, a church order must be regarded as a modus quo by which the church is governed by Christ by means of his Spirit, in order to maintain the new order which He created for his children. Seen as such, a church order is not a man created dispensable burden for the church of Christ, furthermore it is not an anti-Spiritual instrument by which the church is plunged into a dreary existence of cold formalism. To the contrary, a true Scriptural church order must be appreciated as a valuable instrument through which the governing labour of Christ, by means of his Holy Spirit, in the church should become visible. A Scriptural church order is in essence a correction on the separation of the Holy Spirit from the Word of God. Therefore a Scriptural church order should be considered as indispensable in this world for church being, according to the new order of life in Christ. <![CDATA[<b>The extraordinary birth of Jesus Christ and the reign of his church, especially regarding women</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532008000300003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die vraag of daar volgens die Skrif vir die vrou in die besondere dienste plek is, veral as ouderling, is tans medeverantwoordelik vir spanning in die Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid Afrika. Die regeertaak van die kerk hang ten nouste saam met die manier waarop God sy volk regeer en met die verhouding tussen Hom en sy volk. Matteus wys dat daar in hierdie opsigte 'n wesenlike ooreenkoms, maar ook 'n ingrypende verskil tussen die Ou-Testamentiese en die Nuwe-Testamentiese bedelings is. Hierdie artikel ondersoek wat hieroor in albei bedelings dieselfde is, maar ook waarin hulle van mekaar verskil. Die sonde het menswees en harmonie tot in die intiemste verhouding grondig versteur. Heerskappy is in die ou bedeling onder meer deur dwang uitgeoefen, soos in slawerny en die miskenning van die vrou se volle menswees. Die geboorte van Jesus Christus deur die Heilige Gees uit 'n vrou sonder die toedoen van 'n man, is die vervulling van Ou-Testamentiese beloftes. Alle gelowiges, sonder onderskeid in stand of geslag, word deur Jesus Christus as beeld van God herskep en in 'n direkte persoonlike verhouding met Hom herstel. Heerskappyvoering oor ander, soos in die manlike dominering oor die vrou en in die aardse koning-skap en slawerny, maak plek vir diensbaarwees. Jesus Christus oefen sy volmag dienend uit. Veral sy kerk moet dienend regeer deur Hom as die enigste Hoof te erken en van sy lewe, dood en opstanding te getuig soos dit in sy Woord vervat is. Daarvoor is 'n gelowige vrou net so goed toegerus soos 'n man.<hr/>The issue whether there is room for women in the special services of the church, especially as elder, is currently coresponsible for tension within the Reformed Churches in South Africa (RCSA). The ruling task of the church is closely linked with the way God rules his people and with what the relation between Him and his people is. The book of Matthew shows that there is an essential unity but also a drastic difference between the Old Testament and the New Testament dispensations in this regard. This article investigates at what dominates both dispensations and how they differ concerning this. Sin disrupted humanness and harmony fundamentally and in the most intimate relations. In the old dispensation power was inter alia exercised by force, for example in slavery and disregard of women's full humanness. The birth of Jesus Christ through the Holy Spirit from a woman without a man is the fulfilment of the Old Testament promises. All believers without difference in class or gender are recreated by Jesus Christ as the image of God and are reinstated in a personal relation with Him. Exercise of power over others, like in male domination of women and in earthly kingship and slavery makes room for being serviceable. Jesus Christ exercises his authority in a serving way. Especially his church must rule in a serving way by acknowledging Him as Head and testifying about his life, death and resurrection as contained in his Word. A believing woman is just as well equiped for this as a man. <![CDATA[<b>"Faithfulness to Scripture" in the worship service?