Scielo RSS <![CDATA[In die Skriflig ]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2305-085320190001&lang=en vol. 53 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Integration of citizenship education with religious education in Lesotho secondary schools</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532019000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The current article fervently acknowledges the general agreement that Lesotho had never experienced a stable democracy ever since the ultimate attainment of political independence in 1966. Among other possible solutions proposed to the problem of Lesotho's democratic instability, citizenship education dominates government documents and various works regarding the political discourse. Although there is this pervasive recognition of the needed political educational intervention, there is no explicit direction on how to properly introduce the envisaged citizenship education. The article valiantly attempts bridging this visible gap by carefully probing the published literature to propose the meaningful integration of citizenship education with religious education. The discussion was guided by the critical use of the post-secular theoretical framework. The article highlights that, coupled with post-Christianity, post-secular theory undoubtedly provided a workable framework for the meaningful integration of secular (political citizenship) and religious essences for the promotion of democratic stability in Lesotho. The article logically concludes by showing that the proposed integration of citizenship education in religious education is within acceptable philosophical modes of proper education. <![CDATA[<b>The impersonalisation of God? A theological analysis of the expression of the power of God's kingdom among Zimbabwean Pentecostal prophets</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532019000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en How can the expression of the power of God's kingdom in the ministry and teaching of some Zimbabwean Pentecostal prophets be evaluated from the doctrinal perspective of the personality of God? The article analyses the expression of the power of God's kingdom among some Zimbabwean Pentecostal prophets from the perspective of the doctrine of the personality of God. The article observes that, although Pentecostal prophets in Zimbabwe claim to be empowered by the kingdom of God, they tend, nonetheless, to project an impersonalised view of the power at work in the kingdom. It is argued that the impersonalisation of the power of God leads the prophets to commodify the kingdom into something that can be controlled by a person's religiosity. Consequently, the article describes the Pentecostal prophets' understanding of themselves as special agents of God's kingdom. It further argues that the impersonalisation of the power of God's kingdom leads the Pentecostal prophets in commodifying the kingdom of God by reducing it to something that can only be accessed through them. The article closes by examining how a biblically derived understanding of the personality of the God of the kingdom can assist in discouraging the common impersonalisation of the power of God's kingdom among some Zimbabwean Pentecostal prophets. <![CDATA[<b>Ecclesiola in ecclesia in Brazil from a <i>missio Dei</i> perspective: An autoethnographic case study of four Presbyterian churches in Brazil</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532019000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This study represents an unconventional qualitative research genre, autoethnography, which is not commonly found in qualitative research circles, and is rarely used by researchers in South African and Brazilian social science. The main question behind this research is: Why were some Presbyterian churches in Brazil challenged by a significant loss of members while others were experiencing 'times of refreshing' (Ac 3:20)? There are even statistics of extraordinary increase in the participation, interest in and outreach to their communities of some churches. The question why some churches belonging to the same denomination, in the same city and presbytery and with some liturgical likeness, for some reason, were growing while others were shrinking, became a driving question leading to this research. Four growing Presbyterian churches were chosen because all four were using small group ministries. They were situated in four different cities, one in the northern part of Brazil, three in the southwest, and they were using the same method, with their own adaptations. Each of them experienced gracious growth within their own context. Through their ministries, ordinary people were doing ordinary things with extraordinary results of radiating the universal priesthood of all believers, exercising a missional witness and reaching out to a world in need. This article aims to consider their motivation, the challenges they experienced during the implementation of small group ministries, the positive and negative aspects of the process, the lessons learnt and possible application for the revitalisation of Igreja Presbiteriana do Brasil (IPB) today. <![CDATA[<b>Three perspectives on the Sabbath</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532019000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en There is still confusion in theology and especially among members of the church concerning the fourth commandment and its observance. The following questions could be asked: What is the meaning of the Sabbath? What is the intention of rest on this day? Ought this commandment still be honoured like the other nine commandments of the Law? Does it still have any meaning for the church, or is Sunday a replacement for the Sabbath? The objective is to obtain greater clarity concerning the meaning, contents and application