Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Koers]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/rss.php?pid=2304-855720200001&lang=en vol. 85 num. 1 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.za <![CDATA[<b>Novice Teachers' Beliefs and Fears on Bullying in Schools in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572020000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Worldwide, and in developing countries like South Africa, bullying and violence in schools are a prevalent problem. Negotiating and managing bullying in schools has become progressively challenging for teachers, more so for novice teachers entering the profession. Through semi-structured interviews, this interpretivist qualitative study explores the fears and beliefs of four novice teachers within the KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa. Using narrative analysis, novice teachers attributed their understanding, worldviews, beliefs, fears and the manner in which they responded to bullying instances to: their biographical backgrounds, their personal beliefs and attitudes, social and contextual factors. They demonstrated an understanding of bullying, and recognised the prevalence and persisting problem of bullying in schools. They recalled from their growing up years how they experienced bullying, directly or indirectly, consciously or unconsciously, from their own personal histories, attitudes and beliefs. They expressed fears about not effectively identifying and responding to bullying behaviours. Lastly teachers associated bullying with an imbalance of power. Although teachers were aware of informal anti-bullying interventions, they stressed the lack of concrete formal intervention strategies to reduce and stop bullying. The teachers recommended a collaborative and democratic process of all stakeholders deciding policies and crafting customised practical intervention strategies, rather than a generic approach to eliminating bullying and violence in schools. <![CDATA[<b>Francis Schaeffer's Relevance to Contemporary Apologetics</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572020000100002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Thirty-five years have elapsed since the passing of evangelist/apologist Francis Schaeffer He has been criticized by many but lauded by more. He was one who could not escape the ire of his own son, but one thing remains true: he has touched more people than one could count His legacy as a gentleman evangelist remains and a number of aspects used in his apologetics approach that came so naturally for Schaeffer can not be emulated even three and a half decades after his death. The context in which Schaeffer taught and lived in the tumultuous sixties and seventies were not so different than the context in which we live today Culture has largely abandoned Christianity and hedonism is one of the hallmarks of (post)modern culture We might find a resurgence of spirituality in the twenty-first century but we discover that this spirituality is largely based on personal experience and preference. We are called to confront this culture that has abandoned the truth and is steeped in a materialism and consumerism that have somehow been made part and parcel of the spiritual experience of those living in the twenty-first century. In this regard, in order to be most effective, our apologetic task must be biblical, reasonable, relational, conversational and incarnational. <![CDATA[<b>Power and Influence: Assessing the Conceptual Relationship</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572020000100003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Power and influence are fundamental concepts used in the social sciences As closely-related concepts it is not easy to distinguish them clearly There are diverse definitions for power and influence in academic literature. Different views are also held on the relationship between these concepts. The present article revisits these debates. The researcher explains the difficulties to define concepts in general and those of power and influence in particular. This is done by referring to academic attempts to clarify the meaning of the mentioned concepts and thereby their conceptual relationship. It is demonstrated that the debate is complicated and a final answer cannot be found that easily. However, this article explores the differences in meaning between the concepts from the literature. Based on these distinctions, the researcher identifies the concepts' primary meanings as well as the areas where these meanings overlap. This article contributes by providing users of these concepts with conceptual markers that could help them use and integrate the concepts meaningfully.