</b> <b>Comments on a core confession</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532008000300004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es In hierdie artikel word die fundamentele vraag na die betekenis van die "Skrifgetrouheid" van die erediens gestel. Enkele moontlike antwoorde hierop word krities ondersoek, gevolg deur 'n pleidooi vir 'n verrykte verstaan en gebruik van die unieke eienskappe van die Skrif in die liturgie, met inbegrip van faktore soos die fokus (teologiese raamwerk), vorm (genre) en funksie (intensie) van Bybelse tekste. Ten slotte word die vraag gestel of daar'n konstruktiewe interaksie tussen ons eksegese en liturgie bestaan, asook wat die implikasies van sodanige inter-aksie vir ons eredienste sou wees.<hr/>In this article the fundamental question is posed as to what "faithfulness to Scripture" in the worship service entails. After giving attention to some possible answers, a plea is made for an enriched understanding and usage of the unique characteristics of Scripture in liturgy, including factors such as the focus (theological framework), form (genre) and function (intention) ofBiblical texts. In closing, the article addresses the question whether a constructive interaction exists between our exegesis and liturgy, and what the implications thereof could be for our worship services. <![CDATA[<b>The second coming of Christ as the golden key to unlock the Book of Daniel: An analysis of a Pentecostal interpretation of the dream in Daniel 2</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532008000300005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Pentecostals regard the doctrine of the second coming of Christ as very important. All passages in the Bible deemed to be "prophetical" are interpreted in premillennialist terms. Bennie Kleynhans' interpretation of the dream in Daniel 2 is used to demonstrate how an endeavourto find relevance through a contemporary interpretation of a Biblical passage, easily becomes outdated. He was of the opinion that communism, the Council on Foreign Relations and the European Economic Community with its ten members would introduce the Antichrist as the leader of a one-world government, eventually leading to the second coming of Christ. Daniel 2 is read as "prophecy", describing the global situation at the latter half of the twentieth century. This demonstrates that the differences in interpreting the dream in Daniel 2 reflect different ways of viewing and treating the Bible. A fundamentalist perspective sees the Bible as a blueprint of what God is going to do in future and how he is going to do this. The "future" - the "last days" just before the second coming of Christ - is inevitably linked to the present day.<hr/>Pinkstergelowiges heg groot waarde aan die wederkoms van Christus en interpreteer alle Skrifgedeeltes wat "profeties" mag klink in premillennialistiese terme. In hierdie artikel word Bennie Kleynhans se interpretasie van die droom in Daniël 2 gebruik om te demonstreer hoe 'n kontemporêre interpretasie van 'n Skrifgedeelte gedateer kan raak. Kleynhans het geglo dat kom-munisme, die Raad vir Buitelandse Verhoudings en die Europese Ekonomiese Gemeenskap met sy tien lede die Antichris sal voorstel as die leier van 'n eenwêreldregering en dat dit die wederkoms direk sal voorafgaan. Hy lees Daniël 2 as "profesie" wat die globale situasie in die tweede helfte van die twintigste eeu beskryf. So demonstreer Kleynhans hoe sy siening van die Bybel hom lei om Daniël 2 te interpreteer as 'n fundamentalistiese perspektief van die Bybel, as 'n bloudruk van wat God in ons tyd gaan doen. Die "laaste dae" net voor die tweede koms van Christus word direk aan die hede verbind. <![CDATA[<b>Stem cell research and therapy: An overview of its feasibility with accompanying ethical implications</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532008000300006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Stamselnavorsing is 'n asemrowende tegnologie waar die mens se eie selle gebruik word om genesing te bewerk. Stamselle is spesiale selle wat die vermoë het om tot enige sel in die liggaam te ontwikkel en defektiewe selle te herstel of te vervang. Navorsers het stamselle uit die menslike (en dierlike) embrio, fetus, naelstring en volwasse liggaam geïsoleer en tot stamsellyne voorberei vir terapie. Verbasende resultate is alreeds aangetoon. In sommige gevalle het navorsers ten volle genesing bewerk of ten minste groot verbeter tot stand gebring in diere (en in enkele gevalle by mense) met suikersiekte, Parkinson en Alzheimer se siektes en outo-immuunsiektes. Die gebreekte rugmurg van rotte is ook al deur hierdie tegnologie herstel. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om oorsigtelik aan die tegniese uitvoerbaarheid en vordering in stamselnavorsing aandag te gee. Uit hierdie gegewens sal dit duidelik word dat daar heelwat algemene en tegniese probleme met meegaande etiese implikasies bestaan, wat eers opgelos moet word voordat hierdie terapie bruikbaar sal wees. Probleme wat geïdentifiseer is, is die noodwendige vernietiging van die menslike embrio, die oorweging van terapeutiese kloning, plasing van menslike embrionale stamselle in embrio's van primate soos ape en 'n reeks tegniese probleme in die ontwikkeling van stamsel-tegnologie.<hr/>Stem cell research is a breathtaking technology where man's own cells are used to effect a cure for certain ailments. Stem cells are specially developed cells that contain the ability to develop into any cell in the body and to cure or replace defective cells. Researchers isolated stem cells from the human (and animal) embryo, foetus, umbilical cord, and adult body and developed them to stem cell lines for therapy. Astonishing results have already been shown. In some instances researchers achieved full cure or at least huge improvement in animals (and in a few instances with human beings) with diabetes, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases and auto-immune diseases. The broken spinal marrow ofrats has also been repaired through this technique. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the technical feasibility and advancement of this field of research. It will become apparent from these facts that there are a large number of general and technical problems with the accompanying ethical implications, that will have to be resolved before this therapy can be applied. Problems that have been identified include the necessary destruction of the human embryo, the consideration of therapeutic cloning, the placing of human embryonic cells in embryos of primates such as apes and a series of technical problems in the development of stem cell technology. <![CDATA[<b>A Reformational social philosophy: Systematic exposition, critical evaluation and practical application</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532008000300007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Die probleem wat hier onder die loep geneem word, is dat Christene, kerke en teoloë dikwels deur geen of 'n baie vae lewensbeskoulike perspektief op die sosiale lewe gelei word. Soms word selfs van nie-Bybelse metodes (soos vroeër die Marxisme en deesdae die neokapitalisme of postmodernisme) gebruik gemaak om die samelewing te analiseer. Dit kan 'n belangrike bydraende rede wees vir die ongelukkige feit dat Christene dikwels weinig invloed op die breë samelewing (die sg. openbare terrein) buite hulle persoonlike en kerklike lewe het. Hierdie artikel ondersoek 'n moontlike oplossing deur die volgende stappe: Dit begin met 'n vergelyking tussen die drie basiese samelewingsfilosofieë, naamlik individualisme, kollektivisme en pluralisme. Dit gee daarna 'n sistematiese uiteensetting van 'n Christelik-reformatoriese pluralistiese samelewingsfilosofie as moontlike kandidaat. Om aan te dui dat hierdie samelewingsfilosofie nie 'n statiese dogma of ideologie wil wees of só beskou moet word nie, bevat die volgende afdeling 'n kort oorsig oor enkele kritiekpunte wat deursimpatieke voorstanders geopper word. Die vierde afdeling gee 'n aanduiding van hoe hierdie samelewingsvisie tot samelewings-verandering kan lei. Na die voorafgaande meerteoretiese verkenning, vestig dit die aandag op die praktiese toepasbaarheid. Op hierdie wyse word 'n volledige antwoord (teoreties en prakties) gebied op die belangrike probleem wat aan die begin gestel is, naamlik die geringe impak van Christene op die sogenaamde openbare lewe.