of the Sabbath as presented in both the Old and the New Testament. This is done from a dogmatic emphasis by dividing the Sabbath into three perspectives: The Creation Sabbath (God's identification with it), the Covenant Sabbath (Israel's identification with it), and the Atonement Sabbath (the church's identification with it). This division does not assume three separate Sabbaths, but they are perspectives on the one Sabbath of God. The threefold perspective will contribute to a universal view on the Sabbath as presented in the creation narrative, the nation of Israel, and the church of the New Testament. This universal view is grounded in Christ who is the focal point, contents and connection between the three given perspectives. It is a Christocentric point of view that gives perception on the meaning, observance, application and message of the Sabbath for the church and every believer of our day. <![CDATA[<b>Friendship as a Theological Model: Bonhoeffer, Moltmann and the Trinity</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532019000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Friendship has been valued since classical times and is also an important category from a theological perspective; Christians are even called 'friends of God' (Jn 15:15). For a theological reflection on friendship, we will be drawing upon the work of Dietrich Bonhoeffer and J├╝rgen Moltmann in this contribution. While numerous differences exist in Bonhoeffer and Moltmann's theology, both have written about the Christian community extensively. We will examine friendship as the theological environment in which we learn how to relate to others not only privately, but also in the public arena, seeking the common good. Friendship, we argue, should not remain in an enclosed area within the personal relationship where we remain friends with those who are similar to us. Rather, friendship, as a theological model, is the space where we can practice the attributes of friendship to enable us to live this out within the broader society with those with whom we are not necessarily friends, but with all people. Friendship can form the environment for us to be 'trained' in the characteristics of theological friendship where we are friends in freedom and without hierarchy, and, in so doing, learn to treat all human beings as equal. <![CDATA[<b>Communicating meaningfully with Muslims: Analysing the Melkite language shift in the light of Christian-Muslim relations in Northern Nigeria</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532019000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The Melkites were one of the eastern Christian communities that came under Islamic rule following the Arab conquests. To stay in conversation with their Muslim codebaters and political leaders, the Melkites were the first among the Christian groups in the East to have their theological works appear in Arabic. One of the eras of rich interfaith exchange in the history of Christian-Muslim interaction came from this period. Today, Nigerian Christians exhibit a rising level of Islamophobia due to violent Islamic practices that have gone on in recent times. It is equally true that Muslims may have their levels of suspicion about Christians in the country. In any case, the Melkite-Muslim interfaith history indicates that there could not be a more critical time for differing faith groups to stay in communication than a period of sustained tension. Keeping this in mind, what could Nigerian Christians, in a time of interreligious relational strain, learn from the Melkites about interfaith communication? This article provides an answer to this question by drawing on lessons in the evaluation of the strategic use of the Arabic language by eastern Christian-Muslim communities of late antiquity (7th to the 10th century). <![CDATA[<b>Land, group identities and competing justice values in South Africa: Reformed perspectives on embracive justice and permeable identity formation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532019000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This contribution argues that competing justice values are hindering progress in the land debate in South Africa. Two factors contribute to this state of affairs: Firstly, social justice is a multifaceted concept undergirded by a range of values. These values often stand in tension with each other, especially when it comes to intergenerational conflicts and transitional social contexts. Secondly, South African approaches to justice seem to be closely related to group identities, particular historical experiences and political interests. To address the impasse on land, we need to recalibrate our disposition to the hierarchy of justice values and the priority we assign to each value. Moreover, we need to address the relationship between justice dispositions and identities. The question posed is the following: Can reformed-theological resources add an extra ingredient to our understanding of social justice? What would be the implications of such a recalibration for our understanding of human identity? This article proposes the concept of embracing justice as orienting principle in resolving the land issue. Furthermore, it draws on reformed notions of self-denial and cross-bearing to advocate a permeable notion of identity that internalises and enacts the demands of embracive justice. <![CDATA[<b>Theoconomy: An ethical paradigm for economic prosperity</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532019000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The Parliament of the World's Religions made a call to the international society to find shared values that could effectively direct the new world order that is characterised by its polycentric and heterogenous character. In response to the call and informed by the Global Ethics Project, a