<hr/>Mag en invloed is kernkonsepte in die sosiale wetenskappe. As begrippe wat nou aan mekaar verwant is, is dit nie altyd maklik om hulle van mekaar te onderskei nie. In die literatuur bestaan daar uiteenlopende definisies vir mag en invloed. Daar bestaan ook verskillende beskouings oor die verband tussen hierdie konsepte. Hierdie artikel herbesoek hierdie debatte. Die navorser verduidelik die probleme om konsepte in die algemeen en veral van mag en invloed te definieer. Dit word gedoen deur te verwys na akademiese pogings om die betekenis van hierdie begrippe uit te klaar en daarby hul konseptuele verhouding te verduidelik. Daar word getoon dat die debat ingewikkeld is en dat n finale antwoord nie maklik gevind kan word nie Hierdie artikel ondersoek egter die verskille in betekenis tussen die konsepte uit die literatuur. Op grond van hierdie onderskeidings, identifiseer die navorser primêre betekenisse van die konsepte en dui die velde aan waar hierdie betekenisse oorvleuel. Hierdie artikel dra by om gebruikers van hierdie konsepte te voorsien van konseptuele bakens wat hulle kan help om die konsepte sinvol te gebruik en te integreer. <![CDATA[<b>A practical explanation of ethics as a good corporate governance principle in South Africa and New Zealand - A case study</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572020000100004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article uses two case law examples (New Zealand and South Africa), to illustrate how a questionnaire could be developed in practice as a method to identify a breach of ethics with reference to King IV, the FMA handbook and the NZX code. These two cases use terminology as found in relevant corporate governance codes and illustrate how to interpret those terminologies correctly, i.e. in terms of honesty and integrity. Relevant literature is reviewed in reference to the two case law examples. To interpret a corporate governance term properly, reference should also be made to appropriate legislation, e.g., the Companies Act when drafting a questionnaire. To understand corporate governance codes a holistic view should be adopted by the board of directors when drafting a corporate governance questionnaire. Such a questionnaire could provide the necessary insight as a method to prevent unethical business behaviour in future. <![CDATA[<b>A plea for the criminalisation of stigma against ex-offenders in South Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572020000100005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Teen die agtergrond van Agrizzi se getuienis van grootskaalse korrupsie in die Departement van Korrektiewe Dienste (die Bosasa-skandaal) en die nuwe Minister se oogmerk om vrygelate gevangenes behulpsaam te wees met werksverskaffing en hervestiging, word die vraag gevra of die verlammende invloed van post-vrylatingstigma geregverdig is. Vanuit h volksvergelykende perspektief is die vertrekpunt dat gevangenisstraf as Suid-Afrika se oorheersende strafparadigma nie ons onhoudbare hoë oortredingsyfers enigsins verlaag het nie en dit inderdaad aangeblaas het. h Post-Marxistiese teoretiese raamwerk bevraagteken en geproblematiseer die stigma waaronder vrygelate oortreders in harde stigmatiserend-beskamingskulture (Suid-Afrika, die VSA) gebuk gaan. Nadat die regverdigings vir stigma oorweeg en as onsinnig verwerp is - dit slaan op die stereotipe óf ongeregverdigde vooroordeel - word die grootliks gediskrediteerde gedagte aan indiwiduele aanspreeklikheid aan die orde gestel. Die multivlak-kompleksiteit van misdaad as h maatskaplike verskynsel word ondersoek en strukturele verdrukkings (rassisme, chauvinisme, armoede, stigma teen vrygelate voormalige oortreders, verdiepende ongelykheid) wat as teelaarde vir misdaad dien, word ook belig. Ek doen aan die hand dat sodanige stigma op beide haatspraak en ongrondwetlikheid in Suid-Afrika neerkom. Ten slotte word ingrype (byvoorbeeld kriminalisering van stigma) ter bevordering van h integrerend-beskamende kultuur aan die hand gedoen en in h bepeinsende slotsom word die maatskaplike huigelary rondom hierdie vraagstuk bekla<hr/>Against the backdrop of Agrizzi's testimony of large-scale corruption in the Department of Correctional Services (the Bosasa scandal) and the new Minister's initiative in assisting ex-offenders with job opportunities and resettlement, the question is asked whether or not the paralysing impact of post-release stigma is justified. From a comparative perspective, my point of departure is that imprisonment as South Africa's dominant sentencing regime has not impacted our unsustainable rates of recidivism and may in fact have made the situation worse. A post-Marxist theoretical perspective questions and problematises the stigma which haunts ex-offenders in stigmatising shaming cultures (such as in South Africa and the US). After examining and rejecting as irrational, the justifications for stigma - since these either apply to the stereotype or are backed by unexamined prejudice - the largely discredited idea of individual responsibility is taken to task. The multi-level complexity of crime is considered, and criminogenic structural oppressions (racism, poverty, sexism, stigma against ex-offenders, growing inequality) are highlighted. It