<hr/>The problem to be discussed in this contribution is that many Christians, churches and theologians are often guided by no or merely a very vague (worldviewish) perspective on social life. Sometimes they are even inspired by unbiblical methods (e.g. earlier Marxism and contemporary neocapitalism or postmodernism) in their social analysis. This may be an important contributing factor for the sad fact that Christians often have very little impact on the broader social domain (the "public square") outside their personal and church life. Therefore this article looks at a possible solution in the following steps: It begins with a comparison between the three basic philosophies of society, viz. individualism, collectivism and pluralism. Then it provides a systematic exposition of a Christian-reformational, pluralistic social philosophy as a possible candidate. To indicate that a reformational social philosophy neither wants to pretend, nor wants to be regarded as a static dogma or ideology, the next section reviews some points of critique voiced by its sympathetic proponents. The fourth section investigates how this social view may inspire social change. Following the preceding, more theoretical exploration, it discusses possibilities for its practical application. In this way a complete answer (both theoretical and practical) is given to the urgent problem indicated at the beginning, viz. the little influence of Christians on the so-called public sphere. <![CDATA[<b>Economic sanctions: An ethical primer</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532008000300008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es The world has developed into a globe with increasingly intertwined economic interests, with greater economic interdependence than ever before. This has caused a new weapon to step onto the world scene in the 20th and 21st centuries, applied to bring nations to heel. It is aimed at those nations which do not conform to particular, usually ethically perceived standards. "Economic sanctions" is the name of this new weapon. This article aims to evaluate the wielding of economic sanctions from the perspective of principles based on a Biblical worldview in order to assist Christians in making an informed decision as to what their stance ought to be regarding this phenomenon. Data show that there is an incremental increase of the use of economic sanctions in world politics. At present, sanctions have uncertain grounding in ethics and little or no standing in international law. Their effectiveness is seriously questioned, their economic cost, especially to the implementer(!), is considerable. The question as to whether economic sanctions should be deplored or embraced at times would be helped with further investigation beyond the scope of this article, notably with regard to what has been surmised in the context of the sanctions deployed regarding the apartheid regime in South Africa. The results of economic sanctions appear to bear out the Biblical principles in that both, actual results plus Biblical principles, generally send a discouraging message regarding this approach to political conflict.<hr/>Die wêreld het ontwikkel in die rigting van toenemende ver-vlegde ekonomiese belange, met groter ekonomiese interafhanklikheid as ooit tevore. Dit veroorsaak dat 'n nuwe wapen gedurende die 20e en 21e eeue op die toneel gekom het om nasies die knie te laat buig. Dit is gerig op daardie nasies wat nie voldoen aan baie spesifieke, gewoonlik etiese, standaarde nie. "Ekonomiese sanksies" is die naam van hierdie nuwe wapen. Hierdie artikel het ten doel om die werking van ekonomiese sanksies te beoordeel vanuit die perspektief van beginsels wat uit 'n Bybelse wêreldsiening spruit. Christene sal gevolglik 'n ingeligde besluit kan maak oor waar hulle behoort te staan betreffende hierdie fenomeen. Data wys dat daar 'n groot toename is in die gebruik van ekonomiese sanksies in wêreldpolitiek. Tans het sulke sanksies 'n onsekere begronding in etiek en min of geen aansien in internasionale reg nie. Hulle effektiwiteit kan ernstig bevraagteken word, en die ekonomiese koste, veral vir die toepasser, is aansienlik. Die vraag of ekonomiese sanksies verafsku of in sekere omstandighede omhels moet word, sal beter beantwoord word deur verdere navorsing buite die trefwydte van hierdie artikel - veral met betrekking tot gebeure in die konteks van die sanksies teenoordie apartheidsbestel in Suid-Afrika wat toegepas is. Die resultate van ekonomiese sanksies blyk dieselfde te probeer doen as Bybelse beginsels in die sin dat albei 'n afkeurende boodskap aangaande 'n benadering van politiese konflik stuur. <![CDATA[<b>Response to <i>Male and female in the church - gender in the ordained ministries</i> by Douw G. Breed, Fika J. van Rensburg, and Gert J.C. Jordaan</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532008000300009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es "Male and female in the church" (2008), by Breed, J. van Flensburg and Jordaan, is