research study was conducted under the auspices of the Unit for Reformational Theology and the Development of the Society, at the North-West University, South Africa. The study focused on how the global economy could be organised differently in order to address the severe anomalies of superficial ethics of materialism, instant gratification and the philosophy of futility that underlies the unfettered consumerism of the secular age. The study therefore searched for a new framework of flourishing or an ethic paradigm for economic prosperity. The study introduces a new ethics labelled Theoconomy. In this article, the epistemology and ontology of the research study are expounded. <![CDATA[<b>Lasting fruit of integral mission in India of 100 years ago</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532019000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The Parliament of the World's Religions made a call to the international society to find shared values that could effectively direct the new world order that is characterised by its polycentric and heterogenous character. In response to the call and informed by the Global Ethics Project, a research study was conducted under the auspices of the Unit for Reformational Theology and the Development of the Society, at the North-West University, South Africa. The study focused on how the global economy could be organised differently in order to address the severe anomalies of superficial ethics of materialism, instant gratification and the philosophy of futility that underlies the unfettered consumerism of the secular age. The study therefore searched for a new framework of flourishing or an ethic paradigm for economic prosperity. The study introduces a new ethics labelled Theoconomy. In this article, the epistemology and ontology of the research study are expounded. <![CDATA[<b>Bullinger as selfstandige en onafhanklike teoloog uitgelig</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532019000100010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The Parliament of the World's Religions made a call to the international society to find shared values that could effectively direct the new world order that is characterised by its polycentric and heterogenous character. In response to the call and informed by the Global Ethics Project, a research study was conducted under the auspices of the Unit for Reformational Theology and the Development of the Society, at the North-West University, South Africa. The study focused on how the global economy could be organised differently in order to address the severe anomalies of superficial ethics of materialism, instant gratification and the philosophy of futility that underlies the unfettered consumerism of the secular age. The study therefore searched for a new framework of flourishing or an ethic paradigm for economic prosperity. The study introduces a new ethics labelled Theoconomy. In this article, the epistemology and ontology of the research study are expounded. <![CDATA[<b>Liberation reimagined: Counter imperial theology and the gospel</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532019000100011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The Parliament of the World's Religions made a call to the international society to find shared values that could effectively direct the new world order that is characterised by its polycentric and heterogenous character. In response to the call and informed by the Global Ethics Project, a research study was conducted under the auspices of the Unit for Reformational Theology and the Development of the Society, at the North-West University, South Africa. The study focused on how the global economy could be organised differently in order to address the severe anomalies of superficial ethics of materialism, instant gratification and the philosophy of futility that underlies the unfettered consumerism of the secular age. The study therefore searched for a new framework of flourishing or an ethic paradigm for economic prosperity. The study introduces a new ethics labelled Theoconomy. In this article, the epistemology and ontology of the research study are expounded. <![CDATA[<b>'n Harde oordeel oor die NG kerk (en ander gereformeerde kerke)?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532019000100012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The Parliament of the World's Religions made a call to the international society to find shared values that could effectively direct the new world order that is characterised by its polycentric and heterogenous character. In response to the call and informed by the Global Ethics Project, a research study was conducted under the auspices of the Unit for Reformational Theology and the Development of the Society, at the North-West University, South Africa. The study focused on how the global economy could be organised differently in order to address the severe anomalies of superficial ethics of materialism, instant gratification and the philosophy of futility that underlies the unfettered consumerism of the secular age. The study therefore searched for a new framework of flourishing or an ethic paradigm for economic prosperity. The study introduces a new ethics labelled Theoconomy. In this article, the epistemology and ontology of the research study are expounded. <![CDATA[<b>Background perspectives on infinity and God</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532019000100013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Initially the connection between divinity and infinity was accompanied by an initial notion of infinity in the literal sense of one, another one, and so on - without an end, endless. Via Anaxagoras we reach Aristotle for whom it would be contradictory to hold that God is infinite, because the unlimited nature of infinity cannot be reconciled with the fullness