is submitted that stigma qualifies both as hate speech ana as being unconstitutional in South Africa. A number of interventions are proposed (such as the criminalisation of stigma against ex-offenders) which are aimed at the promotion of an integrative shaming culture and in a deeply reflective conclusion, the hypocrisy in the wider community is lamented. <![CDATA[<b>HIV and me: The perception of children aged 10-12 living with HIV, and their expectations for adulthood</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572020000100006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article explores the understanding that children living with HIV have of their condition, ana the physical and psychosocial challenges they face in pursuit of their ideals for adulthood Analysis of the interview data, preceded by drawing-and-telling, confirmed literature findings on the importance of communication for complete disclosure and the need for repetitive discussions about HlV-related burdens to supplement medicine and treatment in pursuit of holistic well-being for children living with HIV Research findings revealed children's limited cognition of their HIV condition and their challenges with physical pain (attributable to their medicines and treatment) and psychosocial pain (stemming from family fragmentation and stigma). The children exhibited an intense desire for respect for their existence and for the realisation of their right to participate actively in communication regarding their HIV status Their ideals for adult life pertained to being of benefit to others. The findings contribute to the discourse on effecting holistic wellbeing for children living with HIV<hr/>Hierdie artikel ondersoek die begrip wat kinders wat met VIGS lewe van hul toestand het, asook hul fisiese en psigososiale uitdagings in die nastreef van hul ideale vir volwassenheid. n Analise van die onderhouddata, voorafgegaan deur teken-en-vertel, bevestig literatuurbevindings oor die belangrikheid van kommunikasie vir volledige bekendmaking. Hierdie bekendmaking moet gevolg word deur herhaalde besprekings van VlGS-verwante struikelblokke om medikasie en behandeling te rugsteun in die strewe na holistiese welstand vir kinders wat met VlGS lewe. Navorsingsbevindinge het kinders se beperkte kennis van hul VIGS-toestand belig, asook hul uitdagings met fisiese pyn (vanweë medikasie en behandeling) en psigososiale pyn (vanweë gesinsfragmentasie en stigma). Kinders het n intense behoefte aan respek vir hul menswees, en aan die reg om aktief deel te neem aan kommunikasie oor hul VIGS-status. Hul ideale vir die volwasse lewe is daarop gemik om diensbaar te wees vir hul medemens. Die bevindinge dra by tot diskoers oor die holistiese welstand van kinders wat met VlGS lewe. <![CDATA[<b>Building resilient communities in the midst of shame, guilt, fear, witchcraft, and HIV/AIDS</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572020000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en One of the most challenging issues in dealing with HIV/AIDS is breaking through the stigmas surrounding the disease and building resilience in communities where large numbers of people are infected with and affected by the HIV pandemic. This article explores the relationship between shame, fear, guilt, witchcraft and HIV/AIDS stigmatization with specific reference to a rural community in South Africa. This will be done by looking at key features of the African Traditional worldview and culture. Predominant witchcraft, beliefs and how it manifests in community attitudes towards PLWA as we have observed it over a period of 10 years in the KwaNdebele region will be pointed out. The influence of prevailing beliefs in witchcraft and the way it aggravates the experience of fear, shame, and suffering of stigmatization by people infected and affected by HIV will also be highlighted. Approaches to Christian HIV/AIDS counselling and intervention have to be contextualised to be culturally sensitive and relevant. At the same time, the article wants to stress that a Christian approach to HIV/AIDS intervention may be enriched and become more holistic when the aspects of the Christian Gospel dealing with God's merciful covering of the shame of his children and Christ's victory over and disarmament of all evil spiritual powers and authorities are believed and embraced <![CDATA[<b>Archaeology of time - activation of installation space by the spect-actor</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572020000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en An artistic installation implies theatre in situ, in that a/the space is transformed into a potential experiential encounter through design and scenography. This potential space then only requires the spectator to activate the full experience through embodied engagement with the installation, inciting visceral meaning-making. This embodied activation implies that the spectator then also becomes a performer, as they are simultaneously