reviewed as to its treatment of the regulative principle and its exegesis of 1 Timothy 2-3. The reformed and puritan version of the regulative principle, reflected in the writings of John Calvin and in the major reformed confessions, implies that proponents of women in the ecclesiastical office must do more than question the traditional exegesis of key passages used in the debate. They must provide Biblical warrant for the practice. "Male and female in the church" outlines an option that defends the traditional exegesis of 1 Timothy 2-3. It also provides another option that seeks to explain 1 Timothy 2:8-15 in terms of the marriage-relationship rather than male and female in the church. The exegesis in the latter option is found to be tenuous. Similarly, the option that views 1 Timothy 3:11 as referring to ordained deaconesses is found to be unconvincing. No clear Biblical warrant is found in these passages for the practice of ordaining women in the ecclesiastical office.<hr/>"Man en vrou in die kerk" (2008) deur Breed, J. van Rensburg en Jordaan, is beoordeel wat betref hulle hantering van die regulerende beginsel en die eksegese van 1 Timotheus 2-3. Die gereformeerde en puriteinse weergawe van die regulerende beginsel, soos gereflekteer in die geskrifte van Johannes Calvyn en die vernaamste gereformeerde belydenisse, impliseer dat voorstanders van die vrou in kerklike ampte meer moet doen as om net die tradisionele eksegese van sleutelgedeeltes wat in die debat gebruik word, te bevraagteken. Hulle moet Bybelse gronde vir die gebruik verskaf. "Man en vrou in die kerk" skets 'n voorkeur wat die tradisionele eksegese van 1 Timoteus 2-3 verdedig. Dit voorsien 'n verdere opsie wat poog om 1 Timoteus 2:8-15 in terme van 'n huweliksverhouding te verduidelik eerder as manlik en vroulik in die kerk. Die eksegese van laasgenoemde opsie oortuig egter nie. So ook word die opsie in 1 Timoteus 3:11 wat na bevestigde diakonesse verwys as onoortuigend bevind. Geen duidelike Bybelse bewys is in hierdie gedeeltes gevind vir die praktyk om die vrou in kerklike ampte te bevestig nie. <![CDATA[<b>Resensies</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532008000300010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es "Male and female in the church" (2008), by Breed, J. van Flensburg and Jordaan, is reviewed as to its treatment of the regulative principle and its exegesis of 1 Timothy 2-3. The reformed and puritan version of the regulative principle, reflected in the writings of John Calvin and in the major reformed confessions, implies that proponents of women in the ecclesiastical office must do more than question the traditional exegesis of key passages used in the debate. They must provide Biblical warrant for the practice. "Male and female in the church" outlines an option that defends the traditional exegesis of 1 Timothy 2-3. It also provides another option that seeks to explain 1 Timothy 2:8-15 in terms of the marriage-relationship rather than male and female in the church. The exegesis in the latter option is found to be tenuous. Similarly, the option that views 1 Timothy 3:11 as referring to ordained deaconesses is found to be unconvincing. No clear Biblical warrant is found in these passages for the practice of ordaining women in the ecclesiastical office.<hr/>"Man en vrou in die kerk" (2008) deur Breed, J. van Rensburg en Jordaan, is beoordeel wat betref hulle hantering van die regulerende beginsel en die eksegese van 1 Timotheus 2-3. Die gereformeerde en puriteinse weergawe van die regulerende beginsel, soos gereflekteer in die geskrifte van Johannes Calvyn en die vernaamste gereformeerde belydenisse, impliseer dat voorstanders van die vrou in kerklike ampte meer moet doen as om net die tradisionele eksegese van sleutelgedeeltes wat in die debat gebruik word, te bevraagteken. Hulle moet Bybelse gronde vir die gebruik verskaf. "Man en vrou in die kerk" skets 'n voorkeur wat die tradisionele eksegese van 1 Timoteus 2-3 verdedig. Dit voorsien 'n verdere opsie wat poog om 1 Timoteus 2:8-15 in terme van 'n huweliksverhouding te verduidelik eerder as manlik en vroulik in die kerk. Die eksegese van laasgenoemde opsie oortuig egter nie. So ook word die opsie in 1 Timoteus 3:11 wat na bevestigde diakonesse verwys as onoortuigend bevind. Geen duidelike Bybelse bewys is in hierdie gedeeltes gevind vir die praktyk om die vrou in kerklike ampte te bevestig nie.