of being of perfect reason. After Origen it was Gregor von Nyssa who positively affirmed that infinity belongs to the essence of God. Augustine was also more explicit in his view of infinity, because, according to him, the set of 'all finite integers' could be comprehended at once as an actual-infinite totality. An element of the thinking of Thomas Aquinas acknowledges that God's infinity could be known, albeit in an inadequate manner. Aquinas continues key elements of the Greek-Medieval tradition, for according to him, in eternity there is no succession, because it exists totally at once. Cusanus took God as the actual infinite to be the coincidentia oppositorum. Descartes defends the view that the infinite, which is God, is known before the finite. Kant aptly introduces the expression 'successive infinite' but rejects the idea of an infinite totality. After Kant Maimon distinguishes between the human mind and a divine mind associated with succession and at once respectively. Hegel grasped the distinction between ordinal and cardinal numbers. Bolzano, Weierstrass, Dedekind and Cantor explored the at once infinite mathematically. Finally, what has been explained thus far sheds light on the struggle of theologians with the assumption that infinity is actually a theological notion (God's infinity) transferred to mathematics. <![CDATA[<b>Pastoral Banking Practice - A Christian-ethical and pastoral perspective on financing, credit and moneylending</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532019000100014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Financing of human activity through borrowing from third parties is widespread in the Western world. Such financing may give rise to several questions of moral and ethical character. The ethical underpinnings of such banking activity are somewhat unclear and not uniform among the involved actors. Christian thinkers have been divided as to what moral norms should apply and, traditionally, the matter has been discussed mostly in connection with the level of interest charged by the lender to the borrower. In this article, banking is illuminated from different angles, including questions regarding the moral defensibility of lending and borrowing, the taking and posting of collateral, third party guarantees and the level of interest that may be charged. A new banking system is proposed, whereby banking is given a constructive and participatory societal place in concert with sound Christian-ethical and pastoral principles. This new banking paradigm is named Pastoral Banking Practice (PBP) to emphasise its Christian-ethical and pastoral foundations. <![CDATA[<b>Toward a contemporary understanding of youth ministry as a descriptive agency</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532019000100015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Youth ministry within an evangelical protestant epistemology has predominantly been evangelistic, with the aim of reaching and proselytising unchurched youth and youth who do not have a personal and confessed relationship with Jesus Christ. Youth ministry, however, since its inception until the contemporary context of the 21st century, has gone through many challenges and transformations. The historical challenges of the youth ministry have birthed many developments to address the ever-increasing need of the adolescent world both globally and within South Africa. Youth ministry can no longer only be interested in the spiritual condition of the youth; instead, youth ministry should be an agency in the lived realities and experiences of the youth. The aim of the article is to argue that the efficacy of youth ministry in a contemporary society depends on its function as a descriptive agency that is informed by its mission, which is primarily ministry. <![CDATA[<b>A liturgical comparative study of Sotho initiation and Christian baptism</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532019000100016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en At first glance, there appears to be similarities between traditional Sotho initiation and Christian baptism, as both give the individual entrance into a new stage of life. This study compares African initiation in the Sotho context with initiation and baptism in the Christian context. The following aspects served as comparison: concepts of initiation, admission requirements, separation and new naming, the process of initiation through circumcision and baptism, community and the initiation, teaching in the initiation, and controversies in the initiation process. The correct biblical teaching and the right approach will overcome wrong teachings that emanate from African concepts about ancestral spirits and witchcraft, and the initiation school. This comparison opens the eyes for the Sotho initiation to discover and rethink the importance of the concept of baptism, the requirement of faith in baptism, the radical separation of the baptised person from the unbaptised, the importance of new naming, the Name of the triune God, the beauty of the process of baptism, the importance for the baptised to live, to experience and contribute to the community life of the church, the necessary teaching before and after baptism and to deal with controversies on the basis of Scripture. <![CDATA[<b>Theoconomy: Rebooting the South African economy</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532019000100017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In this article, the reasons why ethics ought to be one of the pillars of an all-inclusive economic growth strategy are expounded. Because of the unethical burden of the South African history, coupled to the myopic way of transforming the post-apartheid society and building an inclusive nation, a deep rooted ethical and trust deficit prevails among the people of South Africa. This is the reason