the ones physically causing the theatrical experience and the ones experiencing the elements designed for (their) interpretation. In this manner a heightened sense of becoming what Boal (1992) coined the 'spect-actor' is achieved By activating the space through physical engagement with/in the installation where all the sensory receptors trigger a visceral response in the spect-actor, meaning-making occurs through phenomenology and implies a knowing body through personal- and socio-cultural interpretation. For this paper, the installations by renowned South African artist Jan van der Merwe are used as examples to argue for the emergence of the spect-actor in the role of activator. As an installation artist, Van der Merwe creates large artworks of intricately recreated tableaux often composed in discarded, rusted found material. Van der Merwe calls the found objects "artefacts of our time". Thus, they assume an archaeological quality and become relics of a way of life, a civilisation degenerated and fossilised though time and rust. The spect-actor is both then the site and cite of activation where the time and space converge into an ephemeral experience.<hr/>Boetsi ba bonono bo ikhethileng ka tshebediso ya ditshwantsho sebakeng ho bontša hore ho na le liketsahalo tsa sethala, ka hore sebaka se fetoha sebopeho se nang le phihlelo ka ho qaptjoa le ho shebahala. Sebaka sena se ka etsahala habonolo feela se hloka hore mmoheli a khone ho etsa boiphihlelo bo feletseng ka ho khomahanya ka ketsahatso, e leng tsela ya ho khothalletsa ho etsa moelelo oa visceral. Tshebetso ena e ncha e fana ka maikutlo a hore motho ea shebellang le ena o fetoha sebapali, kaha ka nako e tšoanang o etsa hore ho be le boiphihlelo ba papali ho ba nang le likarolo tse etselitsoeng tlhaloso ea bona. Ka tsela ena ho ba le kutloisiso e phahameng ea ho ba seo Boal (1992) a ileng a se bitsa hore ke mmohi-sebapali se fihlelloe. Ka ho futhumatsa sebaka ka tsela ya ho sebelisa mmele har'a mosebetsi wa bonono o pampiri ena e baung ka ona, e leng ona o lokollang li-receptor tsohle tse utloahalang hore li hlahise karabo ea visceral ho mmohi-sepali. Ho etsa moelelo o etsahalang ka phenomenology ho bolela mmele o tsebang ka litlhaloso tsa setso. Bakeng sa pampiri ena mesebetsi ea bonono ea moetsahatsi oa Afrika Boroa ea tummeng, Jan van der Merwe, e tla sebelisoa e le mohlala ho pheha khang ka ho hlaha ha mmohi-sebapali karolong ea motho ea futhumatsang le ho etsahatsa mosebetsi wa bonono ka nako eo o etsahalang ka yona. Joalokaha moetsahatsi oa bonono, van der Merwe o etsa litšoantšo tse kholo tsa sekalitšoantšo tse entsoeng ka mokhoa o rarahaneng o atisang ho etsoa ka thepa e lahliloeng, e bolileng. Van der Merwe o bitsa lintho tse a lifumaneng ho etsa mosebetsi oa hae "lintho tsa nako ea rona". Ka hona, ntho tsena linka seemo sa lintho tsa khale tse epollotsoeng ebe lifetoha litšoantšo tsa mokhoa oa bophelo, tsoelo-pele e ileng ea khutlela moraho le ho khitloa nakong. Ha hole joalo, mmohi-sepabali eba sebaka le moetsahatsi wa futhumatso tsebetsong moo nako le sebaka li fetohang phihlelo ea ho iphelisa. <![CDATA[<b>Indiscipline in South African Schools: the Parental / Community Perspective</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572020000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en South Africa is struggling with the problem of indiscipline in schools. The issue of indiscipline in South African schools has been subjected to research for almost two decades. This research has revealed that learner (in)discipline in a school is related to six sets of factors, namely learner-related factors, teacher-related factors, school-related factors, education system-related factors, parent-related factors, and society-related factors. All of these factors have now been researched in respect to the situation in South Africa, with the exception of the parent / community factor. The aim of this article is to report on research that was done regarding this outstanding factor with regard to learner (in)discipline in South African schools. The constructivist-interpretivist approach was employed, in order to recast information gleaned from available international literature into a theoretical framework. The South African context was then analysed by using the theoretical framework. It was found that within the parentalcommunity factor in determining the state of learner-discipline in schools four sub-factors can be distinguished, namely parental style, parental model as example, family stress and parentschool relations. These have definite life-philosophical underpinnings, which are also outlined in analysing and interpreting the South African situation. <![CDATA[<b>AfCTA and the Trajectory of Industrialisation and Development Sustainability in Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572020000100010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In 2018 the African Union Commission launched the first "Africa Industrialisation Week" to promote regional