why the South African society is in a sophisticated and self-inflicted war with itself that permeates nearly all segments and components of the politico-economic order. The authors argue that a shared ethics and vision, founded upon a strong shared ethos, would restore and bolster trust and confidence in the economy. This would reform the economic household and place the economy on a growth strategy of 6% per annum that is needed to improve the economic prospects and allow to break free from the equilibrium of low growth and high inequality in which South Africa has been trapped for decades. <![CDATA[<b>Theoconomy: Fixing the forecasting error</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532019000100018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Most of the economic wealth accumulated by humans over all the ages is founded on an error of judgement or a delusion that to acquire wealth, possessions and status will bring permanent happiness. It is this deception which rises and keeps the economic household in continual motion. Founded on this delusion, humanity has created cities as well as common wealth, and invent and improve all the sciences and arts which ennoble and embellish human life. This delusion is also the cause of half of the world's problems such as the unrelenting demand on the earth's resources, pollution, world wars, et cetera. It is because of this delusion that the modern age is caught up in the philosophy of futility, fetishism of commodities and conspicuous consumption. This can no longer be tolerated. A new narrative ought to be found. Humans have to change their positions. A greater degree of mindfulness and consciousness are required. In this article, the nature and character of this deception in terms of Adam Smith's universe of capitalism is expounded and a new narrative, theoconomy, is introduced to correct the error of judgement by humans. <![CDATA[<b>A new gospel for the current context of our Western culture?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532019000100019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Most of the economic wealth accumulated by humans over all the ages is founded on an error of judgement or a delusion that to acquire wealth, possessions and status will bring permanent happiness. It is this deception which rises and keeps the economic household in continual motion. Founded on this delusion, humanity has created cities as well as common wealth, and invent and improve all the sciences and arts which ennoble and embellish human life. This delusion is also the cause of half of the world's problems such as the unrelenting demand on the earth's resources, pollution, world wars, et cetera. It is because of this delusion that the modern age is caught up in the philosophy of futility, fetishism of commodities and conspicuous consumption. This can no longer be tolerated. A new narrative ought to be found. Humans have to change their positions. A greater degree of mindfulness and consciousness are required. In this article, the nature and character of this deception in terms of Adam Smith's universe of capitalism is expounded and a new narrative, theoconomy, is introduced to correct the error of judgement by humans. <![CDATA[<b>The phenomenon of human conscience</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532019000100020&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Most of the economic wealth accumulated by humans over all the ages is founded on an error of judgement or a delusion that to acquire wealth, possessions and status will bring permanent happiness. It is this deception which rises and keeps the economic household in continual motion. Founded on this delusion, humanity has created cities as well as common wealth, and invent and improve all the sciences and arts which ennoble and embellish human life. This delusion is also the cause of half of the world's problems such as the unrelenting demand on the earth's resources, pollution, world wars, et cetera. It is because of this delusion that the modern age is caught up in the philosophy of futility, fetishism of commodities and conspicuous consumption. This can no longer be tolerated. A new narrative ought to be found. Humans have to change their positions. A greater degree of mindfulness and consciousness are required. In this article, the nature and character of this deception in terms of Adam Smith's universe of capitalism is expounded and a new narrative, theoconomy, is introduced to correct the error of judgement by humans. <![CDATA[<b>Augustinus as wegwyser vir 'n geestelike en morele lewe</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2305-08532019000100021&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Most of the economic wealth accumulated by humans over all the ages is founded on an error of judgement or a delusion that to acquire wealth, possessions and status will bring permanent happiness. It is this deception which rises and keeps the economic household in continual motion. Founded on this delusion, humanity has created cities as well as common wealth, and invent and improve all the sciences and arts which ennoble and embellish human life. This delusion is also the cause of half of the world's problems such as the unrelenting demand on the earth's resources, pollution, world wars, et cetera. It is because of this delusion that the modern age is caught up in the philosophy of futility, fetishism of commodities and conspicuous consumption. This can no longer be tolerated. A new narrative ought to be found. Humans have to change their positions. A greater degree of mindfulness and consciousness are required. In this article, the nature and character of this deception in terms of Adam Smith's universe of capitalism is expounded and a new narrative, theoconomy, is introduced to correct the error of judgement by humans.