value chains development in Africa, to provide "A Pathway for Accelerating Africa's Structural Transformation, Industrialisation and Pharmaceutical Production" This paper will investigate the trajectory and key elements of Africa's industrialisation. In particular, the paper will look into how the industrialisation will promote and enhance its sustainable development. Considered also will be harmonisation and regional integration; economic strategies beneficial for African countries; appropriate regulatory and policy regime; and issues structural transformation including reallocation of economic activities from less productive to more productive industrial sectors <![CDATA[<b>Christian Religious Education and Integrity: a Case Study of Babock University, Nigeria</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572020000100011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The goal of education, especially Christian religious education, is to restore human beings to the image of God in which they were created. This is achieved by inculcating moral values into students and using education to build their character that it might reflect the character of God. One of the major moral values that is highly needed in Nigeria society is integrity. Babcock University as a Christian institution practices religious education in which the Christian faith is integrated into every fabric of her educational practices. Since inception, Babcock has had integrity as part of her core values. This has been promoted, encouraged practised and coached by the university personnel. This study investigated the level of integrity and the process of its attainment. Since religious universities constituted about two-thirds of private universities (about 45% of the total private institutions in Nigeria), there is a high need of building integrity in these universities in order to promote integrity in the nation. The study adopted qualitative research method using interview as means of data collection. The study found that leadership and freedom are essential factors in ensuring integrity. <![CDATA[<b>Learner pregnancy in secondary schools in South Africa: Have attitudes and perceptions of teachers changed?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572020000100012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Many secondary schools in South Africa have elaborate school policies on learner pregnancy Many of these policies state that in the event of a female learner falling pregnant, the said learner will be suspended from the school. The application of these policies has been challenged in the courts of law either by the parents of the learners or the Department of Basic Education in South Africa. The study used a qualitative research approach to explore the perceptions of Life Orientation teachers with regards to learner pregnancy policies and their efficiency. A purposive sample of nine Life Orientation teachers was chosen, and a focus group was used to collect data from the respondents. There were five female and four male teachers in total who participated in the study. Their age ranged from 27 to 52 years with an average teaching experience of 15.3 years. The study showed that despite the legislation stating that schools should be supportive of the needs of the pregnant learners at the school, teachers interviewed demonstrated their unwillingness to adhere to the law. As a result, pregnant learners are advised or coerced to stay at home for the remainder of their pregnancy as the school environment is not tolerant towards them. <![CDATA[<b>".<i>.. Justification by faith"</i> Calvin's grounds for the Reformation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572020000100013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Op die jong ouderdom van 30 skryf Calvyn in 1539 n brief aan Kardinaal Jacopo Sadoletus, beroemde geleerde en verteenwoordiger van die Roomse Kerk. Hierdie brief van Calvyn wat hy op die dringende smeekversoek van die stadsraad van Geneve geskryf het, het hom baie roem laat inoes. Calvyn weerlê met hierdie skrywe Sadoletus se aanklagte teen die Reformasie en tree daarmee in die bresse vir die stad wat hom die jaar vantevore verban het. Daarby begrond hy die kern van die Reformasie en die noodsaak daarvoor. Sedertdien staan hierdie brief nie slegs bekend as een van die mees befaamde apologetiese geskrifte van die Reformasie nie maar is dit selfs beskryf as die mees kragtige en teologies suksesvolle verdediging daarvan in die sestiende eeu. In hierdie artikel word Calvyn se verklaring van die kern van die Reformasie bespreek teen die agtergrond van sy verhouding met Martin Luther en beide van hulle se respek vir mekaar. Volgens Calvyn is die hart van die Reformasie die regverdigmaking deur genade alleen. Dit gaan ten volle oor geloof in Christus alleen. Vir sy verklaring van die regverdigmaking deur genaue en geloof calleen beroep Calvyn hom konsekwent op die Skrif as Woord van God. In hierdie Christologiese benadering - waarvoor Luther volgens n getuie waardering uitgespreek het - staan Calvyn en Luther dig bymekaar<hr/>In 1539, at the young age of 30, Calvin wrote a letter to Cardinal Jacopo Sadoleto, an eminent scholar and proponent of the Roman Church, in answer to the latters letter earlier that year to Geneva. This answer of Calvin, as requested urgently by the City of Geneva, is very well-known for the way how Calvin refuted Sadoleto's arguments against the Reformation and thus took up the cudgels for the very city that banned him only a year before. This Calvin did by justifying the quintessence of and necessity for the Reformation. Since then, this text has not only been known as one of the most famous defences of the principles of the Reformation of the sixteenth century but even has been described as probably the most powerful and systematic successful apologetic Reformation writing of that age as such. In this article, Calvin's analysis of the core of the Reformation is discussed against the background of his relation to Martin Luther and their appreciation for each other. According to Calvin the "heart" of the Reformation was justification by grace alone. Ultimately it is only a matter of faith in Christ alone. For his explanation of justification by grace and faith alone, Calvin refers consistently to Scripture as the Word of God. In this Christological approach - for which Luther according to a witness expressed his appreciation - Calvin and Luther are very close to each other indeed <![CDATA[<b>Illuminating perspectives for the pastorate from trauma research on traumatized children</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572020000100014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In hierdie artikel word daar op die Ingrypende langtermyn Impllkasles van onverwerkte trauma gedurende die kinderjare gefokus. Hierdie implikasies kan liggaamlik emosioneel of geestelik van aard wees. Die belangrike rol van herhalende traumatiese herinneringe word vervolgens aan die orde gestel asook h aantal verdere tipiese gedragspatrone asook uitreageergedrag Blootstelling aan die onverwerkte trauma aan die hand van verskeie blootstellingstegnieke tydens die begeleidingsproses word ook bespreek. Belangrike aspekte met betrekking tot h aantal terapeutiese strategieë kom vervolgens aan die orde terwyl moontlike pastorale implikasies deurgaans gereflekteer word. In hierdie verband word byvoorbeeld op die gebruik van h joernaal, voorspelbare roetines en rituele, kind-gesentreerde spel, die kind se identiteit in Christus, die belangrikheid van na die kind te luister, die opstel van h tydlyn en die terapeutiese waarde van tekentake gefokus. Vanuit die resultate van navorsing op die gebied van trauma blyk uiteindelik dat daar h verskeidenheid van bruikbare komponente en perspektiewe is wat effektief deur pastorale beraders en spelterapeute in die pastorale begeleiding van getraumatiseerde kinders geïnkorporeer kan word<hr/>This article focuses on the profound long-term implications of unresolved trauma during childhood. These implications can be physical, emotional or spiritual in nature. The important role of recurring traumatic memories is discussed as well as a number of further typical behavioural patterns as well as acting out behaviours. Exposure to the unresolved trauma using various exposure techniques during the counselling process is also discussed. Important aspects regarding a number of therapeutic strategies are then discussed, while also reflecting on possible pastoral implications. In this regard, for example, the focus is on the use of a journal, predictable routines and rituals, child-centred play, the child's identity in Christ, the importance of listening to the child, setting a timeline and the therapeutic value of drawing tasks From the results of research in the field of trauma, it eventually appears that there are a variety of useful components and perspectives that can be effectively incorporated by pastoral counsellors and pastoral play therapists into the pastoral counselling and guidance of traumatized children <![CDATA[<b>AfCTA and the Trajectory of Industrialisation and Development Sustainability in Africa</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572020000100015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In 2018 the African Union Commission launched the first "Africa Industrialisation Week" to promote regional value chains development in Africa, to provide "A Pathway for Accelerating Africa's Structural Transformation, Industrialisation and Pharmaceutical Production" This paper will investigate the trajectory and key elements of Africa's industrialisation. In particular, the paper will look into how the industrialisation will promote and enhance its sustainable development. Considered also will be harmonisation and regional integration; economic strategies beneficial for African countries; appropriate regulatory and policy regime; and issues structural transformation including reallocation of economic activities from less productive to more productive industrial sectors <![CDATA[<b>Christian Religious Education and Integrity: a Case Study of Babock University, Nigeria</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572020000100016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en The goal of education, especially Christian religious education, is to restore human beings to the image of God in which they were created. This is achieved by inculcating moral values into students and using education to build their character that it might reflect the character of God. One of the major moral values that is highly needed in Nigeria society is integrity. Babcock University as a Christian institution practices religious education in which the Christian faith is integrated into every fabric of her educational practices. Since inception, Babcock has had integrity as part of her core values. This has been promoted, encouraged practised and coached by the university personnel. This study investigated the level of integrity and the process of its attainment. Since religious universities constituted about two-thirds of private universities (about 45% of the total private institutions in Nigeria), there is a high need of building integrity in these universities in order to promote integrity in the nation. The study adopted qualitative research method using interview as means of data collection. The study found that leadership and freedom are essential factors in ensuring integrity. <![CDATA[<b>Learner pregnancy in secondary schools in South Africa: Have attitudes and perceptions of teachers changed?</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572020000100017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Many secondary schools in South Africa have elaborate school policies on learner pregnancy Many of these policies state that in the event of a female learner falling pregnant, the said learner will be suspended from the school. The application of these policies has been challenged in the courts of law either by the parents of the learners or the Department of Basic Education in South Africa. The study used a qualitative research approach to explore the perceptions of Life Orientation teachers with regards to learner pregnancy policies and their efficiency. A purposive sample of nine Life Orientation teachers was chosen, and a focus group was used to collect data from the respondents. There were five female and four male teachers in total who participated in the study. Their age ranged from 27 to 52 years with an average teaching experience of 15.3 years. The study showed that despite the legislation stating that schools should be supportive of the needs of the pregnant learners at the school, teachers interviewed demonstrated their unwillingness to adhere to the law. As a result, pregnant learners are advised or coerced to stay at home for the remainder of their pregnancy as the school environment is not tolerant towards them. <![CDATA[<b>".<i>.. Justification by faith"</i> Calvin's grounds for the Reformation</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572020000100018&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Op die jong ouderdom van 30 skryf Calvyn in 1539 n brief aan Kardinaal Jacopo Sadoletus, beroemde geleerde en verteenwoordiger van die Roomse Kerk. Hierdie brief van Calvyn wat hy op die dringende smeekversoek van die stadsraad van Geneve geskryf het, het hom baie roem laat inoes. Calvyn weerlê met hierdie skrywe Sadoletus se aanklagte teen die Reformasie en tree daarmee in die bresse vir die stad wat hom die jaar vantevore verban het. Daarby begrond hy die kern van die Reformasie en die noodsaak daarvoor. Sedertdien staan hierdie brief nie slegs bekend as een van die mees befaamde apologetiese geskrifte van die Reformasie nie maar is dit selfs beskryf as die mees kragtige en teologies suksesvolle verdediging daarvan in die sestiende eeu. In hierdie artikel word Calvyn se verklaring van die kern van die Reformasie bespreek teen die agtergrond van sy verhouding met Martin Luther en beide van hulle se respek vir mekaar. Volgens Calvyn is die hart van die Reformasie die regverdigmaking deur genade alleen. Dit gaan ten volle oor geloof in Christus alleen. Vir sy verklaring van die regverdigmaking deur genaue en geloof calleen beroep Calvyn hom konsekwent op die Skrif as Woord van God. In hierdie Christologiese benadering - waarvoor Luther volgens n getuie waardering uitgespreek het - staan Calvyn en Luther dig bymekaar<hr/>In 1539, at the young age of 30, Calvin wrote a letter to Cardinal Jacopo Sadoleto, an eminent scholar and proponent of the Roman Church, in answer to the latters letter earlier that year to Geneva. This answer of Calvin, as requested urgently by the City of Geneva, is very well-known for the way how Calvin refuted Sadoleto's arguments against the Reformation and thus took up the cudgels for the very city that banned him only a year before. This Calvin did by justifying the quintessence of and necessity for the Reformation. Since then, this text has not only been known as one of the most famous defences of the principles of the Reformation of the sixteenth century but even has been described as probably the most powerful and systematic successful apologetic Reformation writing of that age as such. In this article, Calvin's analysis of the core of the Reformation is discussed against the background of his relation to Martin Luther and their appreciation for each other. According to Calvin the "heart" of the Reformation was justification by grace alone. Ultimately it is only a matter of faith in Christ alone. For his explanation of justification by grace and faith alone, Calvin refers consistently to Scripture as the Word of God. In this Christological approach - for which Luther according to a witness expressed his appreciation - Calvin and Luther are very close to each other indeed <![CDATA[<b>Illuminating perspectives for the pastorate from trauma research on traumatized children</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572020000100019&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In hierdie artikel word daar op die Ingrypende langtermyn Impllkasles van onverwerkte trauma gedurende die kinderjare gefokus. Hierdie implikasies kan liggaamlik emosioneel of geestelik van aard wees. Die belangrike rol van herhalende traumatiese herinneringe word vervolgens aan die orde gestel asook h aantal verdere tipiese gedragspatrone asook uitreageergedrag Blootstelling aan die onverwerkte trauma aan die hand van verskeie blootstellingstegnieke tydens die begeleidingsproses word ook bespreek. Belangrike aspekte met betrekking tot h aantal terapeutiese strategieë kom vervolgens aan die orde terwyl moontlike pastorale implikasies deurgaans gereflekteer word. In hierdie verband word byvoorbeeld op die gebruik van h joernaal, voorspelbare roetines en rituele, kind-gesentreerde spel, die kind se identiteit in Christus, die belangrikheid van na die kind te luister, die opstel van h tydlyn en die terapeutiese waarde van tekentake gefokus. Vanuit die resultate van navorsing op die gebied van trauma blyk uiteindelik dat daar h verskeidenheid van bruikbare komponente en perspektiewe is wat effektief deur pastorale beraders en spelterapeute in die pastorale begeleiding van getraumatiseerde kinders geïnkorporeer kan word<hr/>This article focuses on the profound long-term implications of unresolved trauma during childhood. These implications can be physical, emotional or spiritual in nature. The important role of recurring traumatic memories is discussed as well as a number of further typical behavioural patterns as well as acting out behaviours. Exposure to the unresolved trauma using various exposure techniques during the counselling process is also discussed. Important aspects regarding a number of therapeutic strategies are then discussed, while also reflecting on possible pastoral implications. In this regard, for example, the focus is on the use of a journal, predictable routines and rituals, child-centred play, the child's identity in Christ, the importance of listening to the child, setting a timeline and the therapeutic value of drawing tasks From the results of research in the field of trauma, it eventually appears that there are a variety of useful components and perspectives that can be effectively incorporated by pastoral counsellors and pastoral play therapists into the pastoral counselling and guidance of traumatized children <![CDATA[<b>Vonnegut, Darwin, and the Tragical Satirical Arc of Human History in the Novel <i>Galapagos</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572020000100020&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en In 1985 Kurt Vonnegut produced a satirical novel entitled Galapagos, In which the author explored a possible earth set one million years in the future. Human beings "have quietly evolved into sleek, furry creatures with flippers, and small brains."'¹ Vonnegut posits a world in which human logic, derived from the functioning of three-kilogramme brains, has resulted in the downfall of the species, prior to the evolution of the seal-like creatures. This article explores the novel from an ecocritical perspective, including references to the work of Greg Garrar d, Rachel Carson and Arne Naess. Charles Darwin's work is also considered, because the novel's title and setting allude to his work on evolution. This article will argue that Vonnegut believes human beings should change their thought and behaviour patterns if we are to have an optimistic future. <![CDATA[<b>Kuyperania in 2019</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2304-85572020000100021&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en This article looks at new works published in 2019 by or about the Dutch polymath Abraham Kuyper.<hr/>Hierdie artikel kyk na nuwe werk gepubliseer in 2019 deur of oor die Nederlandse polimaat Abraham Kuyper.